1,111,827 research outputs found

    Anti Microbial Resistance Profile of E. coli isolates From Tropical Free Range Chickens

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    Normal intestinal flora of humans and animals constitute enormous reservoir of resistance genes for potentially pathogenic bacteria and may serve as major indictors of selection pressure exerted by anti-microbial use in a given population. A study was conducted in September 2003 at 3 purposively selected peri-urban sites spread across 3 senatorial zones of Imo state, Nigeria to determines the anti-microbial resistance profile of commensal E. coli isolated from free range chickens. The isolates were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. E. coli strains from local fowls, recorded 100 and 78.9% resistances against ampicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively, while resistance rates against ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and norfloxacin were 0.0, 5.3 and 5.3% respectively. Isolates from free-range cockerels recorded 100% resistance against norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin and 83.3% against nitrofurantoin. Similarly, isolates from old layers, recorded 100% resistance against nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin and 80% against nalidixic acid. Similar resistance trends were observed in E. coli isolates from free-range turkeys and broiler roosters against the inexpensive broad-spectrum first line antibiotics (ampicillin, nalidixic acid, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol), although values varied slightly across poultry types. Resistances against gentamycin were consistently low in isolates from the different types of poultry. Twenty-nine resistance patterns were observed in the E. coli isolates with predominant patterns being distributed widely across poultry types indicating a striking diversity of resistance patterns in the areas

    Resistance to the SDHI fungicides boscalid and fluopyram in Podosphaera xanthii from commercial cucurbit fields in Spain

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    Powdery mildew elicited by Podosphaera xanthii is a devastating disease of cucurbits worldwide and one of the most important diseases affecting these crops in Spain. Application of fungicides is the main control practice for managing P. xanthii; however, isolates resistant to multiple classes of site-specific fungicides have been recently reported in the Spanish cucurbit powdery mildew population. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) constitute a relatively novel class of fungicides registered for powdery mildew control representing new alternatives for cucurbit growers. In the present study, 30 P. xanthii isolates were used to determine the effective concentration that reduces mycelial growth by 50% (EC50) to boscalid and fluopyram. The present study was also conducted to obtain discriminatory doses to monitor SDHI fungicide resistance in 180 P. xanthii isolates collected from several commercial cucurbit fields in Spain during 2017-2018. Three SDHI resistance patterns were observed in our population, which include patterns I (resistance to boscalid), II (resistance to fluopyram), and III (resistance to boscalid and fluopyram). The amino acid changes associated with these resistance patterns in the Sdh protein were also examined. Based on our results, SDHI fungicides are good alternatives for cucurbit powdery mildew control, although they should be applied with caution.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tec

    Antibiotic sensitivities of urinary tract pathogenes in Maltese patients

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    A survey of over 1000 bacterial isolates from Maltese patients with urinary tract infection was performed in order to investigate resistance patterns to commonly used oral antibiotics. Resistance was detected in high frequency, particularly for ampicillin, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, in samples originating from both community and hospital. A population comparison to a similar survey conducted in the UK showed local resistance rates to be twice as high.peer-reviewe

    Domain Patterns in the Microwave-Induced Zero-Resistance State

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    It has been proposed that the microwave-induced ``zero-resistance'' phenomenon, observed in a GaAs two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures in moderate magnetic fields, results from a state with multiple domains, in which a large local electric field \bE(\br) is oriented in different directions. We explore here the questions of what may determine the domain arrangement in a given sample, what do the domains look like in representative cases, and what may be the consequences of domain-wall localization on the macroscopic dc conductance. We consider both effects of sample boundaries and effects of disorder, in a simple model, which has a constant Hall conductivity, and is characterized by a Lyapunov functional.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures; submitted to a special issue of Journal of Statistical Physics, in honor of P. C. Hohenberg and J. S. Lange

    Resistance to SDHI fungicides in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry fields in Spain

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    Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers., is one of the most economically important diseases of strawberries and its control involves the application of fungicides throughout the strawberry growing season. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) constitute a novel class of fungicides representing new alternatives for strawberry growers. In the present study, B. cinerea isolates were used to determine the effective concentration that reduces mycelial growth by 50% (EC50) and to obtain discriminatory doses to monitor SDHI fungicides over the course of three-year monitoring period. The overall frequencies of resistance to the SDHI fungicides boscalid, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad and penthiopyrad were 56.9, 6.9, 12.9, and 24.6%, respectively. Four SDHI resistance patterns were observed in our population. Patterns I (resistance to boscalid) and II (resistance to boscalid and penthiopyrad) were associated with the amino acid substitutions H272R/Y; pattern III (resistance to boscalid, fluxapyroxad, and penthiopyrad) was associated only with the H272Y mutation; and finally, pattern IV (resistance to boscalid, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad and penthiopyrad) was associated with the N230I allele in the SdhB subunit. For gray mold management, it is suggested that the simultaneous use of boscalid and penthiopyrad should be limited to one application per season. The use of fluxapyroxad and fluopyram could be used as valid SDHI alternatives for our strawberry growers, but they should be applied with caution.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    Drug resistance outcomes of long-term ART with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the absence of virological monitoring

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    Objectives: The resistance profiles of patients receiving long-term ART in sub-Saharan Africa have been poorly described. This study obtained a sensitive assessment of the resistance patterns associated with long-term tenofovir-based ART in a programmatic setting where virological monitoring is yet to become part of routine care. Methods: We studied subjects who, after a median of 4.2 years of ART, replaced zidovudine or stavudine with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate while continuing lamivudine and an NNRTI. Using deep sequencing, resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were detected in stored samples collected at tenofovir introduction (T0) and after a median of 4.0 years (T1). Results: At T0, 19/87 (21.8%) subjects showed a detectable viral load and 8/87 (9.2%) had one or more major NNRTI RAMs, whereas 82/87 (94.3%) retained full tenofovir susceptibility. At T1, 79/87 (90.8%) subjects remained on NNRTI-based ART, 5/87 (5.7%) had introduced lopinavir/ritonavir due to immunological failure, and 3/87 (3.4%) had interrupted ART. Whilst 68/87 (78.2%) subjects maintained or achieved virological suppression between T0 and T1, a detectable viral load with NNRTI RAMs at T0 predicted lack of virological suppression at T1. Each treatment interruption, usually reflecting unavailability of the dispensary, doubled the risk of T1 viraemia. Tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz selected for K65R, K70E/T, L74I/V and Y115F, alongside M184V and multiple NNRTI RAMs; this resistance profile was accompanied by high viral loads and low CD4 cell counts. Conclusions: Viraemia on tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz led to complex resistance patterns with implications for continued drug activity and risk of onward transmission
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