498 research outputs found

    The 14-3-3 (YWHA) Proteins in Mammalian Reproduction

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    The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation protein) is an acidic and homologous protein family involved in regulation of key biological events including cell cycle, signal transduction and development. They are highly conserved and are expressed ubiquitously across a wide variety of species ranging from plants to animals. Seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist in mammals, which are encoded by separate genes, have tissue-specific, developmental stage-specific as well as isoform-specific presence and consequences. It is known that these proteins play significant roles in mitosis of mammalian cells and meiosis of amphibians. However, their effects on development and functioning of mammalian gonads and germ cells are not entirely delineated. This paper, for the first time, provides a comprehensive review of the comparative expression, localization/distribution, binding interactions, and importance of the 14-3-3 proteins in gametogenesis and reproduction among multiple female and male mammalian species. Thorough understanding of these proteins in oogenesis and spermatogenesis would help elucidate the physiological basis of fertility in mammals, including humans

    Social Distancing, Lockdown Obligatory, and Response Satisfaction During COVID-19 Pandemic: Perception of Nigerian Social Media Users

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    Background: Pandemics are challenging for clinical and public health agencies and policymakers because of the scientific and medical uncertainty that accompanies novel viruses like COVID-19 makes an increase of morbidity and mortality prominent. Consequently, there is a need to evaluate the public perception of social distancing, lockdown obligatory, and response satisfactory during the pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional survey used an anonymous online google based questionnaire to collect data from respondents via social media platforms. The online survey was conducted among social media users from 1st to 30th April 2020. A snowball sampling technique was employed to recruit respondents for the survey. A total of 1,131 respondents responded across the country. Results: Nine out of every ten respondents believed that social distancing is an effective measure to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Also, 8 out of every ten respondents agreed with the lockdown measures. However, just 36.8% think their government is doing enough to stop the outbreak, and only 25% of the respondents were satisfied with the country’s response to the worldwide epidemic. The age of respondents was found to be significantly associated with satisfaction with emergency response during pandemics. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Nigerian public accepted social distancing as an effective way of curbing the spread of COVID-19 and general acceptance on lockdown obligatory; however, more than half of respondents expressed non-satisfactory with government and other agencies responses during the pandemics

    An Overview on the Public Relations Strategic Management in Public Sector Organizations

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    Public relations are an important aspect that must be considered by public sector organizations to achieve its objectives. Strategic management is a valuable tool to aid public sector organizations in developing its public communication programs regarding the public relations. This paper attempts to explore the basic concepts that is important regarding the issue through literature review of several previous studies on public relations strategic management in public sector organizations. From these literature, this paper concludes that in order to achieve its public relations objectives, public sector organizations will have to: identify the groups that make up the public, understand the positioning of the organizations as well as the public groups; choose the best public relations strategy; and formulate the tailored messages to be communicated to each public groups according to the strategy chosen by the organization

    Biological Control of Anthracnose Disease of Tomato Using Ethanolic Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Nicotiana Tabacum

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    Tomato is a commercially important vegetable throughout the whole world and its availability all the year is grossly affected by anthracnose disease, hence, the need for an effective bio-control that is affordable and user friendly. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Tabacum nicotianaon the mycelium growth of fungi associated with anthracnose disease of tomato. Tomatoes that showed black circular lesions with concentric ring and black spores were bought from Aleshinloye market in Ibadan; samples (3×3mm) from the sterilized margin of the lesion were inoculated on potato dextrose agar and observed for mycelium growth for five days. The obtained cultures were then sub cultured to obtain pure cultures which were introduced into healthy tomato fruits to confirm koch’s postulate. The in-vitro antifungal effects of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum on isolated fungus causing anthracnose disease of tomato was investigated using agar dilution method. Based on cultural and microscopic characteristics of conidia, Colletotrichum coccodewas identified as organism causing anthracnose disease of tomato. The antifungal effect of the two ethanol plant extracts revealed that Azadirachta indica had the highest inhibitory effect of (45.00cm) at 100mg/ml and the least effect of (38.00cm) at 50mg/ml. Nicotiana tobacum equally had its highest inhibitory effect of (58.00cm) at 100mg/ml and lowest effect of (40.57cm) at 50mg/ml. This result also showed that Nicotiana tobacum had the highest inhibitory effect on Colletotrichum coccode than Azadirachta indica. Conclusively, the use of Tobacco and Neem plant extracts has antifungal activity against Colletotrichum which is responsible for Anthracnose disease of tomato. The plant could be a veritable and cheaper substitute for conventional drugs since the plant is easily obtainable and the extract can easily be made via a simple process of maceration or infusion

    Self-control and Mental Health? Exploring Perceptions of Control from the Experiences of Black and Minority Communities

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    Although the disparities in mental health outcomes for ethnic minorities are well-documented, very little is known regarding service user perspectives and experiences from locus of control ambit.  The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of African and Caribbean service users, from the context of their Locus of Control (LOC). Informed by an Interpretivist approach, this study was conducted via in-depth interviews (N=10) and two focus groups (N=14). Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit mental health service users from a South London Borough to participate in the study. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule and a focus group guide. Data analysis was informed by an Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis approach in the examination of the LOC profiles and service user perspectives. The study found that the drivers of LOC for the respondents were: perceived racism; perceived loss of control due to challenges pertaining to accessing employment, work stressors, lack of career advancement, socio-economic challenges; discrimination at work, identity challenges and entry to and exit pathways from mental health services, all of which promotes LOC externality. The findings suggest that mental health services need to take an active interest in factors that constitute externality in the LOC in assessment of the needs of A & C groups in clinical and community interventions. A holistic approach to psycho-social and socio-cultural issues are highly needed to improve the mental health outcomes for members of African and Caribbean communities with experience of mental health challenges

    Improving Mental Health Outcomes for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities: A Quantitative Study into Perception of Control

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    Background: Although the disparities in mental health outcomes for ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom are well-documented, little is known about the role perception of control plays in the experiences of service users and its role in perpetuating or improving health inequalities. This quantitative methods study investigated the perspectives of the members of these communities from the Locus of Control domain. Methods: A small-scale survey (N=50), applied a purposive sampling method to recruit mental health service users of African and Caribbean origin from a South London Borough to complete two structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using SPSS in the examination of the scores, various demographic variables, linear relationships, and other reliability tests. Results: Key findings indicate a moderate to high externality in LOC scores for participants, in general and mental health milieus, with some remarkable differences in ethnicity, gender, and age.  Conclusion: The results present some implications and opportunities for mental health services, policy, and professionals in engaging with clients from this target group towards addressing the inequality of outcomes

    Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Waste Tea Leaves

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    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has gained momentum since the demand to synthesize nanoparticles in an eco-friendly way has increased significantly. Here we report, economic and cost-effective biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using waste of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The aim of the study was to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles and to assess its potential applications such as antibacterial activity, plant growth induction and dye degradation. Standardization studies were done using UV- Spectroscopy to determine the optimum synthesis condition for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The optimum conditions were found to be pH 6.0, ambient temperature condition and 5mM AgNO3 concentration. Characterization studies using UV-Visible Spectroscopy, TEM and AFM analysis show nanoscale range of the particles. The silver nanoparticles showed maximum antibacterial activity against K. pneumonia followed by E. coli and minimum activity against C. diptheriae. The nanoparticles showed significant effect on the growth of Vigna radiata seeds at 50% concentration of nanoparticles. The particles immobilized on cotton cloth showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive organisms. Dye degradation studies showed that the nanoparticles are able to degrade phenol red and blue textile dye effectively

    Nanocomposite Obtained in the Plasma of a Pulsed High Voltage Discharge Using Nickel Electrodes and PTFE

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    In the plasma of pulsed high-voltage discharge, initiated between nickel electrodes in air, when the fluoroplastic is placed in the discharge gap, powder nanocomposite material has been synthesized. The nanocomposite contains NiF2 nanoparticles less than 5 nm in size, dispersed in a matrix consisting of carbon and fluorocarbon substances. The carbonaceous substance contains nanoscale disordered graphite-like regions. The fluorocarbon component of the composite contains fragments of PTFE molecules and fluorocarbon molecular fragments that differ in structure from PTFE molecule’s structure. After annealing the composite in air at 773 K, the initial nanocomposite is transformed into a nanocomposite containing nanosized PTFE and nanoparticles of NiF2 less than 5 nm in size, scattered in a matrix composed of nanographite and low-layer nanosized graphene, after aneling at 1173 K into a material containing NiO nanoparticles less than 10 nm in size.  After annealing of the initial nanocomposite in argon atmosphere at 1073 K, the obtained nanocomposite contains Ni nanoparticles with sizes less than 5 nm and carbon and fluorocarbon components. The magnetic susceptibility of the unannealed nanocomposite is investigated. A transition to the antiferromagnetic phase at 73 K was detected. At T = 4K, exchange bias interaction of the AFM / FM type takes place in the composite. There is divergence of the FC and ZFC curves, which can be explained by the presence of a superparamagnetic phase or a spin glass phase in the sample. The field dependences of the magnetic susceptibility measured at T = 300 K show sharp changes that occur at certain values of the magnetic field. Elucidation of the nature of these changes requires additional research

    Analytical Investigation of the Vibrational and Dynamic Response of Nano-Composite Cylindrical Shell Under Thermal Shock and Mild Heat Field by DQM Method

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    In this paper, the vibrations and dynamic response of an orthotropic thin-walled composite cylindrical shell with epoxy graphite layers reinforced with carbon nanotubes under heat shock and heat field loading are investigated. the carbon nanotubes were uniformly distributed along the thickness of the composite layer. The problem is that at first there is a temperature change due to the thermal field in the cylinder and the cylinder is coincident with the thermal field, then the surface temperature of the cylinder rises abruptly. Partial derivative equations of motion are coupled to heat equations. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is used to solve the equations. In this study, the effects of length, temperature, thickness and radius parameters on the natural frequencies and mid-layer displacement are investigated. The results show that increasing the outside temperature reduces the natural frequency and increases the displacement of the system. Radial displacement results were also compared with previous studies and were found to be in good agreement with previous literature. Increasing the percentage of carbon nanotubes also increased the natural frequency of the system and decreased the mobility of the middle layer

    Ground-state Shallow-donor Binding Energy in (In,Ga)N/GaN Double QWs Under Temperature, Size, and the Impurity Position Effects

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    In this paper, we study the hydrogen-like donor-impurity binding energy of the ground-state change as a function of the well width under the effect of temperature, size, and impurity position. Within the framework of the effective mass approximation, the Schrodinger-Poisson equation has been solved taken account an on-center hydrogen-like impurity in double QWs with rectangular finite confinement potential profile for 10% of indium concentration in the (well region). The eigenvalues and their correspondent eigenvectors have been obtained by the fined element method (FEM). The obtained results are in good agreement with the literature and show that the temperature, size, and the impurity position have a significant impact on the binding energy of a hydrogen-like impurity in symmetric double coupled quantum wells based on non-polar wurtzite (In,Ga) N/GaN core/Shell