89,870 research outputs found

    Analysis of an unswept propfan blade with a semiempirical dynamic stall model

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    The time history response of a propfan wind tunnel model with dynamic stall is studied analytically. The response obtained from the analysis is compared with available experimental data. The governing equations of motion are formulated in terms of blade normal modes which are calculated using the COSMIC-NASTRAN computer code. The response analysis considered the blade plunging and pitching motions. The lift, drag and moment coefficients for angles of attack below the static stall angle are obtained from a quasi-steady theory. For angles above static stall angles, a semiempirical dynamic stall model based on a correction to angle of attack is used to obtain lift, drag and moment coefficients. Using these coefficients, the aerodynamic forces are calculated at a selected number of strips, and integrated to obtain the total generalized forces. The combined momentum-blade element theory is used to calculate the induced velocity. The semiempirical stall model predicted a limit cycle oscillation near the setting angle at which large vibratory stresses were observed in an experiment. The predicted mode and frequency of oscillation also agreed with those measured in the experiment near the setting angle

    A theoretical study of fluid forces on a centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a vaned diffuser

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    The fluid forces on a centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a vaned diffuser are analyzed on the assumption that the number of impeller and diffuser vanes is so large that the flows are perfectly guided by the vanes. The flow is taken to be two dimensional, inviscid, and incompressible, but the effects of impeller and diffuser losses are taken into account. It is shown that the interaction with the vaned diffuser may cause destabilizing fluid forces. From these discussions, it is found that the whirling forces are closely related to the steady head-capacity characteristics of the impeller. This physical understanding of the whirling forces can be applied also to the cases with volute casings. At partial capacities, it is shown that the impeller forces change greatly when the flow rate and whirl velocity are near to the impeller or vaned diffuser attributed rotating stall onset capacity, and the stall propagation velocity, respectively. In such cases the impeller forces may become destabilizing for impeller whirl

    Force generation in small ensembles of Brownian motors

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    The motility of certain gram-negative bacteria is mediated by retraction of type IV pili surface filaments, which are essential for infectivity. The retraction is powered by a strong molecular motor protein, PilT, producing very high forces that can exceed 150 pN. The molecular details of the motor mechanism are still largely unknown, while other features have been identified, such as the ring-shaped protein structure of the PilT motor. The surprisingly high forces generated by the PilT system motivate a model investigation of the generation of large forces in molecular motors. We propose a simple model, involving a small ensemble of motor subunits interacting through the deformations on a circular backbone with finite stiffness. The model describes the motor subunits in terms of diffusing particles in an asymmetric, time-dependent binding potential (flashing ratchet potential), roughly corresponding to the ATP hydrolysis cycle. We compute force-velocity relations in a subset of the parameter space and explore how the maximum force (stall force) is determined by stiffness, binding strength, ensemble size, and degree of asymmetry. We identify two qualitatively different regimes of operation depending on the relation between ensemble size and asymmetry. In the transition between these two regimes, the stall force depends nonlinearly on the number of motor subunits. Compared to its constituents without interactions, we find higher efficiency and qualitatively different force-velocity relations. The model captures several of the qualitative features obtained in experiments on pilus retraction forces, such as roughly constant velocity at low applied forces and insensitivity in the stall force to changes in the ATP concentration.Comment: RevTex 9 pages, 4 figures. Revised version, new subsections in Sec. III, removed typo

    Pilot evaluation of sailplane handling qualities

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    The evaluation sailplanes were found generally deficient in the area of cockpit layout. The pilots indicated general dissatisfaction with high pitch sensitivity especially when coupled with inertially induced stick forces. While all sailplanes were judged satisfactory for centering thermals and in the ease of speed control in circling flight, pilot opinions diverged on the maneuvering response, pull-out characteristics from a dive, and on phugoid damping. Lateral-directional control problems were noted mainly during takeoff and landing for most sailplanes with the landing wheel ahead of center of gravity. Pilot opinion of in-flight lateral-directional stability and control was generally satisfactory. Five of the evaluation sailplanes exhibited a very narrow airspeed band in which perceptible stall warning buffet occurred. However, this characteristic was considered not objectionable when stall recovery was easy. The pilots objected to the characteristics of a wide airspeed band of stall warning followed by a stall with yawing and rolling tendency and substantial loss of altitude during the stall. Glide path control for the evaluation sailplanes was found to be generally objectionable

    Stall force of a cargo driven by N interacting motor proteins

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    We study a generic one-dimensional model for an intracellular cargo driven by N motor proteins against an external applied force. The model includes motor-cargo and motor-motor interactions. The cargo motion is described by an over-damped Langevin equation, while motor dynamics is specified by hopping rates which follow a local detailed balance condition with respect to change in energy per hopping event. Based on this model, we show that the stall force, the mean external force corresponding to zero mean cargo velocity, is completely independent of the details of the interactions and is, therefore, always equal to the sum of the stall forces of the individual motors. This exact result is arrived on the basis of a simple assumption: the (macroscopic) state of stall of the cargo is analogous to a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, and is characterized by vanishing net probability current between any two microstates, with the latter specified by motor positions relative to the cargo. The corresponding probability distribution of the microstates under stall is also determined. These predictions are in complete agreement with numerical simulations, carried out using specific forms of interaction potentials.Comment: Accepted in Europhysics Letter

    Dynamics of Molecular Motors and Polymer Translocation with Sequence Heterogeneity

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    The effect of sequence heterogeneity on polynucleotide translocation across a pore and on simple models of molecular motors such as helicases, DNA polymerase/exonuclease and RNA polymerase is studied in detail. Pore translocation of RNA or DNA is biased due to the different chemical environments on the two sides of the membrane, while the molecular motor motion is biased through a coupling to chemical energy. An externally applied force can oppose these biases. For both systems we solve lattice models exactly both with and without disorder. The models incorporate explicitly the coupling to the different chemical environments for polymer translocation and the coupling to the chemical energy (as well as nucleotide pairing energies) for molecular motors. Using the exact solutions and general arguments we show that the heterogeneity leads to anomalous dynamics. Most notably, over a range of forces around the stall force (or stall tension for DNA polymerase/exonuclease systems) the displacement grows sublinearly as t^\mu with \mu<1. The range over which this behavior can be observed experimentally is estimated for several systems and argued to be detectable for appropriate forces and buffers. Similar sequence heterogeneity effects may arise in the packing of viral DNA.Comment: 42 pages, 12 figure

    An assessment of body force representations for compressor stall simulation

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    Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (p. 71-72).This thesis examines an axial compressor body force representation constructed from 3D CFD calculations. The radial distribution of body forces is compared to that of a body force representation based on axisymmetric streamline curvature (SLC) calculations, and shown to be in qualitative agreement except in the vicinity of the blade tip. In terms of stall inception type and stall point, computations based on both representations exhibit agreement with rig test data. A parametric study is undertaken in which the magnitude of the forces in the blade tip region of both representations is reduced so as to obtain reductions in compressor pressure rise similar to those observed experimentally due to increased tip clearance. It is shown that on a back-to-back basis, a given change to the end wall forces produces similar effects on the computed stall point, whether the underlying body force representation derives from 3D CFD or SLC. Based on this result one route to capturing effects of tip clearance on stall prediction can be the development of a tip clearance body force model for use in conjunction with SLC calculations.by Jonathan Kerner.S.M
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