301,473 research outputs found

    Dynamical demixing of a binary mixture under sedimentation

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    We investigate the sedimentation dynamics of a binary mixture, the species of which differ by their Stokes coefficients but are identical otherwise. We analyze the sedimentation dynamics and the morphology of the final deposits using Brownian dynamics simulations for mixtures with a range of sedimentation velocities of both species. We found a threshold in the sedimentation velocities difference above which the species in the final deposit are segregated. The degree of segregation increases with the difference in the Stokes coefficients or the sedimentation velocities above the threshold. We propose a simple mean-field model that captures the main features of the simulated deposits

    Coastal sedimentation

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    Several important coastal sedimentation problems are identified. Application of existing or anticipated remote sensing techniques to examine these problems is considered. Specifically, coastal fine particle sediment systems, floods and hy hurricanes and sedimentation f of coastal systems, routes and rates of sediment transport on continental shelves, and dredging and dredged material disposal are discussed

    Analitic Investigation of the Regularities of Changing Dust Concentration During the Abrasive Decrease of Stone Structures

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    In the process of repair or restoration of building structures, it is often necessary to strengthen building structures from limestone-shell rock, concrete, reinforced concrete, hard materials-granite, basalt, etc. by cutting or making cuts of the required size with detachable circles of synthetic diamond and cubic boron nitride (CA and CBN)The cutting process is accompanied by considerable dust formation, which can be both harmful and dangerous factor in the work.The aim of the work is studying the process of dust sedimentation and the regularity of the change in dust concentration during the abrasive cutting of concrete and stone materials.Mathematical models have been developed – dust emission from under the wheel, speed of sedimentation of dust particles depending on their material, size and shape, and also depending on temperature, pressure and humidity, the concentration of dust in the working space and the concentration change during the cutting cycle are calculated.It is shown that the velocity of the sedimentation of particles depends significantly on the shape. The higher the sphericity, the higher the sedimentation rate. The ambient temperature has little effect on the sedimentation rate, in the temperature range (-20 → + 40 °C) at which the operation takes place.The sedimentation rate of dust particles generated by cutting the most common building stone materials also differs slightly. Almost the same sedimentation rate has dust particles obtained by cutting basalt and concrete. A bit higher is the sedimentation rate of particles from granite.The sedimentation rate of particles of generated dust is about 600-700 cm/h or 10-11 cm/min for particles measuring 6 μm. This means that at a production height of about 2 m (200 cm) during the operating cycle (about 3 min), the dust will remain at an altitude of about 1.5 m, i.е. practically remains in the working area. This gives grounds to assert about a high concentration of dust during the cutting cycle (about 4.8 108/m3)

    Understanding and Finding Solutions to the Problem of Sedimentation in the National Wildlife Refuge System

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    The National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System) is a collection of public lands maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for migratory birds and other wildlife. Wetlands on individual National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) may be at risk of increased sedimentation because of land use and water management practices. Increased sedimentation can reduce wetland habitat quality by altering hydrologic function, degrading water quality, and inhibiting growth of vegetation and invertebrates. On Refuges negatively affected by increased sedimentation, managers have to address complex questions about how to best remediate and mitigate the negative effects. The best way to account for these complexities is often not clear. On other Refuges, managers may not know whether sedimentation is a problem. Decision makers in the Refuge System may need to allocate resources to studying which Refuges could be at risk. Such analyses would help them understand where to direct support for managing increased sedimentation. In this paper, we summarize a case study demonstrating the use of decision-analytic tools in the development of a sedimentation management plan for Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota. Using what we learned from that process, we surveyed other Refuges in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 3 (an area encompassing the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin) and Region 6 (an area encompassing the states of Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) about whether they experience sediment-related impacts to management. Our results show that cases of management being negatively affected by increased sedimentation are not isolated. We suggest that the Refuge System conduct a comprehensive and systematic assessment of increased sedimentation among Refuges to understand the importance of sedimentation in context with other management problems that Refuges face. The results of such an assessment could guide how the Refuge System allocates resources to studying and managing widespread stressors

    Sedimentation and polar order of active bottom-heavy particles

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    Self-propelled particles in an external gravitational field have been shown to display both an increased sedimentation length and polar order even without particle interactions. Here, we investigate self-propelled particles which additionally are bottom-heavy, that is they feel a torque aligning them to swim against the gravitational field. For bottom-heavy particles the gravitational field has the two opposite effects of i) sedimentation and ii) upward alignment of the particles' swimming direction. We perform a multipole expansion of the one-particle distribution with respect to orientation and derive expressions for sedimentation length and mean particle orientation which we check against Brownian Dynamics simulations. For large strength of gravity or small particle speeds and aligning torque, we observe sedimentation with increased sedimentation length compared with passive colloids but also active colloids without bottom-heaviness. Increasing, for example, swimming speed the sedimentation profile is inverted and the particles swim towards the top wall of the enclosing box. We find maximal orientational order at intermediate swimming speeds for both cases of particles with bottom-heaviness and those without. Ordering unsurprisingly is increased for the bottom-heavy particles, but this difference disappears at higher levels of activity and for very high activities ordering goes to zero in both cases.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figure

    Effects of vertical confinement on gelation and sedimentation of colloids

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    We consider the sedimentation of a colloidal gel under confinement in the direction of gravity. The confinement allows us to compare directly experiments and computer simulations, for the same system size in the vertical direction. The confinement also leads to qualitatively different behaviour compared to bulk systems: in large systems gelation suppresses sedimentation, but for small systems sedimentation is enhanced relative to non-gelling suspensions, although the rate of sedimentation is reduced when the strength of the attraction between the colloids is strong. We map interaction parameters between a model experimental system (observed in real space) and computer simulations. Remarkably, we find that when simulating the system using Brownian dynamics in which hydrodynamic interactions between the particles are neglected, we find that sedimentation occurs on the same timescale as the experiments, however the thickness of the "arms" of the gel is rather larger in the experiments, compared with the simulations. An analysis of local structure in the simulations showed similar behaviour to gelation in the absence of gravity