5,450,877 research outputs found

    Effects of Single-Dose Prucalopride on Intestinal Hypomotility in Horses: Preliminary Observations

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    Abnormalities of gastrointestinal motility are often a challenge in horses; however, the use of prokinetic drugs in such conditions must be firmly established yet. For this reason we carried out a preliminary study on the effects of prucalopride on intestinal motor activity of horses with gut hypomotility. The effect of prucalopride per os by oral dose syringe (2 mg/100 kg body weight) was assessed by abdominal ultrasound (evaluating duodenal, cecal, and colonic motor activity) in six horses with gut hypomotility. After administration of prucalopride, a significant increase of contractile activity was found in the duodenum at 30 minutes (p = 0.0005), 60 minutes (p = 0.01) and 90 minutes (p = 0.01), whereas in the cecum and in the left colon the increase was only present at 60 minutes (p = 0.03, and p = 0.02, respectively). No changes from baseline heart and respiratory rate or behavior side effects were observed after administration of the drug and throughout the observation period. Prucalopride may be a useful adjunct to the therapeutic armamentary for treating hypomotile upper gut conditions of horses. Dosing information is however needed to establish its actual clinical efficacy and its proper effects on the large bowel in these animals

    NHANRS Scientific Wetland Buffer REPORT

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    Synthesis and biological activity of a new class of antitumor cyclopeptides based on the solomonamides

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    Solomonamides A (1) and B (2) are novel natural products recently isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei [1]. Preliminary structural studies revealed an unprecedented cyclic peptide type structure. Interestingly, solomonamide A exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, showing potent reduction (60%) of inflammation at a very low concentration of 100 ”g/kg in animal models. However, the scarcity of these compounds from their natural sources has been a drawback for further pharmacological assays. In fact, the anti-inflammatory activity of solomonamide B was not evaluated due to the limited amounts. This difficulty to access large amounts of these compounds makes quite difficult to gain insight into their biological profiles and mechanism of action and justifies the chemical synthesis of this new class of cyclic peptides. As a consequence, the solomonamides have been the subject of several synthetic efforts [2] notably by the Reddy group who has recently reported the first total synthesis of solomonamide B based on a intramolecular Heck reaction, which led to a revision of the initially proposed structure for 2 [3].Universidad de Målaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    Scientific Realism

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    This article endeavors to identify the strongest versions of the two primary arguments against epistemic scientific realism: the historical argument—generally dubbed “the pessimistic meta-induction”—and the argument from underdetermination. It is shown that, contrary to the literature, both can be understood as historically informed but logically validmodus tollensarguments. After specifying the question relevant to underdetermination and showing why empirical equivalence is unnecessary, two types of competitors to contemporary scientific theories are identified, both of which are informed by science itself. With the content and structure of the two nonrealist arguments clarified, novel relations between them are uncovered, revealing the severity of their collective threat against epistemic realism and its “no-miracles” argument. The final section proposes, however, that the realist’s axiological tenet “science seeks truth” is not blocked. An attempt is made to indicate the promise for a nonepistemic, purely axiological scientific realism—here dubbed “Socratic scientific realism.

    Scientific Polarization

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    Contemporary societies are often "polarized", in the sense that sub-groups within these societies hold stably opposing beliefs, even when there is a fact of the matter. Extant models of polarization do not capture the idea that some beliefs are true and others false. Here we present a model, based on the network epistemology framework of Bala and Goyal ["Learning from neighbors", \textit{Rev. Econ. Stud.} \textbf{65}(3), 784-811 (1998)], in which polarization emerges even though agents gather evidence about their beliefs, and true belief yields a pay-off advantage. The key mechanism that generates polarization involves treating evidence generated by other agents as uncertain when their beliefs are relatively different from one's own.Comment: 22 pages, 5 figures, author final versio

    Accelerating Scientific Discovery by Formulating Grand Scientific Challenges

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    One important question for science and society is how to best promote scientific progress. Inspired by the great success of Hilbert's famous set of problems, the FuturICT project tries to stimulate and focus the efforts of many scientists by formulating Grand Challenges, i.e. a set of fundamental, relevant and hardly solvable scientific questions.Comment: To appear in EPJ Special Topics. For related work see http://www.futurict.eu and http://www.soms.ethz.c

    Scientific Ability

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