3,487,657 research outputs found

    Refusal of orders: The case of William Douglas Home

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    Based largely on the William Douglas Home court martial documents of 1944 and the three autobiographies that Douglas Home wrote, this article is an examination of the widely accepted principle that soldiers who are given orders that are ‘manifestly unlawful’ (Nuremberg) have an obligation to refuse them. The peculiarities of the case in terms of the personality and social status of the accused and its uniqueness (Douglas Home is the only prosecution from amongst some three million persons serving in the British forces in World War Two) raise significant questions about this obligation

    The Falklands War: A moral balance sheet

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    In this article, traditional just war principles and the provisions of international humanitarian war are applied to the Falkland/Malvinas conflict of 1982. Arguments regarding the claims of justification made by the two parties (UK and Argentina) are examined, as are conflicting judgements in regard to the sinking of the General Belgrano and the question of proportionality in respect of the conflict as a whole

    Categorical Subjects

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    Experimenting on Contextualism: Between-Subjects vs. Within-Subjects

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    According to contextualism, vast majority of natural-language expressions are context-sensitive. When testing whether this claim is reflected in Folk intuitions, some interesting methodological questions were raised such as: which experimental design is more appropriate for testing contextualism – the within- or the between-subject design? The main thesis of this paper is that the between-subject design should be preferred. The first experiment aims at assessing the difference between the results obtained for within-subjects measurements (where all participants assess all contexts) and between-subject measurements (where respondents evaluating different contexts are distinct groups). It is shown that the within-subject design provides data that seems to support contextualism. However, I present an alternative, invariantist interpretation of these results, therefore showing that the within-subject design does not allow to empirically distinguish between contextualism and invariantism. The second experiment further elaborates the issue of how perceiving the contrast between contexts can affect subjects’ judgments – I show that certain kinds of contexts may elicit opposite intuitions when contrasted with different contexts

    Emerging cyber subjects

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    MEG Decoding Across Subjects

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    Brain decoding is a data analysis paradigm for neuroimaging experiments that is based on predicting the stimulus presented to the subject from the concurrent brain activity. In order to make inference at the group level, a straightforward but sometimes unsuccessful approach is to train a classifier on the trials of a group of subjects and then to test it on unseen trials from new subjects. The extreme difficulty is related to the structural and functional variability across the subjects. We call this approach "decoding across subjects". In this work, we address the problem of decoding across subjects for magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiments and we provide the following contributions: first, we formally describe the problem and show that it belongs to a machine learning sub-field called transductive transfer learning (TTL). Second, we propose to use a simple TTL technique that accounts for the differences between train data and test data. Third, we propose the use of ensemble learning, and specifically of stacked generalization, to address the variability across subjects within train data, with the aim of producing more stable classifiers. On a face vs. scramble task MEG dataset of 16 subjects, we compare the standard approach of not modelling the differences across subjects, to the proposed one of combining TTL and ensemble learning. We show that the proposed approach is consistently more accurate than the standard one

    Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

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    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal criterion that a model should fulfill: essentially, it should come equipped with a clear and unambiguous membership test; in other words, a notion of which subjects it models. We then go on to discuss a certain class of models of models that we call languages, which apart from defining their own membership test also determine membership of their members. Finally, we introduce transformations on each of these layers: a subject transformation is essentially a pair of subjects, a model transformation is both a pair of models and a model of pairs (namely, subject transformations), and a language transformation is both a pair of languages and a language of model transformations. We argue that our framework has the benefits of formal precision (there can be no doubt about whether something satifies our criteria for being a model, a language or a transformation) and minimality (it is hard to imagine a case of modelling or transformation not having the characterstics that we propose)

    Care of the person with dementia : interprofessional practice and education

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    Care of the Person with Dementia responds to the urgent need for health practitioners to take an innovative approach to the challenge of dementia. The first Australian text of its kind, it combines evidence-based resources with interprofessional education and practice, exploring the ethical, social and environmental repercussions of dementia to provide a comprehensive overview of dementia care in an Australian context. The text is structured around a model of interprofessional education and practice (IPE) tailored to dementia care. This model incorporates the context of care, an important element missing from other recognised models of IPE. Throughout the book, principles of IPE are explained within the context of dementia, drawing on exemplars from a body of current, well-researched and evaluated dementia practice. Written by experienced academics, and providing national and international perspectives, this is a unique and crucial resource to develop collaborative skills and professional knowledge in the management of dementia

    English and the science subjects

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    In his paper, 'Sex Differences in Science Achievement at G.C.E. 0 Level', Mr Ventura refers to an analysis by Falzon and Sammut of the results of rational examinations held in Government Secondary Schools in June-July 1975. Much against expectation, they found that girls scored significantly higher than boys even in a subject like General Science. In trying to account for this result, Falzon and Sammut hazarded that one of the reasons for the girls' superiority was their better grasp of English. Such a conclusion would give English a determining role in a candidate's success, or failure for that matter, in subjects where the language is the medium of instruction - of reading and writing and, often, of teacher's explanation.peer-reviewe
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