43 research outputs found

    Joint Bodies and the Regularization of Strategic Interaction: A Comparison of the European Union's Strategic Partnerships with Japan and India

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    In recent years, the European Union’s strategic partnerships have undergone a new wave of institutionalization. Relations with both India and Japan are a case in point: after a decade or more of under-institutionalized and situational interaction generally framed by political declarations, a more contractual model of bilateral relations has emerged and with it the proliferation of joint bodies. Such joint bodies and the overall regularization of bilateral contacts play an important but largely overlooked role in sustaining the strategic partnership. This article assesses the rationale and performance of joint institutional frameworks devised for the EU–Japan and EU–India strategic partnerships. Informed by an original conceptual approach, the article assesses the regularization and intensification of strategic interaction in these two partnerships

    Specyfikacja i operacjonalizacja modelu: podstawowe korelaty partnerstw strategicznych

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    This chapter advances a testable analytical model of strategic partnerships in IR. The developed regression model of strategic partnerships between states and international organizations is built around a set of two dependent variables (cooperation willingness; cooperation sustainability), four independent variables (strategic goals convergence; strategic roles convergence; unique bonds; regularized bilateral strategic interactionism) as well as a single intervening variable (trust). The model- -underlying theory suggests that strategic partnerships are a product of the intertwined cooperation willingness and cooperation sustainability factors, with trust intervening as a salient factor in the process of cooperation. This means that the increase in cooperation willingness and cooperation sustainability will result in the increase of strategic partnership substantiality. This chapter theoretically contextualizes, conceptualizes and operationalizes the main seven variables, as well as develops a set of applicable qualitative and quantitative indicators and measures

    Man, state, and war in space: neorealism and Russia’s counterbalancing strategy against the United States in outer space security politics

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    This paper aspires to contribute to the limited field of neorealist scholarship on security affairs in outer space by conducting a case study of the Russian Federation’s security policy in the celestial sphere. In recent years, Russia has emerged as one of the key players in the international politics of outer space. However, Russia’s strategy of developing its space defense assets, while in parallel launching diplomatic initiatives in international organizations calling for the avoidance of an arms race in outer space, is ambiguous. I argue that the neorealist paradigm elucidates this case by highlighting the intensifying balancing trajectories of contemporary outer space security affairs. In a first step, hypotheses on states’ behavior in the field of outer space armament and arms control are derived from the body of neorealist scholarship on terrestrial international politics. This is followed by hypothesis testing against the case of Russia’s space security politics. It is contended that Russia is engaging in a predominantly competitive endeavor vis-à-vis the United States by utilizing a hybrid approach of internal and external balancing, as well as a pragmatic instrumentalization of international institutions to leverage its own economically disadvantaged position in outer space

    Ugruntowanie współpracy strategicznej: wyjątkowe powiązania i regularyzowany bilateralny strategiczny interakcjonizm

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    This chapter conceptualizes and operationalizes an important element of strategic partnership model, that is strategic cooperation sustainability. It disentangles the notion through the analysis of the multiple dimensions such as partners’ commitment to their bilateralism, their willingness to maintain and develop the level of cooperation as well as the very performative dimension of their strategic interactions (joints activities). The chapter also advances two hypotheses in which the presence of (positive) unique bonds and that of regular and intensive bilateral interactions at various levels are posited to influence the scope of strategic cooperation sustainability. a number of aspects are analyzed thereby – starting from the sharedness of values and developed personal diplomacy to the forms and practices of regularization and intensification of bilateral interaction, including within the established joint bodies, through standardized meetings at distinct levels (expert, parliamentary, low to high executive levels) and informal modes of bilateral interactions

    Identity, Effectiveness, and Newness in Transjudicialism\u27s Coming of Age

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    This Article attempts to expose and problematize the ideological connections and normative commitments between these theoretical explanations of effectiveness and the pragmatic process-oriented proposals made in the 1990s when the United Nations was searching for ways to renew the discipline of international human rights law while avoiding the dual risks of politicization and Third World normative fragmentation. The liberal theory of effective supranational adjudication was the culmination of decade-long efforts by American liberal internationalists to provide a theoretical basis for and programmatic proposals towards achieving a more effective international human rights regime. Their theory aims at structuring the interface between the universal and regional human rights systems through a reconfigured account of transjudicialism. It can be taken to exemplify a particular liberal legal sensibility shared with post-war mainstream human rights lawyers the author calls transnationalism-legal-process-antiformalism (TLPAF). TLPAF regards transnational governance through disaggregated processes of cooperation and dialogue in information exchange as instrumental to the development and effectiveness of supranational institutions. Formalist legal structures are, accordingly, rebuffed and displaced by the specification and enforcement of substantive human rights norms through informal, teleological procedural mechanisms

    Państwa, organizacje międzynarodowe i partnerstwa strategiczne, 693 s.

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    W postzimowojennych stosunkach międzynarodowych partnerstwa strategiczne przypominają wyłaniającą się, odrębną kategorię analityczną i polityczną, której rosnące wykorzystanie jako narzędzia polityki zagranicznej, widoczne zarówno w dyskursie politycznym, jak i akademickim, skutkuje niezaprzeczalnym znaczeniem dla zrozumienia dynamiki współczesnej współpracy strategicznej między państwami a organizacjami międzynarodowymi. Jednocześnie idea partnerstw strategicznych pozostała niedostatecznie steoretyzowana i często przysłonięta przez teorię sojuszu. Odnosząc się do tej wyraźnej luki w literaturze IR / FPA, niniejsza książka przedstawia oryginalne przedsięwzięcie mające na celu teoretyczne i empiryczne przetestowanie analitycznego modelu partnerstw strategicznych jako nowej formy ugruntowanej współpracy międzynarodowej w czasie globalnej współzależności i turbulencji. Główne zalety książki: • jest pionierskim oraz wszechstronnym badaniem teorii i polityki „partnerstw strategicznych”; • analizie treści zostało poddanych ponad 250 manifestów polityki zagranicznej, stąd znaczna ilość pierwotnych danych została pozyskana z tekstów - przede wszystkim te dotyczące celów strategicznych aktorów oraz wyrazistych zagadnień polityki zagranicznej; • uzyskany obszerny zbiór innych pierwotnych danych jakościowych i ilościowych gromadzonych i generowanych w toku badań może być również przydatny do dalszych studiów IR / FPA, które koncentrują się na roli międzynarodowej, władzy, znaczeniu strategicznym, interakcjach w polityce zagranicznej (spotkaniach) itp. • zastosowane nowoczesne podejście metodologiczne łączy nowatorską, wspomaganą komputerowo jakościową analizę treści (Atlas.ti) i analizę ilościową (SPSS) z klasycznymi metodami badawczymi w ramach paradygmatu metod mieszanych; • książka oferuje prawdziwie międzynarodowe perspektywy, ponieważ przeanalizowano czternaście reprezentatywnych studiów przypadku partnerstw strategicznych z czterech regionów świata; • książka ta oferuje wgląd w „przemysł” partnerstw strategicznych zarówno głównych, jak i mniejszych podmiotów międzynarodowych (od USA, Chin i Rosji po Ukrainę i Gruzję, by wymienić tylko kilka), a także cztery wpływowe organizacje międzynarodowe i ponadnarodowe (UE, NATO, ASEAN i Wspólnota Andyjska)

    Examining the sociocultural impacts of consanguinity and implications for healthcare : a case study of Pakistanis in Luton

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    A Thesis submitted to the University of Bedfordshire, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of PhilosophyThis thesis aims to understand the sociocultural aspects of the practice of consanguinity and the implications for healthcare. Consanguinity refers to intra-familial marriage and is commonly used to refer to cousin marriage. While consanguinity remains a global phenomenon, in the recent past, it has mostly been associated with non-Western populations, and has become a taboo in Western culture. Consanguinity is linked with negative health outcomes, mostly due to genetic disorders, although the extent of this link remains debatable. In the UK, consanguinity is linked mostly with the Pakistani community, which also have an overrepresentation of children with genetic disorders. In Luton, local health reports have suggested that consanguinity in the large Pakistani community plays a role in increased infant deaths. This makes Luton and the local Pakistani community, ideally placed for understanding the practice of consanguinity and the implications for healthcare. This thesis is conceptually grounded within a constructionist approach to understanding consanguinity with a critical analysis based on theories of discourse and power and knowledge. A qualitative research design was employed using an instrumental case study approach which focused on understanding consanguinity through Luton’s Pakistani community. Three main sample groups were selected, members of the Pakistani community who are not married to their cousins and are defined as lay members in this research, members of the Pakistani community in consanguineous marriages, and local service providers (primary and secondary care)

    Civil society and international governance: the role of non-state actors in the EU, Africa, Asia and Middle East

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    Structures and processes occurring within and between states are no longer the only – or even the most important - determinants of those political, economic and social developments and dynamics that shape the modern world. Many issues, including the environment, health, crime, drugs, migration and terrorism, can no longer be contained within national boundaries. As a result, it is not always possible to identify the loci for authority and legitimacy, and the role of governments has been called into question. \ud \ud Civil Society anf International Governance critically analyses the increasing impact of nongovernmental organisations and civil society on global and regional governance. Written from the standpoint of advocates of civil society and addressing the role of civil society in relation to the UN, the IMF, the G8 and the WTO, this volume assess the role of various non-state actors from three perspectives: theoretical aspects, civil society interaction with the European Union and civil society and regional governance outside Europe, specifically Africa, East Asia and the Middle East. It demonstrates that civil society’s role has been more complex than one defined in terms, essentially, of resistance and includes actual participation in governance as well as multi-facetted contributions to legitimising and democratising global and regional governance

    Where the state is not strong enough : what can army reconstruction tell us about change necessary to the OECD DAC SSR principles?

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    © Cranfield University, 2011Post-conflict army reconstruction is an important element of security sector reform (SSR), tracing its origins to at least 1980, before the SSR concept itself was formulated. Reconstruction of security forces is an important element in wider postconflict reconstruction, and for political reasons, an army has almost always deemed necessary. Since 1998, SSR itself has been increasingly conceptualized, with principles for SSR having been laid down by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) since 2004. Yet SSR faces a host of philosophical and practical problems, perhaps the greatest being the gap between theory and practice (Chanaa's 'conceptual-contextual divide'). To make SSR efforts more successful, the underlying principles need to be revised and amended. Post-conflict army reconstruction experience since 1980, and associated academic study, military doctrine, and work by international organizations (particularly the OECD) can provide a basis for such revision. This thesis aims to survey post-conflict army reconstruction activities since 1980, draw overall lessons from that review and field study in Liberia, and propose amendments to the SSR principles on that basis
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