20,258 research outputs found

    Neuroprotective Properties of Peptides

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    The development of a treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disorders is a serious issue for the healthcare world and a crucial subject of discussion. In the past two decades, a lot of focus has been placed on identifying the pathophysiological processes involved in neuronal death linked to neurodegenerative disorders and developing a variety of treatment options for neuroprotection. Numerous research teams have studied the use of peptides as neuroprotective treatments for different types of neurodegenerative disorders for a long time. The review aims to provide details about the roles of erythropoietin (EPO), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and oxytocin (OXT) in neurodegenerative disorders as well as what cellular and molecular mechanisms they trigger to elicit the neuroprotective action, with a focus on neurodegenerative disorders

    Neuroanatomical and gene expression features of the rabbit accessory olfactory system. Implications of pheromone communication in reproductive behaviour and animal physiology

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    Mainly driven by the vomeronasal system (VNS), pheromone communication is involved in many species-specific fundamental innate socio-sexual behaviors such as mating and fighting, which are essential for animal reproduction and survival. Rabbits are a unique model for studying chemocommunication due to the discovery of the rabbit mammary pheromone, but paradoxically there has been a lack of knowledge regarding its VNS pathway. In this work, we aim at filling this gap by approaching the system from an integrative point of view, providing extensive anatomical and genomic data of the rabbit VNS, as well as pheromone-mediated reproductive and behavioural studies. Our results build strong foundation for further translational studies which aim at implementing the use of pheromones to improve animal production and welfare

    Metabolites changes of a low-temperature and low-salt fermented Chinese kohlrabi during fermentation based on non-targeted metabolomic analysis

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    A low-temperature and low-salt industrially fermented Chinese kohlrabi (LSCK) was developed in this study, with the salt usage decreased by approximately 70% compared to the traditional high-salt fermented Chinese kohlrabi (HSCK). The differences in physicochemical properties, metabolites and overall flavors during LSCK fermented for 0, 45 and 90 days (d) were analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), electronic nose (E-nose) and other techniques. The results showed that the total acid content increased significantly from 3.68 to 8.59 g/kg. However, the protein content significantly decreased from 2.52/100 to 0.66 g/100 g. The number of lactic acid bacteria cells increased significantly from 3.69 to 4.46 log10CFU/g. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, 21, 14, and 15 differential metabolites were identified in the three treatment groups A1 (0 and 45 days), A2 (45 and 90 days), and A3 (0 and 90 days) respectively (VIP > 1, p < 0.05, |log2FC| ≥ 1.1). Carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, amino acids and their derivatives were the main differential metabolites in the LSCKs fermented for different periods. Aminoacyl−tRNA biosynthesis and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathways significantly correlated with the differential metabolites based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the overall odors were significantly different among the LSCKs with different fermentation periods, as detected by E-nose. The present study describes the change trend of metabolites during LSCK fermentation and elucidates important metabolic pathways in LSCK, providing a theoretical basis for the target regulation of functional metabolites in kohlrabi and the optimization of LSCK processing

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Estimating Relative Abundance of Young-of-Year American Eel, Anguilla rostrata, in the Virginia Tributaries of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021)

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    The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) adopted the Interstate Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the American Eel in November 1999. The FMP calls for efforts to collect American Eel data through both fishery‐dependent and fishery‐independent studies in coastal states. Consequently, member jurisdictions agreed to implement an annual survey for young‐of‐year (YOY or glass) American Eels. The survey is intended to “…characterize trends in annual recruitment of the YOY eels over time [to produce a] qualitative appraisal of the annual recruitment of American Eel to the U.S. Atlantic Coast” (ASMFC 2000). The development of these surveys began in 2000 with full implementation by 2001. Survey results 4 provide necessary data on coastal recruitment success and further understanding of American Eel population dynamics. A recent American Eel benchmark stock assessment report found that the American Eel stock status is depleted and emphasized the importance of the coastwide survey as an index of recruitment over the historical coastal range in the U.S. and an early warning of potential range contraction of the species (ASMFC 2012). In 2021, the Virginia Institute of Marine Science continued its spring sampling to estimate relative abundance of YOY American Eels in Virginia tributaries of Chesapeake Bay

    Assessment of the scientific evidence of the potential use of açaí (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.) in clinical outcomes: analysis with focus on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action

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    The açaí berry (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.), fruit native to the Amazon region and explored mainly in the region of Pará, gained importance in recent years due to potential health benefits, associated with its phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity, related to its high content of flavonoids. Among these, anthocyanins are responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity of this fruit. Experimental studies show that due to its composition, the acai berry has antioxidant activity related to its ability to reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its potential to inhibit cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Another benefit studied is the analysis of their effectiveness in the anti-inflammatory process, being observed inhibition of araquedônico acid-derived mediators, suggesting that the fruit can act in the chronic inflammatory process. Also it was possible to observe that the fruit may have anti-inflammatory effects in healthy patients. Thus, the supplementation of diets with use of acai berry could attenuate inflammation process and oxidative stress, today with more consistent evidence derived primarily from in vitro studies. However, there is still need for further studies to prove the action of this fruit in the mechanisms involved in these processes, isolation of specific compounds and determining their optimal dosage

    Grape Head: Rejecting Compulsion/Repulsion Through the Development of a Queer Trans Dramaturgy

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    The following thesis tracks the creation, development and production of my thesis show Grape Head. At first, I will develop a queer dramaturgy that I plan on engaging with through my development period. This dramaturgy will be rooted in techniques that I will establish in the artistic challenge section of the thesis document. The techniques are based on research, observation and practice. I will contextualize these techniques, the ways they did or did not work, creating a final rendition of a personalized queer dramaturgical approach. Finally I will explore with the content and development of Grape Head

    Psychometric development and practical use of questionnaires designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of women regarding the use of sanitizer at home to control coronavirus disease

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    Background: This study aimed to develop and practically use a questionnaire to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of women regarding the use of sanitizers at home against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted among Iranian women (aged ≥18 years). The KAP items were selected based on the experts’ opinions, and the scale underwent a series of validation processes, including the face, content, and construct validity, and internal consistency for reliability. Results: The internal consistency coefficient exceeded 0.7 for KAP subunits. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) suggested a three-factor construct for each subunit, and the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed models. Overall, 330 women (mean age: 36.78 ± 10.12 years, married: 74.2%, and bachelor’s degree: 46.7%) completed the questionnaire. The level of adequate knowledge on sanitizer use, positive attitude, and good practice achieved were 87.0%, 58.5%, and 66.1%, respectively. Among demographic variables, education level and occupation showed a significant relationship (P < 0.05) against KAP and attitude, individually. Conclusion: Despite the high percentage of knowledge, the participants did not get a high attitude and practice score. Keywords: KAP, COVID-19, Perceptions, Disinfection, Validity, Ira

    Heavy Metal’s Environmental Impact

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    Heavy metals are inorganic elements with something like a density of more than 5 g/cm3. Essential and non-essential heavy metals were divided into two groups based on their toxicity. Heavy metals, unlike organic pollutants, are non-biodegradable and tend to accumulate in living things. Many heavy metal ions are hazardous or carcinogenic. The majority of heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, and zinc, are linked to pollution and hazardous concerns. There are more than 50 elements categorized as heavy metals, with 17 of them being extremely hazardous and easily accessible. Metal pollutants are often non-degradable and have no recognized homeostasis mechanism. Their mere presence in aquatic habitats is enough to have a direct or indirect impact on living systems. The anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals in ancient mining regions refers to areas where the concentration of one or more heavy metals exceeds normal values. Heavy metals disrupt cellular organelles and components in biological systems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron is a promising alternative for heavy metal cleanup. Heavy metal ions are poisonous, non-degradable, and tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnify. The purpose of this chapter is to display some heavy metals and the environmental impact of these minerals, which includes soil, plants, and humans
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