49,992 research outputs found

    Images for Iconoclasts: Images of Confucius in the Cultural Revolution

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    Confucius died and was buried in 479 B.C.E., and he was never seen again. Or so one would think. ‚ÄúYou may forget me as I once was,‚ÄĚ Confucius reminds us in the Zhuangzi, but there is something unforgettable about me that will still live on. Confucius‚Äôs physical frame was concealed from sight below ground, but his body and face were not forgotten either by his followers or his detractors, each of whom remembered him (or remembered him) in different ways. People created semblances of Confucius that reflected their own visions of the past, and constructions of his body took on many lives of their own over the succeeding centuries. [excerpt

    Realism, modernism, and the spectre of Trotsky, part 1: Luk√°cs

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    H. T. Tsiang: A Critical Overview of His Work in Literary and Social Context

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    A Chinese exile in the United States, H. T. Tsiang (1899-1971) wrote several books in English that represent pioneer works in the canon of Asian American literature. Although few know his work today, Tsiang is one of the earliest and most prolific innovators of Asian American literature, anticipating some of the appropriative methods, formal techniques, and critical strategies that have come to characterize the tradition

    The Monk by M. G. Lewis: Revolution, Religion and the Female Body

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    This paper reads The Monk by M. G. Lewis in the context of the literary and visual responses to the French Revolution, suggesting that its digestion of the horrors across the Channel is exhibited especially in its depictions of women. Lewis plays with public and domestic representations of femininity, steeped in social expectation and a rich cultural and religious imaginary. The novel’s ambivalence in the representation of femininity draws on the one hand on Catholic symbolism, especially its depictions of the Madonna and the virgin saints, and on the other, on the way the revolutionaries used the body of the queen, Marie Antoinette, to portray the corruption of the royal family. The Monk fictionalizes the ways in which the female body was exposed, both by the Church and by the Revolution, and appropriated to become a highly politicized entity, a tool in ideological argumentation

    Naomi Mitchison’s we have been warned (1935) in post-referendum Scotland

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    Mitchison weaves a realist political novel about the lives of two upper-middle class women in 1930s Britain with abstract forays into Scottish folklore as the kelpies follow the sisters, haunting their modern activities. Sometimes the dialogue is stilted, and reads as thinly-veiled politics rather than the high literature found elsewhere in Mitchison’s oeuvre. But, in spite of these shortcomings, the novel has much to offer a reader, and particularly one reading from post-referendum Scotland. Even those who have never read a Mitchison novel before will find much to admire and celebrate in this complicated book. The politics of Mitchison’s novel, which covers the debates between communism and socialism, and between socialism and feminism, often read as relevant to modern debates and Mitchison’s forward-thinking attitude to birth control and abortion might mean that the novel would still be banned if it were published today, particularly in certain American schools

    Reinscribing the Revolution: Genre and the Problem of National History in Early American Historical Novels

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    This dissertation examines nine early historical novels of the Revolution that recover an important yet largely forgotten archive of American cultural history. In the years following the War of 1812 writers from the Revolution‚Äôs successor generation reinscribed the history of national origins through narratives of the Revolution that address issues left unresolved by the Revolutionary War and subsequent Constitutional debates; thus, the Revolution itself becomes an important and ubiquitous subject area for writers attempting to situate narratives of national history. These national allegories, consciously constructed as patriotic narratives, unconsciously ‚Äúbring forth‚ÄĚ figurations that represent the official nation‚Äôs Others, people excluded by race, class, and gender. Thus, the dissertation addresses these novels both in their dimension as official patriotic narratives of national history and also as narratives that introduce liminal figures that undermine na√Įve versions of a unified nation. Ultimately, early Revolutionary historical novels express complex and conflicted versions of an American nation as it was constructed in the years leading up to the jubilee celebrations of 1825-26. Among the texts explored here are Samuel Woodworth‚Äôs The Champions of Freedom (1816); James Fenimore Cooper‚Äôs The Spy (1821), The Pilot (1824), and Lionel Lincoln (1825); John Neal‚Äôs Seventy-Six (1823), Lydia Maria Child‚Äôs The Rebels (1825); Eliza Cushing‚Äôs Saratoga (1824) and Yorktown (1826); and Giles Gazer‚Äôs (pseud.) Frederic de Algeroy (1825)

    ‚ÄúTotal and Radical Liberation‚ÄĚ: The Religious and Philosophical Background of Volodymyr Vynnychenko‚Äôs Revolutionary Ideas

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    The article explores the religious and philosophical origins of Volodymyr Vynnychenko‚Äôs ideas of ‚Äúhonesty with oneself,‚ÄĚ ‚Äúomnilateral liberation,‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúconcordism.‚ÄĚ Two treatises, Vidrodzhennia natsii (Rebirth of a Nation, 1919‚Äď1920) and Konkordyzm. Systema buduvannia shchastia (Concordism. A System of Building Happiness, 1938‚Äď1945), illustrate the development of Vynnychenko‚Äôs worldview. In the first work, social revolution was considered as the answer to human problems, while, in the second, such a solution was found in becoming one with the universe. Despite his negative attitude towards religion, Volodymyr Vynnychenko actively used religious images and patterns in his writings. For instance, criticizing Christianity for its dogmatism, he nevertheless created his codex of thirteen rules of concordism, which had to harmonize the unbalanced forces of mankind with the universe. In this context, particular attention is paid to the significant influence of pagan concepts on Vynnychenko‚Äôs thinking

    Crossing Selma\u27s Bridge: Integrating Visual Discovery Strategy and Young Adult Literature to Promote Dialogue and Understanding

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    Urban communities, separated by race and class, experience a disproportionate number of gun deaths, police shootings, crime, violent and nonviolent protests, as well as disparities in housing, education, and employment. These discussions are visual and textual, appearing in both traditional and social media outlets. How do adolescents read and make sense of these images? We discuss integrating a Social Studies practice, Visual Discovery Strategy, with Young Adult Literature to provide students with the skills to both critique images from the events in their lives and produce responses through both traditional and digital methods

    Prophets and Priests of the Nation: Naguib Mahfouz’s Karnak Café and the 1967 Crisis in Egypt

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    Similarities between religion and nationalism are well known but not well understood. They can be explained by drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory in order to consider symbolic interests and the strategies employed to advance them. In both religion and nationalism, the ‚Äústrategy of the prophets‚ÄĚ relies on charisma while the ‚Äústrategy of the priests‚ÄĚ relies on cultural capital. In 20th-century Egypt, nationalism permitted intellectuals whose cultural capital was mainly secular, such as Naguib Mahfouz, to become ‚Äúpriests of the nation‚ÄĚ in order to compete with the  Ņulama ĺ for prestige and influence. However, it severely limited their autonomy, particularly after Nasser took power and became a successful nationalist prophet. Mahfouz's novel Al-Karnak, which explores the fate of the Nasser regime's political prisoners and the effects of Egypt's 1967 military defeat, reflects this limitation. Under a nationalist regime, the film adaptation of the novel contributed to Mahfouz's heteronomy

    The Feminisation of War in the Contemporary Easter Rising Narratives of Mary Morrissy and Lia Mills

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    Traditionally, war and revolution, as male-oriented duties, kept¬†women not only relegated to the domestic sphere but uninformed about whatwas regarded as more serious concerns. However, if men were involved in¬†the war effort, the daily struggle belonged to women, even though they have¬†remained outside mainstream historical accounts and their stories have been¬†silenced or hidden from official accounts. With the intention of restating such¬†imbalance, many Irish writers have engaged in the recovery of forgotten figures¬†from the past, paving the way for the emergence of a renewed type of historical¬†novel that offers alternative readings from a gender perspective. This would be¬†the case of authors Julia O‚ÄôFaolain, Emma Donoghue, Evelyn Conlon, Anne¬†Enright or Henrietta McKervey, among a growing list. Within this panorama,two novels stand out, Mary Morrissy‚Äôs The Rising of Bella Casey (2013) and¬†Lia Mills‚Äôs Fallen (2014). Both explore female subjectivity at times of war and¬†delve into the struggle the protagonists have to face at a time of nationalist¬†upheaval, while the male leaders of the uprising merely remain backstage,¬†thus subverting mainstream accounts on the foundational myth of Ireland and¬†demystifying revolutionary heroism. Considering these circumstances, the¬†present discussion will attempt to demonstrate that these women played a more¬†‚Äúrevolutionary‚ÄĚ role than the one attributed by history and will argue that¬†these novels endeavor to bring women back to national history.Keywords: Mary Morrissy, Lia Mills, Easter Rising, First World War,¬† history,¬†revolution
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