18,137 research outputs found

    Protective effects of polyamine depletion in mouse models of type 1 diabetes: implications for therapy

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    The underlying pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes involves autoimmune-mediated islet inflammation, leading to dysfunction and death of insulin-secreting islet β cells. Recent studies have shown that polyamines, which are essential for mRNA translation, cellular replication, and the formation of the hypusine modification of eIF5A may play an important role in the progression of cellular inflammation. To test a role for polyamines in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, we administered the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor difluoromethylornithine to two mouse models--the low-dose streptozotocin model and the NOD model--to deplete intracellular polyamines, and administered streptozotocin to a third model, which was haploinsufficient for the gene encoding the hypusination enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase. Subsequent development of diabetes and/or glucose intolerance was monitored. In the low-dose streptozotocin mouse model, continuous difluoromethylornithine administration dose-dependently reduced the incidence of hyperglycemia and led to the preservation of β cell area, whereas in the NOD mouse model of autoimmune diabetes difluoromethylornithine reduced diabetes incidence by 50%, preserved β cell area and insulin secretion, led to reductions in both islet inflammation and potentially diabetogenic Th17 cells in pancreatic lymph nodes. Difluoromethylornithine treatment reduced hypusinated eIF5A levels in both immune cells and islets. Animals haploinsufficient for the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase were partially protected from hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin. Collectively, these studies suggest that interventions that interfere with polyamine biosynthesis and/or eIF5A hypusination may represent viable approaches in the treatment of diabetes

    Combined SIRT3 and SIRT5 deletion is associated with inner retinal dysfunction in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

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    Abstract Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of blindness in working adults in the industrialized world. In addition to vision loss caused by macular edema and pathological angiogenesis, DR patients often exhibit neuronal dysfunction on electrophysiological testing, suggesting that there may be an independent neuronal phase of disease that precedes vascular disease. Given the tremendous metabolic requirements of the retina and photoreceptors in particular, we hypothesized that derangements in metabolic regulation may accelerate retinal dysfunction in diabetes. As such, we induced hyperglycemia with streptozotocin in mice with monoallelic Nampt deletion from rod photoreceptors, mice lacking SIRT3, and mice lacking SIRT5 and tested multiple components of retinal function with electroretinography. None of these mice exhibited accelerated retinal dysfunction after induction of hyperglycemia, consistent with normal-appearing retinal morphology in hyperglycemic Sirt3 −/− or Sirt5 −/− mice. However, mice lacking both SIRT3 and SIRT5 (Sirt3 −/− Sirt5 −/− mice) exhibited significant evidence of inner retinal dysfunction after induction of hyperglycemia compared to hyperglycemic littermate controls, although this dysfunction was not accompanied by gross morphological changes in the retina. These results suggest that SIRT3 and SIRT5 may be involved in regulating neuronal dysfunction in DR and provide a foundation for future studies investigating sirtuin-based therapies

    Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model

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    peer-reviewedThe aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~109microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~109 L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.The authors and their work were supported by the APC Microbiome Institute. The APC Microbiome Institute is funded by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI). This publication has emanated from research supported by a research grant from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant Number SFI/12/RC/2273

    Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’sdisease

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    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by a progressive decline in the spatial memory. There are convincing evidences on the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids against AD. Aims and Objective: To determine the effect of quercetin on the acquisition and retention of spatial memory in a rat model of AD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (six in each): group I: control rats receiving intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of normal saline, group II: rats induced AD by ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg bilaterally; twice, on days 1 and 3), and groups III and IV: ICV-STZ AD rats treated intraperitoneally (IP) with 40 and 80 mg/kg/day quercetin, respectively, over a period of 12 days. Then, the rats were trained with four trials per day for five consecutive days in the Morris water maze (MWM). On the sixth day, the memory retention was evaluated. Result: The ICV-STZ AD groups showed a significant impairment in the acquisition and retrieval of spatial memory when compared with the control group (P < 0.001). In the AD groups, the escape latency during the training trials showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, during the MWM task, theseratsspentmoretimeinthetargetquadrant in probe trials when compared with the controls. Conclusion: Quercetin acted as a spatial memory enhancer in ICV-STZ–induced AD rats. Hence, this flavonoid can be considered potentially as a promising agent for developing prophylactic and therapeutic neuroprotection. This neuroprotective effect of quercetin may be attributed to its antioxidant and scavenging properties. © 2015 Hamid Sepehri

    Peribiliary glands as a niche of extra-pancreatic precursors yielding insulin-producing cells in experimental and human diabetes

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    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) are niches in the biliary tree and containing heterogeneous endodermal stem/progenitors cells that can differentiate, in vitro and in vivo, towards pancreatic islets. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in experimental and human diabetes, proliferation of cells in PBGs and differentiation of the biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs) towards insulin-producing cells. Diabetes was generated in mice by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 200 mg/kg (N=12) or 120 mg/kg (N=12) of streptozotocin. Liver, pancreas and extrahepatic biliary trees were en bloc dissected and examined. Cells in PBGs proliferated in experimental diabetes, and their proliferation was greatest in the PBGs of the hepato-pancreatic ampulla, and inversely correlated with the pancreatic islet area. In rodents, the cell proliferation in PBGs was characterized by the expansion of Sox9-positive stem/progenitor cells that gave rise to insulin-producing cells. Insulin-producing cells were located mostly in PBGs in the portion of the biliary tree closest to the duodenum, and their appearance was associated with up-regulation of MafA and Gli1 gene expression. In patients with type 2 diabetes, PBGs at the level of the hepato-pancreatic ampulla contained cells showing signs of proliferation and pancreatic fate commitment. In vitro, high glucose concentrations induced the differentiation of human BTSCs cultures towards pancreatic beta cell fates. The cells in PBGs respond to diabetes with proliferation and differentiation towards insulin-producing cells indicating that PBG niches may rescue pancreatic islet impairment in diabetes. These findings offer important implications for the patho-physiology and complications of this disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    The slow sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase declines independently of slow myosin in soleus muscle of diabetic rats

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    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) isoforms are normally expressed in coordination with the corresponding myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the fibers of skeletal muscle but this coordination is often disrupted in pathological conditions. In the streptozotocin-induced diabetes of rats (stz-rats), the soleus muscle showed peripheral neuropathy and the SERCA2a level decreased in type I (slow-oxidative) fibers compared to the control muscles, whereas the expression of the corresponding slow MyHC1 did not change. No difference was found at the mRNA and protein levels of SERCA and MyHC isoforms in the whole soleus, except that the level of the SERCA2a protein specifically declined in stz-rats compared to the controls. This shows that the coordinated expression of SERCA2a and MyHC1 is disrupted at the SERCA2a protein level in the diabetic soleus. The results are in line with previous observations that regulators of the Ca-homeostasis may adapt faster to type I diabetes than the contractile elements

    Cathelicidin suppresses lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by inhibition of the CD36 receptor.

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    Background and objectivesObesity is a global epidemic which increases the risk of the metabolic syndrome. Cathelicidin (LL-37 and mCRAMP) is an antimicrobial peptide with an unknown role in obesity. We hypothesize that cathelicidin expression correlates with obesity and modulates fat mass and hepatic steatosis.Materials and methodsMale C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet. Streptozotocin was injected into mice to induce diabetes. Experimental groups were injected with cathelicidin and CD36 overexpressing lentiviruses. Human mesenteric fat adipocytes, mouse 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes and human HepG2 hepatocytes were used in the in vitro experiments. Cathelicidin levels in non-diabetic, prediabetic and type II diabetic patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsLentiviral cathelicidin overexpression reduced hepatic steatosis and decreased the fat mass of high-fat diet-treated diabetic mice. Cathelicidin overexpression reduced mesenteric fat and hepatic fatty acid translocase (CD36) expression that was reversed by lentiviral CD36 overexpression. Exposure of adipocytes and hepatocytes to cathelicidin significantly inhibited CD36 expression and reduced lipid accumulation. Serum cathelicidin protein levels were significantly increased in non-diabetic and prediabetic patients with obesity, compared with non-diabetic patients with normal body mass index (BMI) values. Prediabetic patients had lower serum cathelicidin protein levels than non-diabetic subjects.ConclusionsCathelicidin inhibits the CD36 fat receptor and lipid accumulation in adipocytes and hepatocytes, leading to a reduction of fat mass and hepatic steatosis in vivo. Circulating cathelicidin levels are associated with increased BMI. Our results demonstrate that cathelicidin modulates the development of obesity

    A Versatile, Portable Intravital Microscopy Platform for Studying Beta-cell Biology In Vivo

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    The pancreatic islet is a complex micro-organ containing numerous cell types, including endocrine, immune, and endothelial cells. The communication of these systems is lost upon isolation of the islets, and therefore the pathogenesis of diabetes can only be fully understood by studying this organized, multicellular environment in vivo. We have developed several adaptable tools to create a versatile platform to interrogate β-cell function in vivo. Specifically, we developed β-cell-selective virally-encoded fluorescent protein biosensors that can be rapidly and easily introduced into any mouse. We then coupled the use of these biosensors with intravital microscopy, a powerful tool that can be used to collect cellular and subcellular data from living tissues. Together, these approaches allowed the observation of in vivo β-cell-specific ROS dynamics using the Grx1-roGFP2 biosensor and calcium signaling using the GcAMP6s biosensor. Next, we utilized abdominal imaging windows (AIW) to extend our in vivo observations beyond single-point terminal measurements to collect longitudinal physiological and biosensor data through repeated imaging of the same mice over time. This platform represents a significant advancement in our ability to study β-cell structure and signaling in vivo, and its portability for use in virtually any mouse model will enable meaningful studies of β-cell physiology in the endogenous islet niche

    Berberine for prevention of dementia associated with diabetes and its comorbidities: A systematic review

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    Background A growing number of epidemiological studies indicate that metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its associated features play a key role in the development of certain degenerative brain disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Produced by several different medicinal plants, berberine is a bioactive alkaloid with a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antidiabetic effects. However, it is not clear whether berberine could prevent the development of dementia in association with diabetes. Objective To give an overview of the therapeutic potential of berberine as a treatment for dementia associated with diabetes. Search strategy Database searches A and B were conducted using PubMed and ScienceDirect. In search A, studies on berberine’s antidementia activities were identified using “berberine” and “dementia” as search terms. In search B, recent studies on berberine’s effects on diabetes were surveyed using “berberine” and “diabetes” as search terms. Inclusion criteria Clinical and preclinical studies that investigated berberine’s effects associated with MetS and cognitive dysfunction were included. Data extraction and analysis Data from studies were extracted by one author, and checked by a second; quality assessments were performed independently by two authors. Results In search A, 61 articles were identified, and 22 original research articles were selected. In search B, 458 articles were identified, of which 101 were deemed relevant and selected. Three duplicates were removed, and a total of 120 articles were reviewed for this study. The results demonstrate that berberine exerts beneficial effects directly in the brain: enhancing cholinergic neurotransmission, improving cerebral blood flow, protecting neurons from inflammation, limiting hyperphosphorylation of tau and facilitating β-amyloid peptide clearance. In addition, evidence is growing that berberine is effective against diabetes and associated disorders, such as atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, hepatic steatosis, diabetic nephropathy, gut dysbiosis, retinopathy and neuropathy, suggesting indirect benefits for the prevention of dementia. Conclusion Berberine could impede the development of dementia via multiple mechanisms: preventing brain damages and enhancing cognition directly in the brain, and indirectly through alleviating risk factors such as metabolic dysfunction, and cardiovascular, kidney and liver diseases. This study provided evidence to support the value of berberine in the prevention of dementia associated with MetS

    Antagonism of the prokineticin system prevents and reverses allodynia and inflammation in a mouse model of diabetes

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    Neuropathic pain is a severe diabetes complication and its treatment is not satisfactory. It is associated with neuroinflammation-related events that participate in pain generation and chronicization. Prokineticins are a new family of chemokines that has emerged as critical players in immune system, inflammation and pain. We investigated the role of prokineticins and their receptors as modulators of neuropathic pain and inflammatory responses in experimental diabetes. In streptozotocin-induced-diabetes in mice, the time course expression of prokineticin and its receptors was evaluated in spinal cord and sciatic nerves, and correlated with mechanical allodynia. Spinal cord and sciatic nerve pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured as protein and mRNA, and spinal cord GluR subunits expression studied. The effect of preventive and therapeutic treatment with the prokineticin receptor antagonist PC1 on behavioural and biochemical parameters was evaluated. Peripheral immune activation was assessed measuring macrophage and T-helper cytokine production. An up-regulation of the Prokineticin system was present in spinal cord and nerves of diabetic mice, and correlated with allodynia. Therapeutic PC1 reversed allodynia while preventive treatment blocked its development. PC1 normalized prokineticin levels and prevented the up-regulation of GluN2B subunits in the spinal cord. The antagonist restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance altered in spinal cord and nerves and also reduced peripheral immune system activation in diabetic mice, decreasing macrophage proinflammatory cytokines and the T-helper 1 phenotype. The prokineticin system contributes to altered sensitivity in diabetic neuropathy and its inhibition blocked both allodynia and inflammatory events underlying disease
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