13,997 research outputs found

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨于1585年出版的 《中华大帝国史》第一次以西班牙语和葡萄 牙语全面整理了有关中国的记述。该书正面 记录了中国明朝司法制度,并探讨了这些司 法制度与当代西班牙和墨西哥司法制度之间 的巨大差别。其中包括对法律和公共框架的 曲解,公众对证人的质疑,多层面不同形式 的惩罚,经济上的惩罚以及死刑的场景。作 者在书中强调通过奖励和惩罚双重方式对各 级官员、下属大臣进行严格控制,以保证对 各级官员的选拔任用标准,这一点也曾在蒙 田对明代官员的评价中得到过体现。此外, 胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨还十分崇敬守护印 第安人的拉斯卡萨斯,他决定从他的文献中 删掉那些为对抗中国而向强硬派提供的所谓 正当权利的论辩,如洛阿尔卡所目睹的邪恶 和杜拉埃尼亚所描述的死刑等。 González de Mendoza’s book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en scène of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, González de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Dueñas

    Analysis of reliable deployment of TDOA local positioning architectures

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    .Local Positioning Systems (LPS) are supposing an attractive research topic over the last few years. LPS are ad-hoc deployments of wireless sensor networks for particularly adapt to the environment characteristics in harsh environments. Among LPS, those based on temporal measurements stand out for their trade-off among accuracy, robustness and costs. But, regardless the LPS architecture considered, an optimization of the sensor distribution is required for achieving competitive results. Recent studies have shown that under optimized node distributions, time-based LPS cumulate the bigger error bounds due to synchronization errors. Consequently, asynchronous architectures such as Asynchronous Time Difference of Arrival (A-TDOA) have been recently proposed. However, the A-TDOA architecture supposes the concentration of the time measurement in a single clock of a coordinator sensor making this architecture less versatile. In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for overcoming the drawbacks of the A-TDOA architecture in nominal and failure conditions with regards to the synchronous TDOA. Results show that this optimization strategy allows the reduction of the uncertainties in the target location by 79% and 89.5% and the enhancement of the convergence properties by 86% and 33% of the A-TDOA architecture with regards to the TDOA synchronous architecture in two different application scenarios. In addition, maximum convergence points are more easily found in the A-TDOA in both configurations concluding the benefits of this architecture in LPS high-demanded applicationS

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

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    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Strung pieces: on the aesthetics of television fiction series

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    As layered and long works, television fiction series have aesthetic properties that are built over time, bit by bit. This thesis develops a group of concepts that enable the study of these properties, It argues that a series is made of strung pieces, a system of related elements. The text begins by considering this sequential form within the fields of film and television. This opening chapter defines the object and methodology of research, arguing for a non-essentialist distinction between cinema and television and against the adequacy of textual and contextual analyses as approaches to the aesthetics of these shows. It proposes instead that these programmes should be described as televisual works that can be scrutinised through aesthetic analysis. The next chapters propose a sequence of interrelated concepts. The second chapter contends that series are composed of building blocks that can be either units into which series are divided or motifs that unify series and are dispersed across their pans. These blocks are patterned according to four kinds of relations or principles of composition. Repetition and variation are treated in tandem in the third chapter because of their close connection, given that variation emerges from established repetition. Exception and progression are also discussed together in the fourth chapter since they both require a long view of these serial works. The former, in order to be recognised as a deviation from the patterns of repetition and variation. The latter, In order to be understood in Its many dimensions as the series advances. Each of these concepts is further detailed with additional distinctions between types of units, motifs, repetitions, variations, and exceptions, using illustrative examples from numerous shows. In contrast, the section on progression uses a single series as case study, Carnivàle (2003-05), because this is the overarching principle that encompasses all the others. The conclusion considers the findings of the research and suggests avenues for their application

    Self-help/mutual aid groups in mental health : ideology, helping mechanisms and empowerment

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    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, self-help/mutual aid groups for mental health issues started to emerge in growing numbers, mainly in Western societies, offering and/or advocating for alternative non-traditional forms of support, and attracted the attention of many researchers and clinicians for their unique characteristics. Among the subjects of interest are typologies of groups, helping mechanisms and benefits from participation. However, there is lack of systematic research in the area and existing studies have been largely confined to the therapeutic value of these groups instead of acknowledging their socio-political meaning and subsequent psychosocial benefits for their members like personal empowerment. The present study was conducted during the transitional years from a Conservative to a newly elected Labour Government (1996 -1998), with subsequent policy shifts taking place in the welfare sector. The purpose of the study was to explore the potential of self-help groups as part of a broader new social movement, the service user movement, focussing on the English scene. It addressed this issue examining the relevance of a group typology based on political ideology and focus of change. To test the validity of this classification for members, a set of individual characteristics and group mechanisms as well as their change through time were examined. The sample consisted of fourteen mental health selfhelp/mutual aid groups from London and South East England, with a variety of structural and organisational features. The methodology used was a combination of both quantitative (self-completion questionnaires) and qualitative techniques (analysis of written material, participant observation and interviews). Measurements were repeated after a one-year interval (Time 1N=67, Time 2 N=56). Findings showed that, indeed, political ideology of self-help/mutual aid groups provided the basis of a meaningful typology and constitutes a comprehensive way of categorising them. Group ideology was related to specific helping mechanisms and aspects of personal empowerment. Specifically, conservative and combined group members reported more expressive group processes like sharing of feelings and self-disclosure, while radical group members were more empowered and optimistic. Group identification was also associated with specific helping activities and aspects of empowerment in the three group categories. The psychosocial character of group types and the beneficial outcomes for members remained stable through time. In general, prolonged participation was reflected in greater member identification with the group and resulted in improved mental wellbeing, increased social support, companionship and optimism for the future

    The empty space in abstract photography: a psychoanalytical perspective

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    The aim of the research that this thesis is based on is to explore the theoretical problems raised by the concept of photographic abstraction. These consist in the tension between the two aspects of the photographic sign, the indexical and iconic, and are examined in the context of the particular exploration of the empty space in abstract photography which I have pursued through my practice. The investigation draws mainly upon the psychoanalytic theory of transitional phenomena as proposed by Winnicott, as well as other art theories (Deleuze & Guattari, Ehrenzweig, Fer, Fuller, Greenberg, Joselit, Kuspit, Leider, Worringer) of abstraction. It explores the relationship of the abstract photographic image to notions of exteriority and interiority as these relate to the transition from the unconscious to conscious reality. The development of this research suggests the psychoanalytical concept of potential space as a contribution to an aesthetic model of abstraction. This concept is employed as a methodological tool in the development of the practical work and creates a framework for its interpretation. The concept of potential space is based on Winnicott's ideas around "playing with the real" in an intermediate area of experience between the internal and external reality, where creativity originates as a zone of fictive play that facilitates the subject's journey from "what is subjectively conceived of' to "what is objectively perceived. " The outcome of this investigation constitutes the production of a series of photographs describing an empty abstract space, one that is invested with a psychic dimension that produces the effect of ambiguity between its representational and abstract readings. It provides a redefinition of abstraction in a space of tension between the iconic and indexical aspects of the sign and opens up the space of abstraction in photography as one in which the relationship between inner and outer reality can be performed and can become a space of action and intervention

    Pontus in Antiquity: aspects of identity

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    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of the interaction between the successive inhabitants of Pontus in antiquity, indigenous Anatolians, Greeks, Persians and Romans. Limited archaeological evidence cannot determine the precise extent of interaction, although the available information substantiates the notion of a slow, but steady amalgamation. Initially, the intermingling was based on mutual trading links. Although the Hellenic cultural element tended to surface, Eastern factors remained visible. The Mithridatic dynasty was established around the vicinity of Pontus, creating the 'Kingdom of Pontus' which reached its height under Mithridates VI. His administrative and military policy appears to have placed the foundations for the later, Roman corresponding structures. His policies-propaganda reflected the GraecoEastern image of a king, which appealed to the Greek and Persian-Eastern inhabitants of his kingdom, Asia Minor and, to a lesser extent, mainland Greece. This GraecoEastern image might have nourished the concept of a shared history among the inhabitants of Pontus. Their interactions appear to have given rise to an unnamed, local culture, which was enriched with the relevant Roman practices. Around the third century A.D., the Roman administrative patterns might have established an externally defined appellation. During Roman times, Christianity started to be established in Pontus. Although it was not yet a socio-political factor, its non-racial nature prevailed in later centuries. The influence of the Roman-Christian elements can still be observed in the modern Ponti an identity. In antiquity, (lack of) evidence indicates that no group defined themselves as 'Pontics' or 'Pontians' and an internally defined Pontic identity is unlikely to have existed. However, people associated themselves with the geographical area of Pont us, cultural and religious concepts were frequently amalgamated, while the notion of a common descent and a shared history might have been unconsciously fostered. These factors can assist in the understanding of the 'Pontians' today

    La Memoria. Investigación Basada en las Artes para la formación del profesorado

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    En esta investigación presentamos el proceso y los resultados de una experiencia artística desarrollada con alumnado universitario del Grado de Maestro/a en Educación Primaria de la Universitat de València. El tema es 'La Memoria', título genérico que también identifica la exposición que tuvo lugar en el Museo de Historia de Valencia, compuesta por 21 instalaciones artísticas realizadas por el propio alumnado. Planteada como un estudio de caso, a nivel metodológico se incorporan elementos de las narrativas docentes, a partir de procesos muy impregnados por la Investigación Basada en las Artes. La buena acogida que tuvo la exposición en el museo, así como la motivación extra que supuso para el centenar de alumnos y alumnas participantes, nos animan a ofrecer esta modalidad de taller participativo con creaciones originales, para definir un modelo de prácticas docentes en educación artística que apuesta por los temas imbuidos de problemáticas candentes, incorporando cuestiones que afectan a reivindicaciones de tipo social, político y cultural. Se trata de investigar desde la propia práctica docente en el aula, implicando al alumnado universitario en un modelo participativo de investigación artística. In this research we present the process and results of an artistic experience developed with university students of the Degree in Primary School at the University of Valencia. "The Memory" is a generic title that identifies the exhibition which took place in the History Museum of Valencia, with 21 artistic installations carried out by students. Raised as a case study, elements of narratives are incorporated at a methodological, based on processes that are highly permeated by Arts Based Research. The good reception that the exhibition had in the museum, as well as the extra motivation that it meant for the hundred participating students, encourage us to offer this type of participatory workshop with artistic creations to define a model of teaching practices in art education. It is committed, incorporating issues that affect social, political and cultural demands. We investigate from the teaching practice in the classroom, involving university students in a participatory model of artistic research

    Taciana Fisac’s Translation of Chinese Modern and Contemporary Literature

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    文学国际化的历程一方面彰显着源语文学 创作的成就,一方面见证着目的语读者了解 源语国的需求,同时,也从一个侧面反映着 国际战略与国际关系的发展变化。中国现当 代文学作品的西语译介始于1949年,但直到 1978年才出现译自中文原版的译作。达西安 娜·菲萨克正是西班牙第一批从事中西文学 对译的译者。从1982年翻译鲁迅的《立论》 与《这样的战士》迄今,其全部译作均直接 译自中文原版,在译介对象难度增大的同 时,译作与目的语读者的接受习惯越来越靠 近,基本形成了个人的翻译思想与方法。既 重视译者对源语文学作品的整体把握与鉴赏 能力,又特别强调译者目的语的文学表达与 文化传递水准;既注重对源语文学作品叙事 方法与风格的尊重,更顾念目的语读者的接 受心理与表达方式。其翻译实践丰富了翻译 文学理论,为中国现当代文学作品的国际化 做出了不可磨灭的贡献。 The internationalization of literature manifests achievement of source language literature and witnesses the target language readers’ requirement of understanding the source language country. Moreover, it reflects the developments and changes on international strategies and relationships. The translation of Chinese literature to Spanish began from 1949, but the first translation from Chinese original edition arose in 1978. Taciana Fisac is one of the first Chinese-Spanish translators in Spain. All her translations were translated from Chinese original edition since Lu Xun’s “Argument” and “Such soldiers” in 1982. Although it is much more difficult, this translation mode is closer to target reader’s habit, and forms personal translation method. This methodology requires translator’s overall grasp and connoisseurship of source literature as well as literature expression and culture delivery ability in target language. Besides, it not only pays attention to source language literatures narrative style, but also considers target language reader’s reception psychology and expression. Taciana Fisac’s translation enriched theory of literature translation, and made significant contribution for internationalization of Chinese modern and contemporary literatur
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