27,249 research outputs found

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

    Get PDF
    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    Uso de las histonas circulantes y sus modificaciones post-traduccionales como biomarcadores en sepsis y shock s茅ptico

    Get PDF
    La sepsis es una afecci贸n potencialmente mortal causada por una respuesta anormal del hu茅sped a una infecci贸n, produciendo respuestas fisiol贸gicas alteradas que da帽an los propios tejidos del paciente y pueden provocar disfunci贸n org谩nica e incluso la muerte. Asimismo, algunos pacientes s茅pticos progresan a shock s茅ptico, caracterizado por alteraciones circulatorias, celulares y metab贸licas sustanciales que aumentan el riesgo de mortalidad. A pesar de que la sepsis se caracteriza por un mal funcionamiento del sistema inmunol贸gico, lo que a su vez conduce a una respuesta inmune alterada e inmunosupresi贸n, la alta complejidad de la fisiopatolog铆a de la sepsis requiere una mayor investigaci贸n para comprender las respuestas inmunes que ocurren durante la sepsis. Asimismo, las histonas extracelulares circulantes han ganado relevancia como mediadores citot贸xicos en la sepsis, ya que act煤an como patrones moleculares asociados a da帽o, que inducen estr茅s oxidativo y activan el inflamasoma NLRP3. Estos mecanismos median la activaci贸n de la piroptosis, un mecanismo de muerte celular programada que produce inflamaci贸n mediante la expresi贸n de IL-18, IL-1尾 and IL-1伪. Sin embargo, a pesar de la evidencia de activaci贸n del inflamasoma en las c茅lulas inmunes durante la sepsis, se desconoce si las histonas extracelulares son capaces de activar los inflamasomas endoteliales y sus consecuencias. En este trabajo destacamos el papel previamente desconocido de las histonas extracelulares, mediando la activaci贸n del inflamasoma NLRP3 y la piroptosis en las c茅lulas endoteliales, contribuyendo a la disfunci贸n endotelial y la desregulaci贸n de la respuesta inmune mediada por el endotelio. Asimismo, tambi茅n demostramos c贸mo la acetilaci贸n de histonas disminuye la activaci贸n de la piroptosis. Adem谩s, demostramos que la piroptosis se produce en pacientes con shock s茅ptico y los niveles de histonas circulantes se correlacionan con la expresi贸n de citoquinas proinflamatorias y citoquinas piropt贸ticas, la liberaci贸n de factores de adhesi贸n endotelial y la gravedad de la enfermedad. Proponemos la piroptosis mediada por histonas como un nuevo objetivo para desarrollar intervenciones cl铆nicas. De manera similar, hemos analizado las respuestas inmunorelacionadas que ocurren durante las primeras etapas de la sepsis con el objetivo de proporcionar nuevos datos comparando las cantidades de citoquinas, inmunomoduladores y otros mediadores endoteliales en pacientes cr铆ticamente enfermos no s茅pticos, s茅pticos y de shock s茅ptico. Nuestro enfoque ayudar谩 a caracterizar r谩pidamente las respuestas inmunes alteradas en pacientes s茅pticos y de shock s茅ptico ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Finalmente analizamos el papel de la metilaci贸n del ADN en el control del sistema inmune s茅ptico. Nuestros resultados demostraron el papel central de la metilaci贸n del ADN modulando la respuesta molecular en los pacientes de shock s茅ptico y contribuyendo a la inmunosupresi贸n, a trav茅s de la alteraci贸n de los patrones de metilaci贸n de los promotores de IL-10 y TREM-2.Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by an abnormal host response to an infection that produce altered physiological responses which damages own tissues of the patient and can result in organ dysfunction and in some cases death. Likewise, a subset of septic patients progresses to septic shock, characterized by substantial circulatory, cellular and metabolic abnormalities, which substantially increase the risk of mortality. Sepsis is characterized by a malfunction of the immune system and it can lead to an altered immune response and immunosuppression. Moreover, the high complexity of the pathophysiology of sepsis requires of further investigation to characterize the immune responses in sepsis and septic shock. Likewise, circulating extracellular histones have gained relevance as cytotoxic mediators in sepsis pathophysiology, since they act as damage-associated molecular patterns, which induce oxidative stress and activate NLRP3 inflammasome. Subsequently, inflammasome mediates pyroptosis activation, a programmed cell death mechanism that produces inflammation through the release of IL-18, IL-1尾 and IL-1伪. However, despite inflammasome activation may occur in immune cells during sepsis, it is unknown if this process also takes place in endothelial cells and particularly whether extracellular histones are capable of activating endothelial inflammasomes and their consequences. In this work we highlight a previously unknown role for extracellular histones, that mediates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis in endothelial cells by contributing to endothelial dysfunction and the dysregulation of the immune response mediated by endothelium. Likewise, we demonstrated how histone acetylation decreases pyroptosis activation. Furthermore, we show how pyroptosis occurs in septic shock patients and how circulating histone levels correlate with the expression of pro-inflammatory and pyroptotic cytokines, the release of endothelial adhesion factors and septic shock severity. We propose histone-mediated pyroptosis as a new target to develop clinical interventions. Similarly, we have analyzed the immune-related responses occurring during the early stages of sepsis with the aim of providing new data by comparing the amounts of cytokines, immune modulators and other endothelial mediators in critically-ill non-septic patients, septic and septic shock patients. Our approach will help to rapidly characterize the altered immune responses in septic and septic shock patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit. Finally, we also analyzed the role of DNA methylation in the control of septic immune system. Our results demonstrated the central role of DNA methylation modulating the molecular response in septic shock patients and contributing to immunosuppression, through the alteration of DNA methylation patterns of IL-10 and TREM2 promoters

    Metodolog铆a de intervenci贸n para trabajar ODS. Educaci贸n a trav茅s de las artes

    Get PDF
    La Agenda 2030 presenta 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), con sus metas e indicadores universales que los pa铆ses miembros de la ONU emplean para enmarcar sus pol铆ticas. Entre las metas del ODS 4 鈥渆ducaci贸n de calidad鈥 encontramos: 鈥渁segurar que todos los alumnos adquieran los conocimientos te贸ricos y pr谩cticos necesarios para promover el desarrollo sostenible, entre otras cosas mediante la educaci贸n para el desarrollo sostenible y los estilos de vida sostenibles, los derechos humanos, la igualdad de g茅nero, la promoci贸n de una cultura de paz y no violencia, la ciudadan铆a mundial y la valoraci贸n de la diversidad cultural y la contribuci贸n de la cultura al desarrollo sostenible鈥. La educaci贸n, se considera el motor de la Agenda 2030 porque, adem谩s de representar el centro del ODS 4, desempe帽a tambi茅n un papel notable en la implementaci贸n de los dem谩s, mejorando su alcance y efectividad. As铆 pues, entre las disciplinas que sustentan este trabajo se escogi贸 la Educaci贸n para el Desarrollo Sostenible y la Ciudadan铆a Global como marco de acci贸n y punto de partida en la formaci贸n de los ciudadanos de un futuro viable, equitativo y habitable. Se continu贸 investigando las oportunidades del desarrollo de la Competencia Intercultural en las relaciones humanas, aquello que diferencia a unas personas de otras puede aportar al conjunto de la sociedad y c贸mo la educaci贸n permitir铆a su aprovechamiento. Con todo ello, se plante贸 el marco did谩ctico de interacci贸n en el cual se implement贸 la interculturalidad en el ejercicio educativo. Se estudi贸 as铆 el poder de las artes como medio de motivaci贸n e inspiraci贸n a la hora de transmitir de la manera m谩s eficaz posible los valores considerados m谩s arriba. El objetivo del presente estudio se centra en demostrar el potencial de las artes para fomentar las competencias comunicativas, sociales, interculturales, emocionales, de ciudadan铆a y sostenibilidad. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigaci贸n aplicada que deriva en una propuesta concreta de intervenci贸n con un programa educativo destinado a la ense帽anza de lenguas, tanto primera como extranjera, en distintos niveles de la educaci贸n formal en Mali y en Espa帽a, aplicando un m茅todo hol铆stico basado en el paradigma interpretativo. A trav茅s de la pintura, la literatura y el cine, se plantean una serie de actividades ideadas para crear un entorno educativo integrador, favorecer el empoderamiento del alumnado y promover el pensamiento cr铆tico, la empat铆a, la resiliencia, la comunicaci贸n, la cooperaci贸n y la educaci贸n intercultural, como competencias esenciales para la consecuci贸n de los 17 ODS, la construcci贸n de un mundo transcultural sostenible y el desarrollo de una ciudadan铆a global preparada para los retos del siglo XXI. En la metodolog铆a de este proceso educativo innovador, multidisciplinar, flexible y adaptable, se ha empleado un an谩lisis del proceso de investigaci贸n para monitorizarlo adecuadamente (DAFO). Cada una de las propuestas presenta una recogida de datos cualitativos (observaci贸n, r煤bricas) y cuantitativos (encuestas, entrevistas) y se ofrece un an谩lisis de contraste de los resultados finales. Con todo, se espera facilitar la exigente tarea que supone hacer consciente a la sociedad de base (desde la misma infancia; desde los niveles m谩s bajos de la misma y en todos los niveles de la educaci贸n formal) de en qu茅 consisten los ODS y su relevancia para hacer de todas las personas corresponsables directas en su consecuci贸n para garantizar un futuro sostenible para toda la ciudadan铆a global.The 2030 Agenda presents 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with their universal targets and indicators that UN member countries use to frame their policies. Among the targets of SDG 4 鈥渜uality education,鈥 we find the one that seeks: 鈥渢o ensure that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote sustainable development, among other things through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, the promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, world citizenship and the appreciation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development鈥. Education is considered the engine of the 2030 Agenda because, in addition to representing the centre of SDG 4, it also plays a notable role in the implementation of the others, improving their scope and effectiveness. Among the disciplines that support this research, Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship sets the framework for action and represents a starting point in the formation of citizens for a viable, equitable and habitable future. Global citizenship implies human relations and those and intrinsically shaped by culture. Intercultural Education and, more specifically, the development of Intercultural Competence needed to be considered. What differentiates some people from others can contribute to society as a whole and education is the means to explore and understand. For the design of a didactic framework of interaction, the power of the arts was studied as a means of motivation and inspiration when transmitting the values considered above in the most effective way possible. The objective of this study focuses on proving the potential of the arts to promote communicative, social, intercultural, emotional, citizenship and sustainability skills. For this, the theoretical research derived in a concrete intervention proposal with an educational program in language teaching, both first and foreign languages, at different levels of formal education in Mali and Spain, applying a holistic method based on the interpretive paradigm. Through painting, literature and cinema, a series of activities were designed to create an inclusive educational environment, favour the empowerment of students and promote critical thinking, empathy, resilience, communication, cooperation and intercultural education, as essential skills for the achievement of the 17 SDGs, the construction of a sustainable transcultural world and the development of global citizenship prepared for the challenges of the 21st century. In the methodology of this innovative, multidisciplinary, flexible and adaptable educational process, an analysis of the research process has been used to adequately monitor it (SWOT). Each of the proposals presents a collection of qualitative data (observation, rubrics) and quantitative data (surveys, interviews) and contrast analysis of the final results is offered. All in all, it is expected to facilitate the demanding task of making basic society aware (from childhood itself, from its lowest levels and at all levels of formal education) of what the SDGs consist of and their relevance to make all people directly co-responsible in its achievement to guarantee a sustainable future for all global citizens

    Implementaci贸n de una estrategia pedag贸gica a trav茅s de una aplicaci贸n m贸vil para mejorar la comprensi贸n de lectura y adquisici贸n de vocabulario del ingl茅s de los estudiantes del programa de Licenciatura en Lenguas Extranjeras con 脡nfasis en Ingl茅s

    Get PDF
    La lengua inglesa como idioma universal, ha sido estudiado por personas en todo el mundo a trav茅s de diferentes metodolog铆as, usando diversas herramientas y estrategias. En Colombia, el ingl茅s se aprende como lengua extranjera, en donde las habilidades que se buscan desarrollar son: el habla, la escucha, la lectura y la escritura. Actualmente, las personas optan por aprender una segunda lengua a trav茅s de aplicaciones m贸viles para desarrollar sus habilidades comunicativas, entre las cuales tambi茅n est谩 la adquisici贸n de vocabulario. Alfonso, et al. (2018) aprender vocabulario sea de forma aut贸noma, le permite al estudiante establecer unas bases que le permitir谩n comprender contextos y significados. El aprendizaje de una lengua a trav茅s de una herramienta como una aplicaci贸n m贸vil resulta ser bastante c贸moda, permitiendo autonom铆a en el proceso de aprendizaje. Ramos, A., Herrera, J. y Ram铆rez, M. (2010) gracias a los dispositivos m贸viles, el aprendizaje se da en cualquier lugar, tiempo o espacio. El uso de una aplicaci贸n m贸vil en el aprendizaje del ingl茅s permite al individuo aprender en cualquier momento del d铆a utilizando un dispositivo m贸vil. El presente trabajo busca fomentar la adquisici贸n del vocabulario en ingl茅s a trav茅s de la implementaci贸n de una aplicaci贸n m贸vil, en la cual los estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Lenguas Extranjeras con 脡nfasis en Ingl茅s de la Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia del CEAD Bucaramanga, a trav茅s de lecturas cortas, actividades, juegos y puzles, puede llegar a mejorar su vocabulario. Para alcanzar tal objetivo, los participantes tienen acceso a dispositivos m贸viles o en su defecto a computadores, los cuales usar谩n como herramienta que les permitir谩 hacer uso de la aplicaci贸n. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se hace importante indicar que el objetivo general del presente trabajo es implementar una aplicaci贸n m贸vil como herramienta tecnol贸gica para la adquisici贸n del vocabulario del ingl茅s a trav茅s de la lectura de textos cortos. Para alcanzar el objetivo de la investigaci贸n, se construye una metodolog铆a cuasi experimental, de tipo descriptiva, con un enfoque mixto, en el que se utiliz贸 herramientas como la prueba prestest -posttes y la encuesta. Operativamente, el presente trabajo fue estructurado en 4 fases. La primera fase es la aplicaci贸n de una encuesta de caracterizaci贸n y a su vez de un pretest, que es un examen diagn贸stico de vocabulario. La fase 2 se basa en el dise帽o y elaboraci贸n de la propuesta pedag贸gica, recolecci贸n y construcci贸n de material y revisi贸n t茅cnica de la herramienta. En la fase 3 se realiza la implementaci贸n de la propuesta pedag贸gica mediada por la aplicaci贸n m贸vil. Finalmente, en la fase 4, se aplica el postest, a trav茅s de la herramienta Quizzis.The English language, as a universal language, has been studied by people all over the world through different methodologies, using diverse tools and strategies. In Colombia, English is learned as a foreign language, where the skills sought to be developed are speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Currently, people choose to learn a second language through mobile applications to develop their communicative skills, among which is also the acquisition of vocabulary. Alfonso, et al. (2018) learning vocabulary be it autonomously, allows the learner to establish a foundation that will allow him/her to understand contexts and meanings. Learning a language through a tool such as a mobile application turns out to be quite convenient, allowing autonomy in the learning process. Ramos, A., Herrera, J. and Ram铆rez, M. (2010) thanks to mobile devices, learning can take place anywhere, at any time or place. The use of a mobile application in learning English allows the individual to learn at any time of the day using a mobile device. The present work seeks to promote the acquisition of English vocabulary through the implementation of a mobile application, in which the students of the Bachelor's Degree in Foreign Languages with Emphasis in English of the Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia of CEAD Bucaramanga, through short readings, activities, games and puzzles, can get to improve their vocabulary. To achieve this objective, participants have access to mobile devices or computers, which they will use as a tool that will allow them to make use of the application. Considering the above, it is important to indicate that the general objective of this work is to implement a mobile application as a technological tool for the acquisition of English vocabulary through the reading of short texts. In order to achieve the objective of the research, a quasi-experimental methodology is constructed, of descriptive type, with a mixed approach, in which tools such as the prestest -posttest and the survey were used. Operationally, the present work was structured in 4 phases. The first phase is the application of a characterization survey and a pretest, which is a diagnostic vocabulary test. Phase 2 is based on the design and elaboration of the pedagogical proposal, collection, and construction of material and technical review of the tool. Phase 3 is the implementation of the pedagogical proposal mediated by the mobile application. Finally, in phase 4, the post-test is applied through the Quizzis tool

    The applied psychology of addictive orientations : studies in a 12-step treatment context.

    Get PDF
    The clinical data for the studies was collected at The PROMIS Recovery Centre, a Minnesota Model treatmentc entre for addictions,w hich encouragesth e membership and use of the 12 step Anonymous Fellowships, and is abstinence based. The area of addiction is contextualised in a review chapter which focuses on research relating to the phenomenon of cross addiction. A study examining the concept of "addictive orientations" in male and female addicts is described, which develops a study conductedb y StephensonM, aggi, Lefever, & Morojele (1995). This presents study found a four factor solution which appeared to be subdivisions of the previously found Hedonism and Nurturance factors. Self orientated nurturance (both food dimensions, shopping and caffeine), Other orientated nurturance (both compulsive helping dimensions and work), Sensation seeking hedonism (Drugs, prescription drugs, nicotine and marginally alcohol), and Power related hedonism (Both relationship dimensions, sex and gambling. This concept of "addictive orientations" is further explored in a non-clinical population, where again a four factor solution was found, very similar to that in the clinical population. This was thought to indicate that in terms of addictive orientation a pattern already exists in this non-clinical population and that consideration should be given to why this is the case. These orientations are examined in terms of gender differences. It is suggested that the differences between genders reflect power-related role relationships between the sexes. In order to further elaborate the significance and meaning behind these orientations, the next two chapters look at the contribution of personality variables and how addictive orientations relate to psychiatric symptomatology. Personality variables were differentially, and to a considerable extent predictably involved with the four factors for both males and females.Conscientiousness as positively associated with "Other orientated Nurturance" and negatively associated with "Sensation seeking hedonism" (particularly for men). Neuroticism had a particularly strong association with the "Self orientated Nurturance" factor in the female population. More than twice the symptomatology variance was explained by the factor scores for females than it was for males. The most important factorial predictors for psychiatric symptomatology were the "Power related hedonism" factor for males, and "Self oriented nurturance" for females. The results are discussed from theoretical and treatment perspectives

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

    Get PDF
    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Pontus in Antiquity: aspects of identity

    Get PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of the interaction between the successive inhabitants of Pontus in antiquity, indigenous Anatolians, Greeks, Persians and Romans. Limited archaeological evidence cannot determine the precise extent of interaction, although the available information substantiates the notion of a slow, but steady amalgamation. Initially, the intermingling was based on mutual trading links. Although the Hellenic cultural element tended to surface, Eastern factors remained visible. The Mithridatic dynasty was established around the vicinity of Pontus, creating the 'Kingdom of Pontus' which reached its height under Mithridates VI. His administrative and military policy appears to have placed the foundations for the later, Roman corresponding structures. His policies-propaganda reflected the GraecoEastern image of a king, which appealed to the Greek and Persian-Eastern inhabitants of his kingdom, Asia Minor and, to a lesser extent, mainland Greece. This GraecoEastern image might have nourished the concept of a shared history among the inhabitants of Pontus. Their interactions appear to have given rise to an unnamed, local culture, which was enriched with the relevant Roman practices. Around the third century A.D., the Roman administrative patterns might have established an externally defined appellation. During Roman times, Christianity started to be established in Pontus. Although it was not yet a socio-political factor, its non-racial nature prevailed in later centuries. The influence of the Roman-Christian elements can still be observed in the modern Ponti an identity. In antiquity, (lack of) evidence indicates that no group defined themselves as 'Pontics' or 'Pontians' and an internally defined Pontic identity is unlikely to have existed. However, people associated themselves with the geographical area of Pont us, cultural and religious concepts were frequently amalgamated, while the notion of a common descent and a shared history might have been unconsciously fostered. These factors can assist in the understanding of the 'Pontians' today

    Exploring the short-term and maintained effects of strategic instruction on the writing of 4th grade students: should strategies be focused on the process?

    Get PDF
    p.1769-1790The principal aim of strategy-focused instruction is to teach students strategies to control their writing processes and achieve quality writing. For this purpose, nine 4th grade Elementary School classes from three diferent schools (N=215) were randomly allocated to two forms of strategy-focused program called cognitive selfregulation instruction (CSRI). The full-CSRI (experimental condition 1, n=72) taught students a strategic approach to set appropriate product goals along with planning strategies. However, in the brief-CSRI (experimental condition 2, n=69), the direct teaching of planning procedures was removed. These two experimental conditions were compared with a control condition (n=74). We used a pre-test/posttest design and we also collected a maintenance writing performance 7 months after the intervention. Writing performance was holistically evaluated through readerbased measures made up of aspects related to structure, coherence, and quality. Only the full-CSRI condition wrote better compare鈥揷ontrast texts than the control group in both the short term and at the maintenance timepoint. The study discusses the efects of the intervention on each measure and whether or not it is necessary to train process strategiesS

    Word sketches of descriptive modifiers in children's short stories for teacher training in teaching English as a foreign language

    Get PDF
    .Stories have proved to be an important didactic resource in language teaching; therefore, teacher trainees are often encouraged to design story-based tasks. However, they may find difficulties in identifying the language typically found in children's stories. For this reason, the present paper aims at exploring a relevant feature of this genre, descriptive modifiers, in order to raise student teachers鈥 genre awareness and prompt them to use high-frequency words and phrases. In this corpus-based study, a number of key elements were first identified, then classified, and finally, their occurrences were analyzed to obtain patterns in their grammatical behavior and an inventory of their most common collocates. SketchEngine was used both to compile the corpus and to retrieve word sketches of each modifier. Gaining more insight into the language of stories can contribute to helping teacher trainees to perceive characteristic language in children-oriented text types and to develop their own storytelling abilities.S

    Comparative analysis of the transition from early childhood education to primary education: factors affecting continuity between stages

    Get PDF
    p. 411-454The educational transition between early childhood education and primary education is a complex moment of change with repercussions throughout the academic life of the students. For this reason, it is important to seek continuity between both educational stages. A successful transition produces for the social, cognitive and emotional well-being of the student. The aim of this study is to find out how transition-related factors apply in ten European Union (EU) countries. The factors analyzed are the age of onset of transition, the teacher-student ratio, types of clustering, financing of the stage, responsibility, and both initial and in-service teacher training. The methodology followed in this study is documentary analysis and the main source of data search has been the European Commission's Eurydice portal. The results show differences in stage change within each country, especially in the explicit consideration of a transition period. The main conclusion is that there is a great difference between the northern and southern countries. The main differences between countries in the transitions from early childhood education to primary education in the EU are in the years of compulsory education, the teacher/student/unit ratio, the initial teacher training, and the decentralization of education.S
    corecore