10,682 research outputs found

    Overexpression of the Replicative Helicase in Escherichia coli Inhibits Replication Initiation and Replication Fork Reloading

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    Replicative helicases play central roles in chromosome duplication and their assembly onto DNA is regulated via initiators and helicase loader proteins. The Escherichia coli replicative helicase DnaB and the helicase loader DnaC form a DnaB6-DnaC6 complex that is required for loading DnaB onto single-stranded DNA. Overexpression of dnaC inhibits replication by promoting continual rebinding of DnaC to DnaB and consequent prevention of helicase translocation. Here we show that overexpression of dnaB also inhibits growth and chromosome duplication. This inhibition is countered by co-overexpression of wild-type DnaC but not of a DnaC mutant that cannot interact with DnaB, indicating that a reduction in DnaB6-DnaC6 concentration is responsible for the phenotypes associated with elevated DnaB concentration. Partial defects in the oriC-specific initiator DnaA and in PriA-specific initiation away from oriC during replication repair sensitise cells to dnaB overexpression. Absence of the accessory replicative helicase Rep, resulting in increased replication blockage and thus increased reinitiation away from oriC, also exacerbates DnaB-induced defects. These findings indicate that elevated levels of helicase perturb replication initiation not only at origins of replication but also during fork repair at other sites on the chromosome. Thus, imbalances in levels of the replicative helicase and helicase loader can inhibit replication both via inhibition of DnaB6-DnaC6 complex formation with excess DnaB, as shown here, and promotion of formation of DnaB6-DnaC6 complexes with excess DnaC [Allen GC, Jr., Kornberg A. Fine balance in the regulation of DnaB helicase by DnaC protein in replication in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 1991;266:22096-22101; Skarstad K, Wold S. The speed of the Escherichia coli fork in vivo depends on the DnaB:DnaC ratio. Mol. Microbiol. 1995;17:825-831]. Thus, there are two mechanisms by which an imbalance in the replicative helicase and its associated loader protein can inhibit genome duplication

    Homologous Recombination: To Fork and Beyond

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    Accurate completion of genome duplication is threatened by multiple factors that hamper the advance and stability of the replication forks. Cells need to tolerate many of these blocking lesions to timely complete DNA replication, postponing their repair for later. This process of lesion bypass during DNA damage tolerance can lead to the accumulation of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) fragments behind the fork, which have to be filled in before chromosome segregation. Homologous recombination plays essential roles both at and behind the fork, through fork protection/lesion bypass and post-replicative ssDNA filling processes, respectively. I review here our current knowledge about the recombination mechanisms that operate at and behind the fork in eukaryotes, and how these mechanisms are controlled to prevent unscheduled and toxic recombination intermediates. A unifying model to integrate these mechanisms in a dynamic, replication fork-associated process is proposed from yeast results.España Gobierno (BFU2015-63698-P

    Primase-polymerases are a functionally diverse superfamily of replication and repair enzymes

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    Until relatively recently, DNA primases were viewed simply as a class of proteins that synthesize short RNA primers requisite for the initiation of DNA replication. However, recent studies have shown that this perception of the limited activities associated with these diverse enzymes can no longer be justified. Numerous examples can now be cited demonstrating how the term 'DNA primase' only describes a very narrow subset of these nucleotidyltransferases, with the vast majority fulfilling multifunctional roles from DNA replication to damage tolerance and repair. This article focuses on the archaeo-eukaryotic primase (AEP) superfamily, drawing on recently characterized examples from all domains of life to highlight the functionally diverse pathways in which these enzymes are employed. The broad origins, functionalities and enzymatic capabilities of AEPs emphasizes their previous functional misannotation and supports the necessity for a reclassification of these enzymes under a category called primase-polymerases within the wider functional grouping of polymerases. Importantly, the repositioning of AEPs in this way better recognizes their broader roles in DNA metabolism and encourages the discovery of additional functions for these enzymes, aside from those highlighted here

    Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication

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    © 2015, Chang et al.To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant ‘Cdc6-E224Q’ promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo

    “Breaking up is hard to do”: the formation and resolution of sister chromatid intertwines

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    The absolute necessity to resolve every intertwine between the two strands of the DNA double helix provides a massive challenge to the cellular processes that duplicate and segregate chromosomes. Although the overwhelming majority of intertwines between the parental DNA strands are resolved during DNA replication, there are numerous chromosomal contexts where some intertwining is maintained into mitosis. These mitotic sister chromatid intertwines (SCIs) can be found as; short regions of unreplicated DNA, fully replicated and intertwined sister chromatids—commonly referred to as DNA catenation—and as sister chromatid linkages generated by homologous recombination-associated processes. Several overlapping mechanisms, including intra-chromosomal compaction, topoisomerase action and Holliday junction resolvases, ensure that all SCIs are removed before they can prevent normal chromosome segregation. Here, I discuss why some DNA intertwines persist into mitosis and review our current knowledge of the SCI resolution mechanisms that are employed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including how deregulating SCI formation during DNA replication or disrupting the resolution processes may contribute to aneuploidy in cancer

    Dynamic look at DNA unwinding by a replicative helicase

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    A prerequisite for DNA replication is the unwinding of duplex DNA catalyzed by a replicative hexameric helicase. Despite a growing body of research, key elements of helicase mechanism remain under substantial debate. In particular, the number of DNA strands encircled by the helicase ring during unwinding and the ring orientation at the replication fork completely contrast in contemporary mechanistic models. Here we use single-molecule and ensemble assays to address these questions for the papillomavirus E1 helicase. We find that E1 unwinds DNA with a strand-exclusion mechanism, with the N-terminal side of the helicase ring facing the replication fork. We show that E1 generates strikingly heterogeneous unwinding patterns stemming from varying degrees of repetitive movements, which is modulated by the DNA-binding domain. Together, our studies reveal previously unrecognized dynamic facets of replicative helicase unwinding mechanisms

    Switch on the engine: how the eukaryotic replicative helicase MCM2–7 becomes activated

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    © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.A crucial step during eukaryotic initiation of DNA replication is the correct loading and activation of the replicative DNA helicase, which ensures that each replication origin fires only once. Unregulated DNA helicase loading and activation, as it occurs in cancer, can cause severe DNA damage and genomic instability. The essential mini-chromosome maintenance proteins 2–7 (MCM2–7) represent the core of the eukaryotic replicative helicase that is loaded at DNA replication origins during G1-phase of the cell cycle. The MCM2–7 helicase activity, however, is only triggered during S-phase once the holo-helicase Cdc45-MCM2–7-GINS (CMG) has been formed. A large number of factors and several kinases interact and contribute to CMG formation and helicase activation, though the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Crucially, upon DNA damage, this reaction is temporarily halted to ensure genome integrity. Here, we review the current understanding of helicase activation; we focus on protein interactions during CMG formation, discuss structural changes during helicase activation, and outline similarities and differences of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic helicase activation process

    Plant DNA polymerases

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    Maintenance of genome integrity is a key process in all organisms. DNA polymerases (Pols) are central players in this process as they are in charge of the faithful reproduction of the genetic information, as well as of DNA repair. Interestingly, all eukaryotes possess a large repertoire of polymerases. Three protein complexes, DNA Pol α, δ, and ε, are in charge of nuclear DNA replication. These enzymes have the fidelity and processivity required to replicate long DNA sequences, but DNA lesions can block their progression. Consequently, eukaryotic genomes also encode a variable number of specialized polymerases (between five and 16 depending on the organism) that are involved in the replication of damaged DNA, DNA repair, and organellar DNA replication. This diversity of enzymes likely stems from their ability to bypass specific types of lesions. In the past 10–15 years, our knowledge regarding plant DNA polymerases dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss these recent findings and compare acquired knowledge in plants to data obtained in other eukaryotes. We also discuss the emerging links between genome and epigenome replication

    Mini-chromosome maintenance complexes form a filament to remodel DNA structure and topology.

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    Deregulation of mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins is associated with genomic instability and cancer. MCM complexes are recruited to replication origins for genome duplication. Paradoxically, MCM proteins are in excess than the number of origins and are associated with chromatin regions away from the origins during G1 and S phases. Here, we report an unusually wide left-handed filament structure for an archaeal MCM, as determined by X-ray and electron microscopy. The crystal structure reveals that an α-helix bundle formed between two neighboring subunits plays a critical role in filament formation. The filament has a remarkably strong electro-positive surface spiraling along the inner filament channel for DNA binding. We show that this MCM filament binding to DNA causes dramatic DNA topology change. This newly identified function of MCM to change DNA topology may imply a wider functional role for MCM in DNA metabolisms beyond helicase function. Finally, using yeast genetics, we show that the inter-subunit interactions, important for MCM filament formation, play a role for cell growth and survival
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