18,222 research outputs found

    Comparison of an automatic analysis and a manual analysis of conjunctival microcirculation in a sheep model of haemorrhagic shock

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    Life-threatening diseases of critically ill patients are known to derange microcirculation. Automatic analysis of microcirculation would provide a bedside diagnostic tool for microcirculatory disorders and allow immediate therapeutic decisions based upon microcirculation analysis

    Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

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    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC) seldom induced an increased infiltration of neutrophils or macrophages, as compared with normal wound healing; whereas new formation of collagen was observed. DSC crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GDSC) followed by reaction with NaBH4 shortly after implantation showed an increased infiltration of neutrophils with a deviant morphology. Furthermore, a high incidence of calcification was observed, which may explain the minor ingrowth of giant cells and fibroblasts, and the poor formation of new rat collagen. Acyl azide-crosslinked DSC (AaDSC) first induced an increased infiltration of macrophages, and then of giant cells, both with high lipid formation. AaDSC degraded at least twice as slowly as HDSC and GDSC, finally leaving a matrix of newly formed rat collagen. Samples crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (ENDSC) induced the same mild cellular reaction as HDSC; whereas, similar to AaDSC, the degradation rate was slow and an optimal rat collagen matrix was formed. Of the crosslinked DSC samples, ENDSC seems most promising for tissue regeneration

    A comparative study of herbage intake, ingestive behaviour and diet selection, and effects of condensed tannins upon body and wool growth in lambs grazing Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) dominant swards

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    An experiment was carried out from August to early November 1994 to examine differences in diet selection, herbage intake, grazing behaviour and animal performance between weaned lambs rotationally grazing swards of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)/white clover (Trifolium repens) and Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus)/T. repens with or without Lotus corniculatus. There were four replicate groups of six lambs per treatment. The effects of condensed tannins (CT) on lamb production were assessed by twice-daily oral administration of 10g polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 4000) to half the lambs on each sward. The Lotus content of all swards was very low, and results are presented here for main sward comparisons meaned over lotus treatments. Overall mean estimates of pre-grazing herbage mass and sward surface height for the annual ryegrass and Yorkshire fog swards respectively, were 5820 v. 4360 +/- 190 kg DM/ha (P , P < 0.01) and liveweight gain (141 v. 120 +/- 4.3 g per lamb per day, P < 0.01), although differences in carcass weight (17.9 v. 18.2 +/- 0.3 kg) and FEC transformed values (9.6 v. 11.0 +/- 06 eggs/g fresh faeces) were not significant. The effects of CT on animal performance were greater in Yorkshire fog swards. CT had no significant effects on diet selection, herbage intake and grazing behaviour patterns

    A dynamic model of transmission and elimination of peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopia

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    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a devastating viral disease of sheep and goats, has been targeted by the global community for eradication within the next 15 years. Although an efficacious attenuated live vaccine is available, the lack of knowledge about the transmission potential of PPR virus (PPRV) may compromise eradication efforts. By fitting a metapopulation model simulating PPRV spread to the results of a nationwide serological survey in Ethiopia, we estimated the level of viral transmission in an endemic setting and the vaccination coverage required for elimination. Results suggest that the pastoral production system as a whole acts as a viral reservoir, from which PPRV spills over into the sedentary production system, where viral persistence is uncertain. Estimated levels of PPRV transmission indicate that viral spread could be prevented if the proportion of immune small ruminants is kept permanently above 37% in at least 71% of pastoral village populations. However, due to the high turnover of these populations, maintaining the fraction of immune animals above this threshold would require high vaccine coverage within villages, and vaccination campaigns to be conducted annually. Adapting vaccination strategies to the specific characteristics of the local epidemiological context and small ruminant population dynamics would result in optimized allocation of limited resources and increase the likelihood of PPR eradication

    Statistical Evidence, Normalcy, and the Gatecrasher Paradox

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    Martin Smith has recently proposed, in this journal, a novel and intriguing approach to puzzles and paradoxes in evidence law arising from the evidential standard of the Preponderance of the Evidence. According to Smith, the relation of normic support provides us with an elegant solution to those puzzles. In this paper I develop a counterexample to Smith’s approach and argue that normic support can neither account for our reluctance to base affirmative verdicts on bare statistical evidence nor resolve the pertinent paradoxes. Normic support is, as a consequence, not a successful epistemic anti-luck condition

    Calcification of subcutaneously implanted collagens in relation to cytotoxicity, cellular interactions and crosslinking

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    In general, calcification of biomaterials occurs through an interaction of host and implanted material factors, but up to now the real origin of pathologic calcification is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate incidence of calcification of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagens (DSCs) with respect to their specific properties, during subcutaneous implantation in rats. Three types of DSCs were commercially obtained: non-crosslinked DSC (NDSC), and DSC crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GDSC) and hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDSC). NDSC, HDSC and GDSC were (enzymatically) tissue culture pretreated to eliminate their cytotoxic products. Beside this, crosslinking methods were modified to optimize mechanical properties and to decrease cytotoxicity, which resulted in HDSC* and GDSC*. Furthermore, DSC was crosslinked by activation of the carboxylic groups, i.e. by means of acyl azide and carbodiimide, resulting in AaDSC and CDSC, respectively. After implantation of HDSCs and GDSCs a relation between cytotoxicity and calcification of crosslinked DSC could be made. No relation was found between cellular infiltration of DSCs and calcification. However, from the use of different types and modification of crosslinking methods it might be concluded that calcification is mainly related to stable crosslinks, i.e. to the chemical properties of the obtained material

    Spatial memory is impaired by peripubertal GnRH agonist treatment and testosterone replacement in sheep

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    Chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used therapeutically to block activity within the reproductive axis through down-regulation of GnRH receptors within the pituitary gland. GnRH receptors are also expressed in non-reproductive tissues, including areas of the brain such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The impact of long-term GnRHa-treatment on hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, such as spatial orientation, learning and memory, is not well studied, particularly when treatment encompasses a critical window of development such as puberty. The current study used an ovine model to assess spatial maze performance and memory of rams that were untreated (Controls), had both GnRH and testosterone signaling blocked (GnRHa-treated), or specifically had GnRH signaling blocked (GnRHa-treated with testosterone replacement) during the peripubertal period (8, 27 and 41 weeks of age). The results demonstrate that emotional reactivity during spatial tasks was compromised by the blockade of gonadal steroid signaling, as seen by the restorative effects of testosterone replacement, while traverse times remained unchanged during assessment of spatial orientation and learning. The blockade of GnRH signaling alone was associated with impaired retention of long-term spatial memory and this effect was not restored with the replacement of testosterone signaling. These results indicate that GnRH signaling is involved in the retention and recollection of spatial information, potentially via alterations to spatial reference memory, and that therapeutic medical treatments using chronic GnRHa may have effects on this aspect of cognitive function

    A reduction in long-term spatial memory persists after discontinuation of peripubertal GnRH agonist treatment in sheep

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    Chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) administration is used where suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activity is beneficial, such as steroid-dependent cancers, early onset gender dysphoria, central precocious puberty and as a reversible contraceptive in veterinary medicine. GnRH receptors, however, are expressed outside the reproductive axis, e.g. brain areas such as the hippocampus which is crucial for learning and memory processes. Previous work, using an ovine model, has demonstrated that long-term spatial memory is reduced in adult rams (45 weeks of age), following peripubertal blockade of GnRH signaling (GnRHa: goserelin acetate), and this was independent of the associated loss of gonadal steroid signaling. The current study investigated whether this effect is reversed after discontinuation of GnRHa-treatment. The results demonstrate that peripubertal GnRHa-treatment suppressed reproductive function in rams, which was restored after cessation of GnRHa-treatment at 44 weeks of age, as indicated by similar testes size (relative to body weight) in both GnRHa-Recovery and Control rams at 81 weeks of age. Rams in which GnRHa-treatment was discontinued (GnRHa-Recovery) had comparable spatial maze traverse times to Controls, during spatial orientation and learning assessments at 85 and 99 weeks of age. Former GnRHa-treatment altered how quickly the rams progressed beyond a specific point in the spatial maze at 83 and 99 weeks of age, and the direction of this effect depended on gonadal steroid exposure, i.e. GnRHa-Recovery rams progressed quicker during breeding season and slower during non-breeding season, compared to Controls. The long-term spatial memory performance of GnRHa-Recovery rams remained reduced (P &lt; 0.05, 1.5-fold slower) after discontinuation of GnRHa, compared to Controls. This result suggests that the time at which puberty normally occurs may represent a critical period of hippocampal plasticity. Perturbing normal hippocampal formation in this peripubertal period may also have long lasting effects on other brain areas and aspects of cognitive function
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