11,315 research outputs found

    Behavioural response of Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to acoustic stimuli in a laboratory and field setting

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    Sea lamprey are invasive in the Laurentian Great Lakes and parasitically feed on valued fishes. Migration barriers and selective pesticides are used to control sea lamprey, but there is a desire to develop additional control tools such as traps with deterrents. Sound has been used as a deterrent for other invasive species but its potential for manipulating sea lamprey behavior in natural stream conditions remains untested. The behavioural threshold for sea lamprey nor a behavioural comparison of life stages has also not been established. Here, behavioral responses of upstream migrating adult sea lamprey in response to low frequency sounds of 70 or 90 Hz was tracked in a small stream using passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry. The low frequency sounds shifted sea lamprey distribution with up to 30% more sea lamprey detected on PIT antennas without sound compared to PIT antennas with sound playing. The same frequency tones were used for behavioral responses of adult and juvenile sea lamprey and were tracked in a lab setup. The low frequency sounds changed the sea lampreys behaviour with juvenile and adult sea lamprey showing similar swimming behavioural thresholds and twitch (startle) behavioural thresholds for both frequencies. Future studies could continue testing low frequency sounds in natural setting for use as a natural deterrent at sea lamprey barriers to push sea lamprey toward traps at different life stages and continued studies in a lab setting could be useful for knowledge of the behaviour of sea lamprey to apply to traps for population control

    Update of Distribution of the Chestnut Lamprey in Arkansas

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    Most lamprey species other than sea lampreys have been poorly studied in North America. The chestnut lamprey, Ichthyomyzon castaneus, has a distribution within the Mississippi River and Hudson Bay drainage systems, and the Great Lakes. Since the text Fishes of Arkansas was published in 1988, few papers have been published to update the statewide distribution of this lamprey. We incorporated our electrofishing sampling results with gray and published literature to describe the distribution of this species in the drainage basins of the State of Arkansas. Reported are records of 250 chestnut lamprey specimens, over a 90 year period, from 47 different waterbodies in the state

    3D models of lamprey corticoid receptor complexed with 11-deoxycortisol and deoxycorticosterone

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    The serum of Atlantic sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate, contains two corticosteroids, 11-deoxycortisol and deoxycorticosterone. Only 11-deoxycortisol has high affinity [Kd~3 nM] for the corticoid receptor [CR] in lamprey gill cytosol. To investigate the binding of 11-deoxycortisol to the CR, we constructed 3D models of lamprey CR complexed with 11-deoxycortisol and deoxycorticosterone. These 3D models reveal that Leu-220 and Met-299 in lamprey CR have contacts with the 17[alpha]-hydroxyl on 11-deoxycortisol. Lamprey CR is the ancestor of the mineralocorticoid receptor [MR] and glucocorticoid receptor [GR]. Unlike human MR and human GR, the 3D model of lamprey CR finds a van der Waals contact between Cys-227 in helix 3 and Met-264 in helix 5. Mutant human MR and GR containing a van der Waals contact between helix 3 and helix 5 display enhanced responses to progesterone and glucocorticoids, respectively. We propose that this interaction was present in the CR and lost during the evolution of the MR and GR, leading to changes in their response to progesterone and corticosteroids, respectively

    Factors Affecting the Behavior of Great Lakes Sea Lamprey (petromyzon marinus) at Traps

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    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) is a parasitic species that have affected Great Lakes fisheries in many ways. Control of seal lamprey populations through binational efforts started in 1950s and continues today. The primary technique used to control sea lamprey is the application of lampricides to streams to kill larvae before they become parasites. The Great Lakes Fishery Commission is looking for an alternative method of control to complement lampricides to reduce sea lamprey abundance. Trapping adult sea lamprey as they migrate upstream is used for assessment of spawining population in the stream. Trapping efficiency needs to be improved before this method could be used as an alternative method of control. Thus, the understanidng of sea lamprey behavior at traps is important to try to improve trap success. A male mating pheromone component (3kPZS) used as an attractant in traps has been shown to increase trap capture. Also, other external factors are likely to affect the behavior of sea lamprey at traps. Video was used to record sea lamprey behavior at five traps across five migration seasons, with one trap being baited with 3kPZS. I found sea lamprey are 31% more likely to enter after approaching the trap when it was baited with pheromone. I found additional environmental factors that affected the probability that a sea lamprey would enter and be retained in the trap.Master'sCollege of Arts and Sciences: BiologyUniversity of Michiganhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/117733/1/Beaulaurier.pd

    Gill Structure & Function in Parasitic and Non-parasitic Lampreys: The Effects of Metamorphosis and Freshwater-Seawater Transfer

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    Lamprey (Petromyzontiformes) are a phylogenetically ancient group of jawless fishes that begin their lives as filter-feeding larvae (ammocoetes) before undergoing a complex metamorphosis into juvenile lamprey that involves major changes to their internal and external body plan. Some parasitic species, such as the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), migrate to sea following metamorphosis, where they use their oral discs and rasping tongue to attach to and ingest vast quantities of blood from fishes. Thus, sea lamprey have to counter the simultaneous challenges of hyposmoregulation in sea water and the generation of large quantities of ammonia due to the catabolism of protein-rich blood. A goal of this study was to characterize how changes in the structure and function of the gills facilitated osmoregulation and nitrogenous waste (N-waste) excretion by sea lamprey following metamorphosis, particularly after acclimation to sea water and the ingestion of blood from teleost fishes. Accordingly, key features of the lamprey gill including the distribution and abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) and H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) pumps involved in ion regulation, and ammonia transporting Rhesus glycoproteins and urea transporting proteins, were investigated using through immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting techniques. In contrast to the sea lamprey, there are other species of lamprey that remain in fresh water following metamorphosis. Many of these species are non-parasitic including the northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor), but some such as the closely related silver lamprey (Ichthymyzon unicuspis) are parasitic. To learn more about how an exclusively FW existence affected ion transport and ammonia excretion by lampreys, the gills of post-metamorphic (juvenile) northern and silver lamprey were compared to those of larval and juvenile sea lamprey. As in sea lamprey, the gills of both species were characterized by the presence of Rhesus c-like glycoprotein (Rhcg-like) and urea transport (UT) protein but, the distribution of these proteins more closely resembled those of larval sea lamprey than juvenile sea lamprey. In both the silver and northern brook lamprey, Rhcg-like protein co-localized with V-ATPase, suggesting that H+ excretion was coupled with Rhcg-like protein mediated diffusion trapping of NH3. Similarly, UT abundance in both species was comparable to that of the larval sea lamprey. I conclude that in freshwater lampreys, NH3 extrusion via apical Rhcg-like proteins is coupled to V-ATPase mediated H+ excretion, which maintains favourable diffusion gradients by trapping NH3 as NH4+. Given that the lampreys and teleosts have evolved along separate lineages for at least 360 million years, I propose that this method of ammonia excretion is an ancient strategy used by aquatic organisms to facilitate ammonia excretion across the gills in fresh water. In contrast, the need for V-ATPase trapping of NH3 as NH4+ is not required in sea water, in which the Rhcg-like proteins were restricted to the basolateral membrane and co-localized with NKA in sea water mitochondrion-rich cells (SW MRCs). These findings suggest that Rhcg-like protein may mediate ammonia excretion by loading the SW MRC with ammonia, with the resulting NH4+ pumped out of the cell via substitution for H+ on an apical Na+/H+ exchanger, or via an outwardly directed NH4+ electrochemical gradient that favours excretion via paracellular junctions

    Managing native and non-native sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) through anthropogenic change: A prospective assessment of key threats and uncertainties.

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    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a species of conservation concern in their native range of the Atlantic coasts of Europe (Near Threatened to Critically Endangered) and North America (Secure to Critically Imperiled), and an invasive species of great economic and ecological concern in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Despite differences in life history strategy (anadromous natives vs adfluvial non-natives), the biology of sea lamprey is sufficiently similar to expect comparable responses to large-scale environmental change. We take a prospective look at the future (50 to 100 years) of sea lamprey management in an era of considerable environmental disturbance, and consider biological responses, management actions, and the future status of populations across the native and non-native ranges. Based on facilitated discussion by a diverse group of international experts, two major but poorly characterized classes of threats to sea lamprey were identified: climate change and socio-political issues. We discuss how climate induced changes affect growth, bioenergetics, and phenology of sea lamprey, and associated effects on control tactics (pesticides and barriers) and conservation. We consider tensions surrounding improving connectivity in the Great Lakes while controlling invasive sea lamprey, and discuss supplements and alternatives to pesticides and their wider effect, as well as the effects of new invasive species. To prevent the extirpation of native sea lamprey populations, or the re-expansion of non-native populations, we conclude with a call for new and ongoing dialogue and collaboration among all sea lamprey biologists and managers across the native and non-native range

    Chemical cues and pheromones in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

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    Chemical cues and pheromones guide decisions in organisms throughout the animal kingdom. The neurobiology, function, and evolution of olfaction are particularly well described in insects, and resulting concepts have driven novel approaches to pest control. However, aside from several exceptions, the olfactory biology of vertebrates remains poorly understood. One exception is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), which relies heavily upon olfaction during reproduction. Here, we provide a broad review of the chemical cues and pheromones used by the sea lamprey during reproduction, including overviews of the sea lamprey olfactory system, chemical cues and pheromones, and potential applications to population management. The critical role of olfaction in mediating the sea lamprey life cycle is evident by a well-developed olfactory system. Sea lamprey use chemical cues and pheromones to identify productive spawning habitat, coordinate spawning behaviors, and avoid risk. Manipulation of olfactory biology offers opportunities for management of populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where the sea lamprey is a destructive invader. We suggest that the sea lamprey is a broadly useful organism with which to study vertebrate olfaction because of its simple but well-developed olfactory organ, the dominant role of olfaction in guiding behaviors during reproduction, and the direct implications for vertebrate pest management

    Relationships between anadromous lampreys and their host fishes in the eastern Bering Sea

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    Arctic Lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum and Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus are ecologically and culturally important anadromous, parasitic species experiencing recent population declines in the North Pacific Ocean. However, a paucity of basic information on lampreys feeding in the ocean precludes an incorporation of the adult trophic phase into our understanding of lamprey population dynamics. The goal of this research was to provide insight into the marine life-history stage of Arctic and Pacific lampreys through lamprey-host interactions in the eastern Bering Sea. An analysis of two fishery-independent surveys conducted between 2002 and 2012 in the eastern Bering Sea revealed that Arctic Lampreys were captured in epipelagic waters of the inner and middle continental shelf and were associated with Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii and juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. In contrast, Pacific Lampreys were captured in benthic waters along the continental slope associated with bottom-oriented groundfish. Consistent with this analysis of fish assemblages, morphology of recently inflicted lamprey wounds observed on Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus was similar to morphology of Pacific Lamprey oral discs, but not that of Arctic Lamprey oral discs. Examination of 8,746 Pacific Cod, of which 4.9% had lamprey wounds, showed recent wounding rates positively increased with fish length up to 78 cm, and penetrating lamprey wounds were less likely to heal compared with superficial lamprey wounds, suggesting lamprey-related mortality. This study elucidates differences in the oceanic ecology between Arctic and Pacific lampreys and suggests a native lamprey can negatively impact hosts, which increases our understanding of lamprey ecology beyond traditional freshwater studies.General Introduction -- Chapter 1: Associations between anadromous lamprey distributions and potential host fishes in the eastern Bering Sea -- Chapter 2: Interactions between lampreys and Pacific Cod in the eastern Bering Sea -- General Conclusion

    Effects of Submergence Depths on Swimming Capacity of Sea Lamprey

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    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a fish parasite that has damaged the Great Lakes ecosystem. In-stream barriers that prevent upstream passage during migration can help reduce populations of sea lamprey. Exploring their swimming kinematics will help us understand how lamprey navigate across barriers at various water depths. I recorded attempts of sea lampreys to cross wetted ramps varying in water depth from 1 to 7 cm and used video analysis to examine their swimming mode. I found that at the shallowest depth, amplitude and frequency of body undulations were increased, but swim speed was not. I conclude that swimming capacity was reduced in the shallowest treatment. My findings suggest that a lamprey barrier with shallow water could block sea lamprey but allow native fin-fish species to pass upstream
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