24,751 research outputs found

    Characterization of Dutch-Cocoa produced using potash extract from cocoa pod husk as an alkalizing bioresource

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    Abstract Alkalizing agents in the processing of Dutch-Cocoa are often imported from developing countries. This occurs amidst humongous quantities of Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH) that are largely rotting away. This study therefore appraises the inherent alkalizing potentials of CPH, including its physicochemical and safety characteristics in the production of Dutch-Cocoa. CPH was calcined, potash extracted, characterized, and applied in formulation (1% to 5% conc.) in Dutch-production of Cocoa. Quality parameters of the resultant product were analyzed following AOAC procedures (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, rats(n=30) were fed it over a 21-day duration while nutritional and safety indicators were monitored. Sensory properties were also evaluated. The results showed some predominant properties of CPH potash extract [Potassium 35.7%, pH 12.3, alkalinity 15.6 g/100 g CO3] and Dutch-cocoa [protein (15.8% to 16.5%), colour (Hunter L,a,b) 36.9, 8.8, 11.7 light - dark red), dispersibility (1.5 to 2.3), wettability (143.7 s), sedimentation (20.7% to 49.3%)] which favourably compared with commercial variants. Apparent digestibility (AD%) was significant (Protein 86%, Fat 88%, Fiber 66% etc) (p ≤ .0.05). Safety indices exhibited no deleterious effect and the product was adjudged acceptable. Dutch-cocoa produced using CPH-derived-potash as an alternate alkalizing bioresource is feasible, while simultaneously providing an environmentally friendly outlet for CP

    James Webb Space Telescope: data, problems, and resolution

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    It is argued that the data presented by Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope, that seem to be at odds with the canonical big bang cosmology, find simple explanation if galaxy formation is seeded by massive primordial black holes (PBH), as anticipated in 1993 (A. Dolgov and J. Silk, later DS). The statement that the galaxy formation might be seeded by PBH is now rediscovered in several works. The predicted by DS log-normal mass spectrum of PBHs very well agrees with astronomical data. Abundant BH population of the Galaxy with masses of the order of tens solar masses is predicted. Extended mass spectrum of PBH together with their possible clustering allows them to make 100\% contribution into the cosmological dark matter. Another prediction of DS mechanism on noticeable amount of antimatter in the Milky Way also seems to be confirmed by the data.Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures, plenary talk at Plenary talk presented at 36th Rencontres de Physique de la Vall{\'e}e d'Aoste on Results and Perspectives in Particle Physics, extended and update

    Corncob as carbon source in the production of xanthan gum in different strains Xanthomonas sp.

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    Xanthan gum (XG) is a biopolymer obtained in fermentation and used as a rheology control agent in aqueous systems and in stabilizing emulsions and suspensions. XG, together with other polysaccharides, can form soft, cohesive composite gels. The carbon source in the fermentative process is responsible for one-third of the production costs, and the search for less expensive and sustainable alternatives is ongoing. The use of agricultural residues such as the corncob is highly suggestive due to their abundance. This study aims to evaluate the use of derived hemicellulose fractions from the alkaline extraction of corncob as a carbon source in the production of XG in trials using four strains of Xanthomonas sp. (629, 1078, 254, and S6). The results indicate that strain 629 provides the higher yield (8.37 ± 5.75 g L−1) while using a fermentation medium containing a carbon source of saccharose (1.25%), hemicellulose fractions (3.75%), and salts. In this same medium, the strain 629 produces gum in 3% aqueous solution, showing the higher apparent viscosity (9298 ± 31 mPa s−1) at a shear rate of 10 s−1 at 25 °C. In conclusion, corncob is proven to be a promising sustainable alternative carbon source in the obtention of XG, improving the economic viability of the process within a biorefinery context. Saccharose must, however, also be included in the fermentation medium.0F1A-358B-43B5 | Fernando Jorge Ribeiro da MataN/

    In Search of Chiral Molecular Superconductors: κ-[(S,S)-DM-BEDT-TTF]2ClO4 Revisited

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    The relationship between chirality and superconductivity is an intriguing question. The two enantiomeric crystalline radical cation salts κ-[(S,S)-DM-BEDT-TTF]2ClO4 and κ-[(R,R)-DM-BEDT-TTF]2ClO4, showing κ-type arrangement of the organic layers, are investigated in search for superconducting chiral molecular materials following a 1992 report indicating the occurrence of a superconducting transition in the former compound. While the initial interpretation is presently challenged through in-depth temperature and pressure dependent single crystal resistivity measurements combined with band structure calculations, the two chiral conductors show metal like behavior with room temperature conductivities of 10-30 S cm−1 at ambient pressure and stabilization of the metallic state down to the lowest temperatures under moderate pressures. Moreover, their structural and theoretical investigations reveal an original feature, namely the existence of two different κ layers with 1D and 2D electronic dimensionality, respectively, as a consequence of an interlayer charge transfer. The resistivity drop observed for one sample below 1 K and insensitive to magnetic field, possibly results from mixing in-plane and out-of-plane contributions to the measured resistance and suggests current induced charge order melting. This feature contradicts the occurrence of superconductivity in these chiral molecular conductors and leaves open the discovery of the first chiral molecular superconductors

    Mechanical pruning and soil organic amending in two terroirs. Effects on wine chemical composition and sensory profile

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    The knowledge about the interaction between mechanical pruning and soil organic amending is still scarce. This study aimed to examine the effects of the interaction between these two practices on wine quality. Syrah grapes from two trial fields in Portugal subjected to two different pruning systems (mechanical pruning; hand spur pruning) and five different organic amendment treatments (control, biochar, municipal solid waste compost, cattle manure, and sewage sludge) were harvested and vinified for four years. Mechanical pruning significantly reduced wine alcoholic strength, pH, and total anthocyanins. Mechanical pruning and organic amendments, tendentially reduced wine total phenols and tannin power, known as an “estimation of the astringency potential of the wines”. Tasters found low but significant differences in global appreciation with the pruning system. Sludge tended to reduce wine global appreciation more than municipal solid waste compost and cattle manure, while biochar had no effect on tasters’ preference when compared to the control. There was strong relation between yield and tasters’ preference only above 6 kg/vine and 8 kg/vine depending on the terroir. Mechanical pruning tendentially has significant effects on wine quality when yield raises above a certain level. Thus, with this pruning system, the choice of the organic amendment and its amount must be done considering the destiny of the produced grapes. To the best of our knowledge, effects of the interaction of mechanical pruning with soil organic amending on wine quality are a noveltyinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Annals [...].

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    Pedometrics: innovation in tropics; Legacy data: how turn it useful?; Advances in soil sensing; Pedometric guidelines to systematic soil surveys.Evento online. Coordenado por: Waldir de Carvalho Junior, Helena Saraiva Koenow Pinheiro, Ricardo Simão Diniz Dalmolin

    Conservation, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan for the Lower White River, Utah

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    In this report we present a conservation, restoration and monitoring plan for the lower White River, a major tributary of the Green River. The plan is intended to help guide conservation, restoration and management of the lower White River over the next several decades and is also developed as an adaptive management plan to facilitate learning. The recommended conservation and restoration actions are intended to maintain and enhance native riparian vegetation and instream habitat for native desert fishes including federally endangered Colorado Pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), federally endangered Razorback Sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys osculus), Bluehead Sucker (Catostomus discobolus), Flannelmouth Sucker (C. latipinnis), and Roundtail Chub (Gila robusta). ~~Many mammals, amphibians, migratory birds, and raptors that use the riparian zone or migrate through the riverscape are also anticipated to benefit from the plan. The recommended conservation and restoration actions are based on the best available information regarding the current ecological and geomorphic conditions and restoration recovery potential. We prioritized reaches for conservation and restoration actions using expert opinion and field validation, riparian vegetation density and instream and riparian habitat condition and complexity data. We recommend an experimental design for implementation of conservation and restoration actions. Combined with monitoring, the experimental design is aimed at identifying the most successful conservation and restoration actions for maintaining complex instream habitat and a healthy native riparian community