33,918 research outputs found

    Response of grapevine to irrigation with treated wastewater

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    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do PortoClimate change, population growth, industry expansion and increasing water demand in agriculture are pressuring water resources in dry, warm-climate regions, such as Mediterranean Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using treated wastewater (TWW) for vineyard irrigation, as a strategy to maintain grapevine's water status within acceptable levels, while contributing to decrease the pressure on natural water resources. To achieve this goal, the effects of TWW and conventional water (CW) on grapevine and soil were compared after two years of irrigation. TWW appears to have had a significant impact on soil salinity, with TWW irrigated soil having a 10% higher salinity (VIC) than the CW irrigated one. Concerning grapevine growth rate and ecophysiology, shoot length of TWW irrigated vines was significantly lower (15%), though there were generally no differences in phenology and reflectance indexes (PRI and NDVI) between treatments. In one measurement during summer peak, though, NDVI values were significantly lower for TWW irrigated vines. Also during summer peak, berries of TWW irrigated vines were significantly darker and greener, and had higher total acidity than CW irrigated vines. Canopy traits such as exposed leaf area, total leaf area and leaf layer number did not differ between treatments, and the same occurred for grape and wood yield, suggesting that TWW had no impact on vine balance and yield. It is crucial to continue exploring the use of TWW for irrigation as an answer to drought and water scarcity, while studying its effects on crops and soil within wider time periods, to scout for long-term impacts of this practiceN/

    Caracterização das comunidades de insectos nos sapais da Ria de Aveiro

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    Saltmarshes are widely distributed around the globe, with specialized communities of flora and fauna. These ecotones typically exhibit a spatial zonation of their vegetation from its mudflats to the seawall or dunes, providing different habitats to specific invertebrate assemblages adapted to regular submergence by seawater, and the resulting high soil salinity. Worldwide these ecotones have been declining at a rapid pace in the last few decades. This is a serious problem since these ecosystems are some of the most productive in the world and provide important ecosystem services, such as coastal protection, erosion control, water purification, carbon sequestration, raw materials and food and contribute to recreational activities. Also, they are essential to support coastal food webs, providing nursery areas for fish, crustaceans, and birds. Ria de Aveiro is the largest contiguous salt marsh area in Portugal and one of the largest in Europe. It is currently a Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research site (LTsER), and it is classified under the Natura 2000 network, encompassing a Special Protection Area (SPA). Despite being considered a living lab and being the target of many studies there is little information on insect species that occur here. This is a major knowledge gap since this taxon provides several important ecosystem services. In this work, we aimed to characterize Ria de Aveiro saltmarsh insect communities in this ecotone. To achieve this goal, insects were collected by sweep-netting the dominating halophyte vegetation in September 2020, in seven locations of Ria de Aveiro saltmarshes areas and later identified to the maximum possible level of taxonomic resolution. In each site, soil samples were collected to access physicochemical soil parameters of each site (salinity, conductivity, pH, and organic matter). A total of 2816 individuals belonging to 11 orders and 80 families were identified. The most abundant orders were the Diptera and Hemiptera. In this work, 17 new species were identified for Portugal (1 belonging to Hemiptera and 16 to Diptera order). Despite these efforts, the species accumulation curves indicate that not all species were collected in all seven sites indicating that further studies are necessary to fully understand insect communities of Ria de Aveiro saltmarshes.Os sapais s√£o habitats amplamente distribu√≠dos por todo globo, com comunidades especializadas de flora e fauna. Estes habitats, exibem zona√ß√£o para a sua flora, que vai desde bancos de vasa at√© as dunas ou mar, proporcionando diferentes habitats para um conjunto de invertebrados especializados √† submers√£o regular pela √°gua e a resultante elevada salinidade do solo. Globalmente, este habitat tem vindo a desaparecer rapidamente nas √ļltimas d√©cadas. Isto √© motivo de preocupa√ß√£o visto que este ecossistema √© um dos mais produtivos no mundo, e proporciona servi√ßos ecol√≥gicos importantes, por exemplo, prote√ß√£o da costa, controlo da eros√£o, purifica√ß√£o da √°gua, apreens√£o de carbono, mat√©ria bruta e comida e contribui para v√°rias atividades recreativas. Os sapais, s√£o tamb√©m essenciais para a cadeia alimentar na zona costeira, proporcionando √°reas de prote√ß√£o para os peixes, crust√°ceos e aves. A Ria de Aveiro √© a maior √°rea de sapal cont√≠gua em Portugal e uma das maiores da Europa. √Č atualmente um s√≠tio de Investiga√ß√£o socio-ecol√≥gica de longo-termo (Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research - LTsER) e est√° classificado na rede natura 2000, onde se inclui uma √Ārea de Prote√ß√£o Especial. Mesmo sendo considerada um laborat√≥rio vivo e alvo de muitos estudos, n√£o existe muita informa√ß√£o sobre as esp√©cies de insetos que aqui ocorrem, o que constitui uma grande lacuna no conhecimento deste t√°xon, que fornece v√°rios Servi√ßos dos ecossistemas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caraterizar as comunidades de insetos das √°reas de sapal da Ria de Aveiro. Para atingir este objetivo, foram recolhidos insetos da vegeta√ß√£o hal√≥fita dominante em setembro 2020 em sete locais, com o aux√≠lio de redes entomol√≥gicas. Os insetos foram posteriormente identificados at√© ao n√≠vel m√°ximo poss√≠vel de resolu√ß√£o taxon√≥mica. Em cada local, tamb√©m foram retiradas amostras de sedimento para obten√ß√£o de par√Ęmetros f√≠sico-qu√≠micos de cada local (salinidade, condutividade, pH e mat√©ria org√Ęnica). Foram capturados um total de 2816 indiv√≠duos, pertencendo a 11 ordens e 80 fam√≠lias. As ordens mais abundantes foram as ordens Diptera e Hemiptera. Neste trabalho foram identificadas 17 novas esp√©cies para Portugal (1 pertencendo √† ordem Hemiptera e 16 √† ordem Diptera). Apesar dos esfor√ßos realizados, as curvas de acumula√ß√£o de esp√©cies indicam que n√£o foram recolhidas todas as esp√©cies que ocorrem nos locais amostrados, sugerindo que ser√° necess√°rio um maior esfor√ßo de amostragem para melhor compreender as comunidades de insetos da Rai de Aveiro.Mestrado em Ecologia Aplicad

    Differential responses in some quinoa genotypes of a consortium of beneficial endophytic bacteria against bacterial leaf spot disease

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    Many effective plant-microbe interactions lead to biological changes that can stimulate plant growth and production. This study evaluated the effect of the interaction between quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and endophytic bacterial strains on differential responses under biotic stress. Four strains of endophytic bacteria were used to inoculate three quinoa genotypes. Endophytic bacteria, isolated from the endosphere of healthy genotypes of quinoa plants, were used to evaluate their biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae on quinoa plants, which causes leaf spot disease, depending on some different parameters. Quinoa genotype plants were treated with four treatments: pathogenic bacteria only (T1), internal bacteria only (T2), pathogenic bacteria + endogenous bacteria (T3), and untreated as the control (T4). The results indicated that there was a significant difference between chlorophyll content index of infected plants without bioagent (untreated) compared to plants bio-inoculated with endophytic bacteria. The highest mean disease incidence was on the plants without bacterial inoculum (90, 80, and 100%) for quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences in the weight of grains/plant, as the value ranged from 8.1 to 13.3‚ÄČg when treated with pathogens (T1) compared to the treatment with pathogens and endogenous bacteria (T3), which ranged from 11.7 to 18.6‚ÄČg/plant. Decreases in total aromatic amino acids appeared due to the pathogen infection, by 6.3, 22.8, and 24.1% (compared to the control) in G1, G2, and G3, respectively. On the other hand, genotype G3 showed the highest response in the levels of total aromatic and total neutral amino acids. The endophytic strains promoted quinoa seedling growth mainly by improving nutrient efficiency. This improvement could not be explained by their ability to induce the production of amino acids, showing that complex interactions might be associated with enhancement of quinoa seedling performance by endophytic bacteria. The endophytic bacterial strains were able to reduce the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease by 30, 40, and 50% in quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively, recording significant differences compared to the negative control. The results indicated that, G1 genotype was superior in different performance indicators (pathogen tolerance index, yield injury %, superiority measure and relative performance) for grain weight/plant under pathogen infection condition when treated with endophyte bacteria. Based on this study, these bacterial strains can be used as a biotechnology tool in quinoa seedling production and biocontrol to diminish the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease

    Database for validation of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behaviour in bentonites

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    This paper presents a database of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical tests on bentonites, which has been named ‚ÄúBento_DB4THCM‚ÄĚ. After a comprehensive literature review, a set of experimental tests have been compiled. The experimental data are used to perform validation exercises for numerical codes to simulate the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and geochemical behaviour of bentonites. The database contains the information required for the simulation of each experimental test solving a boundary value problem. The validation exercises cover a wide range of clays, including the best-known bentonites (MX-80, FEBEX, GMZ) as well as others. The results collected in this database are from free swelling, swelling under load, swelling pressure and squeezing tests. The database is attached as Supplementary material.En este art√≠culo se presenta una base de datos de ensayos termo-hidro-quimio-mec√°nicos sobre bentonitas, a la que se ha denominado ‚ÄúBento_DB4THCM‚ÄĚ. Despu√©s de una revisi√≥n exhaustiva de la literatura, se ha compilado un conjunto de pruebas experimentales. Los datos experimentales se utilizan para realizar ejercicios de validaci√≥n de c√≥digos num√©ricos para simular el comportamiento termohidromec√°nico y geoqu√≠mico acoplado de las bentonitas. La base de datos contiene la informaci√≥n requerida para la simulaci√≥n de cada prueba experimental que resuelve un problema de valor l√≠mite. Los ejercicios de validaci√≥n cubren una amplia gama de arcillas, incluidas las bentonitas m√°s conocidas (MX-80, FEBEX, GMZ) entre otras. Los resultados recopilados en esta base de datos provienen de pruebas de hinchamiento libre, hinchamiento bajo carga, presi√≥n de hinchamiento y compresi√≥n. La base de datos se adjunta como material complementario

    Biological effects of sub-lethal doses of glyphosate and AMPA on cardiac myoblasts

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    Introduction: Glyphosate is the active compound of different non-selective herbicides, being the most used agriculture pesticide worldwide. Glyphosate and AMPA (one of its main metabolites) are common pollutants of water, soil, and food sources such as crops. They can be detected in biological samples from both exposed workers and general population. Despite glyphosate acts as inhibitor of the shikimate pathway, present only in plants and some microorganisms, its safety in mammals is still debated. Acute glyphosate intoxications are correlated to cardiovascular/neuronal damages, but little is known about the effects of the chronic exposure.Methods: We evaluated the direct biological effects of different concentrations of pure glyphosate/AMPA on a rat-derived cell line of cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) in acute (1‚Äď2 h) or sub-chronic (24‚Äď48 h) settings. We analyzed cell viability/morphology, ROS production and mitochondrial dynamics.Results: Acute exposure to high doses (above 10 mM) of glyphosate and AMPA triggers immediate cytotoxic effects: reduction in cell viability, increased ROS production, morphological alterations and mitochondrial function. When exposed to lower glyphosate concentrations (1 őľM‚ÄĒ1 mM), H9c2 cells showed only a slight variation in cell viability and ROS production, while mitochondrial dynamic was unvaried. Moreover, the phenotype was completely restored after 48 h of treatment. Surprisingly, the sub-chronic (48 h) treatment with low concentrations (1 őľM‚ÄĒ1 mM) of AMPA led to a late cytotoxic response, reflected in a reduction in H9c2 viability.Conclusion: The comprehension of the extent of human exposure to these molecules remains pivotal to have a better critical view of the available data

    Utilization of Different Concentration Sugarcane Molasses to the Quality of Goat Feces-Chicken Excreta-Coconut Husk Organic Liquid Fertilizer

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    Indonesia is an agricultural country that certainly has the potential for agricultural waste and by-products. Some of those in Indonesia are livestock manure, coconut husk, and sugarcane molasses. Utilization of this waste is limited, which is causing various environmental problems such as environmental pollution. The study is aimed to determine the quality of organic liquid fertilizer made by raw material from goat feces-chicken excreta-coconut husk with various sugarcane molasses concentrations (P0= 0%; P1= 5%; P3= 15%; P4= 20%; P5= 25%). The fermentation was carried out anaerobically for 21 days. The parameters of temperature, pH, organoleptic (color and odor), levels of C-organic, nitrogen (N) total, phosphorus (P) total, potassium (K) total, and biological tests were observed. Biological tests were conducted in the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) and spinach (Amaranthus tricolor). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Variations in the addition of molasses sugarcane did not affect the liquid fertilizer's temperature and pH during fermentation. However, the treatments had positive effect on organoleptic test, C-organic, N total, P total, K total, and biological tests. The addition of 15% sugarcane molasses (P3) showed a dominating performance toward most of the parameters tested. The P3 treatment produced liquid fertilizer with a pleasant smell, and the contents of C-organic, total N, total P, and total K were 2.12%, 0.25%, 0.13%, and 0.13%,  respectively. and produce spinach as a biological test with plant height, number of leaves, leaf width, stem diameter, and root length were 21.82 cm, 6.66 sheets, 3.59 cm, 4.09 mm, and 14.67 cm, respectively

    Ecological successions throughout the desiccation of Tirez lagoon (Spain) as an astrobiological time-analog for wet-to-dry transitions on Mars

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    Tirez was a small and seasonal endorheic athalassohaline lagoon that was located in central Spain. In recent years, the lagoon has totally dried out, offering for the first time the opportunity to analyze its desiccation process as a ‚Äútime-analog‚ÄĚ to similar events occurred in paleolakes with varying salinity during the wet-to-dry transition on early Mars. On the martian cratered highlands, an early period of water ponding within enclosed basins evolved to a complete desiccation of the lakes, leading to deposition of evaporitic sequences during the Noachian and into the Late Hesperian. As Tirez also underwent a process of desiccation, here we describe (i) the microbial ecology of Tirez when the lagoon was still active 20 years ago, with prokaryotes adapted to extreme saline conditions; (ii) the composition of the microbial community in the dried lake sediments today, in many case groups that thrive in sediments of extreme environments; and (iii) the molecular and isotopic analysis of the lipid biomarkers that can be recovered from the sediments today. We discuss the implications of these results to better understanding the ecology of possible Martian microbial communities during the wet-to-dry transition at the end of the Hesperian, and how they may inform about research strategies to search for possible biomarkers in Mars after all the water was los

    Screening the maize rhizobiome for consortia that improve Azospirillum brasilense root colonization and plant growth outcomes

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    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are valuable for supporting sustainable food production and may alleviate the negative impacts of chemical fertilizers on human health and the environment. While single-strain inoculations have proven unreliable due to poor survival and colonization in the rhizosphere, application of PGPB in multispecies consortia has the potential to improve these outcomes. Here, we describe a new approach for screening and identifying bacterial consortia that improve the growth of corn relative to plants inoculated with a single strain. The method uses the microwell recovery array (MRA), a microfabricated high-throughput screening device, to rapidly explore the maize (Zea mays L.) rhizobiome for higher-order combinations of bacteria that promote the growth and colonization of the nitrogen-fixing PGPB, Azospirillum brasilense. The device simultaneously generates thousands of random, unique combinations of bacteria that include A. brasilense and members of the maize rhizobiome, then tracks A. brasilense growth in each combination during co-culture. Bacteria that show the highest levels of A. brasilense growth promotion are then recovered from the device using a patterned light extraction technique and are identified. With this approach, the screen uncovered growth-promoting consortia consisting primarily of bacteria from the Acinetobacter-Enterobacter-Serratia genera, which were then co-inoculated with A. brasilense on axenic maize seedlings that were monitored inside a plant growth chamber. Compared to maize plants inoculated with A. brasilense alone, plants that were co-inoculated with these consortia showed accelerated growth after 15 days. Follow-up root colonization assays revealed that A. brasilense colonized at higher levels on roots from the co-inoculated seedlings. These findings demonstrate a new method for rapid bioprospecting of root and soil communities for complementary PGPB and for developing multispecies consortia with potential use as next-generation biofertilizers

    Scalable diversification options delivers sustainable and nutritious food in Indo-Gangetic plains

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    Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of South Asia have supported bulk of human and bovine population in the region since ages, and a spectacular progress has been made in food production. However, malnutrition, diminishing total factor productivity, and natural resource degradation continue to plague this cereal-dominated region, which is also vulnerable to climate change. Addressing these challenges would require a transition towards diversifying cereal rotations with agroecological cropping systems. A study was, therefore, conducted at the experimental farm of ICAR-CSSRI, Karnal on crop diversification and sustainable intensification options using agro-ecological approaches such as Conservation Agriculture (CA) and diversified cropping systems to ensure food and nutritional security while sustaining the natural resources. On 2 years mean basis, CA-based cropping system management scenarios (mean of Sc2‚ÄďSc7) using diversified crop rotations; increased the system yield by 15.4%, net return by 28.7%, protein yield by 29.7%, while using 53.0% less irrigation water compared to conventional tillage (CT)-based rice‚Äďwheat system (Sc1). Maize-mustard-mungbean on permanent beds (PBs) (Sc4) recorded the highest productivity (+‚ÄČ40.7%), profitability (+‚ÄČ60.1%), and saved 81.8% irrigation water compared to Sc1 (11.8 Mg ha‚ąí1; 2190 USD ha‚ąí1; 2514 mm ha‚ąí1). Similarly, Sc5 (maize-wheat-mungbean on PBs) improved productivity (+‚ÄČ32.2%), profitability (+‚ÄČ57.4%) and saved irrigation water (75.5%) compared to Sc1. In terms of nutritional value, Sc5 was more balanced than other scenarios, and produced 43.8, 27.5 and 259.8% higher protein, carbohydrate and fat yields, respectively, compared to Sc1 (0.93, 8.55 and 0.14 Mg ha‚ąí1). Scenario 5 was able to meet the nutrient demand of 19, 23 and 32 additional persons ha‚ąí1 year‚ąí1 with respect to protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively, compared to Sc1. The highest protein water productivity (~‚ÄČ0.31 kg protein m‚ąí3 water) was recorded with CA-based soybean-wheat-mungbean (Sc6) system followed by maize-mustard-mungbean on PBs (Sc4) system (~‚ÄČ0.29 kg protein m‚ąí3) and lowest under Sc1. Integration of short duration legume (mungbean) improved the system productivity by 17.2% and profitability by 32.1%, while triple gains in irrigation water productivity compared to CT-based systems. In western IGP, maize-wheat-mungbean on PBs was found most productive, profitable and nutritionally rich and efficient system compared to other systems. Therefore, diversification of water intensive cereal rotations with inclusion of legumes and CA-based management optimization can be potential option to ensure nutritious food for the dwelling communities and sustainability of natural resources in the region
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