7,974 research outputs found

    Cost effectiveness of treatments for wet age-related macular degeneration

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    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in people aged >= 50 years. Wet AMD in particular has a major impact on patient quality of life and imposes substantial burdens on healthcare systems. This systematic review examined the cost-effectiveness data for current therapeutic options for wet AMD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for all articles reporting original cost-effectiveness analyses of wet AMD treatments. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Cochrane Library databases were searched for all wet AMD health technology assessments (HTAs). Overall, 44 publications were evaluated in full and included in this review. A broad range of cost-effectiveness analyses were identified for the most commonly used therapies for wet AMD (pegaptanib, ranibizumab and photodynamic therapy [PDT] with verteporfin). Three studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in wet AMD. A small number of analyses of other treatments, such as laser photocoagulation and antioxidant vitamins, were also found. Ranibizumab was consistently shown to be cost effective for wet AMD in comparison with all the approved wet AMD therapies (four of the five studies identified showed ranibizumab was cost effective vs usual care, PDT or pegaptanib); however, there was considerable variation in the methodology for cost-effectiveness modelling between studies. Findings from the HTAs supported those from the PubMed and EM BASE searches; of the seven HTAs that included ranibizumab, six (including HTAs for Australia, Canada and the UK) concluded that ranibizumab was cost effective for the treatment of wet AMD; most compared ranibizumab with PDT and/or pegaptanib. By contrast, HTAs at best generally recommended pegaptanib or PDT for restricted use in subsets of patients with wet AMD. In the literature analyses, pegaptanib was found to be cost effective versus usual/best supportive care (including PDT) or no treatment in one of five studies; the other four studies found pegaptanib was of borderline cost effectiveness depending on the stage of disease and time horizon. PDT was shown to be cost effective versus usual/best supportive care or no treatment in five of nine studies; two studies showed that PDT was of borderline cost effectiveness depending on baseline visual acuity, and two showed that PDT was not cost effective. We identified no robust studies that properly evaluated the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in wet AMD

    Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs and Signals of Dementia and Parkinson-Like Events: Analysis of the VigiBase Database of Spontaneous Reports

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    Introduction: Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates several aspects of the central nervous system, particularly in dopaminergic neurons, VEGF inhibitors may be linked to Parkinson-like events and dementia, or variants of these diseases. Two recent case reports have found a potential link between intravitreal anti-VEGF use and Parkinson‚Äôs disease (PD) and dementia. Aim: To evaluate disproportionality in a large spontaneous reporting database concerning intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs and PD or dementia, and related conditions. Methods: Using VigiBase, individual case safety reports (ICSRs) attributed to intravitreal ranibizumab, aflibercept, pegaptanib, and bevacizumab were identified from 2010 to 2016. Within Standardised Narrow Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA¬ģ) Queries (SMQs) for ‚ÄúParkinson-like events‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúDementia,‚ÄĚ suspected events were identified using preferred terms (PTs). The Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR) was estimated with the lower 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all drug-event pairs with ‚Č•3 suspected events. The vigiGrade completeness score was reported for the ICSRs. The analyses were repeated, including only persons aged 65 and over. Results: Out of 18.9 million ICSRs, 7,945 (0.004%) concerned intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs. Of these, 27 (0.34%) were identified concerning the SMQs ‚ÄúDementia‚ÄĚ (N = 17, 62.96%) and ‚ÄúParkinson-like events‚ÄĚ (N = 10, 37.94%) in persons of all ages. Among persons age 65 and over, 4,758 (59.88% of relevant ICSRs) ICSRs were identified for anti-VEGF drugs. When restricting disproportionality analysis to persons aged 65 and over, no disproportionality was seen for any of the drug-event pairs at the level of SMQ. However, on analysing disproportionality by PT, a potential signal emerged for intravitreal ranibizumab and Parkinson‚Äôs disease [N = 6 ICSRs; PRR: 3.05 (95% CI: 1.36-6.81)]. In general, the vigiGrade completeness score was low for all the ICSRs of interest, as no ICSR had a score >0.8. Conclusion: Present findings suggest a potential signal for Parkinson‚Äôs disease related to intravitreal ranibizumab. This is supported by several biologically plausible mechanisms but requires confirmation through pharmacoepidemiological studies, especially because of the low number of cases

    Widening use of dexamethasone implant for the treatment of macular edema

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    Sustained-release intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone (DEX) implant is approved in Europe for the treatment of macular edema related to diabetic retinopathy, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, and non-infectious uveitis. The implant is formulated in a biodegradable copolymer to release the active ingredient within the vitreous chamber for up to 6 months after an intravitreal injection, allowing a prolonged interval of efficacy between injections with a good safety profile. Various other ocular pathologies with inflammatory etio¬≠pathogeneses associated with macular edema have been treated by DEX implant, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration, Irvine‚ÄďGass syndrome, vasoproliferative retinal tumors, retinal telangiectasia, Coats‚Äô disease, radiation maculopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular edema secondary to scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy. We undertook a review to provide a comprehensive collection of all of the diseases that benefit from the use of the sustained-release DEX implant, alone or in combination with concomitant therapies. A MEDLINE search revealed lack of randomized controlled trials related to these indications. Therefore we included and analyzed all available studies (retrospective and prospective, com¬≠parative and non-comparative, randomized and nonrandomized, single center and multicenter, and case report). There are reports in the literature of the use of DEX implant across a range of macular edema-related pathologies, with their clinical experience supporting the use of DEX implant on a case-by-case basis with the aim of improving patient outcomes in many macular pathologies. As many of the reported macular pathologies are difficult to treat, a new treat¬≠ment option that has a beneficial influence on the clinical course of the disease may be useful in clinical practice

    Treatment as required versus regular monthly treatment in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: To investigate whether treatment as required ‚Äėpro re nata‚Äô (PRN) versus regular monthly treatment regimens lead to differences in outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Regular monthly administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors is an established gold standard treatment, but this approach is costly. Replacement of monthly by PRN treatment can only be justified if there is no difference in patient relevant outcomes. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The intervention was PRN treatment and the comparator was monthly treatment with VEGF-inhibitors. Four bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing both treatment regimens directly (head-to-head studies). The last literature search was conducted in December 2014. Risk of bias assessment was performed after the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Findings: We included 3 head-to-head studies (6 reports) involving more than 2000 patients. After 2 years, the weighted mean difference in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.9 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3) ETDRS letters in favour of monthly treatment. Systemic adverse events were higher in PRN treated patients, but these differences were not statistically significant. After 2 years, the total number of intravitreal injections required by the patients in the PRN arms were 8.4 (95% CI 7.9 to 8.9) fewer than those having monthly treatment. The studies were considered to have a moderate risk of bias. Conclusions: PRN treatment resulted in minor but statistically significant decrease in mean BCVA which may not be clinically meaningful. There is a small increase in risk of systemic adverse events for PRN treated patients. Overall, the results indicate that an individualized treatment approach with anti-VEGF using visual acuity and OCT-guided re-treatment criteria may be appropriate for most patients with nAMD

    Long-Term Intravitreal Ranibizumab as a Potential Additional Risk Factor for Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease: A Case Report.

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    In November 2012, a 72-year old patient was diagnosed with left eye wet age-related macular degeneration. The patient received three monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, with complete resolution of retinal hemorrhage and edema and reinstatement of visual acuity. In May 2015, symptomatic relapse was detected. The patient was again treated with intravitreal ranibizumab, with overall six injections till the end of February 2016. In May 2016, the patient complained of left hand resting tremor, bradykinesia, and postural rigidity of head and trunk. A diagnosis of clinically established PD was made based on new criteria of the Movement Disorders Society. Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography of the Dopamine Transporter with (123I) ioflupane documented a low Dopamine Transporter (DAT) uptake mostly in the right striatum. Due to the documented protective role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the dopaminergic neurons, intensive intravitreal injections of the anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab may have played as an additional risk factor accelerating the neurodegeneration process related to PD and the onset of the related clinical signs and symptoms

    Cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab in treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DME) causing visual impairment : evidence from the RESTORE trial

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    Background/aims To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab as either monotherapy or combined with laser therapy, compared with laser monotherapy, in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DME) causing visual impairment from a UK healthcare payer perspective. Methods A Markov model simulated long-term outcomes and costs of treating DME in one eye (BCVA <= 5 letters) based on data from the RESTORE Phase III trial. Outcomes measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were simulated for a 15-year time horizon based on 12-month follow-up from RESTORE and published long-term data. Costs included treatment, disease monitoring, visual impairment and blindness (at 2010 price levels). Results Ranibizumab monotherapy resulted in a 0.17 QALY gain at an incremental cost of 4191 pound relative to laser monotherapy, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 24 pound 028. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed a 64% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of 30 pound 000 per QALY. Combined ranibizumab and laser therapy resulted in a 0.13 QALY gain at an incremental cost of 4695 pound relative to laser monotherapy (ICER 36 pound 106; 42% probability of ICER <30 pound 000). Conclusions Based on RESTORE 1-year follow-up data, ranibizumab monotherapy appears to be cost-effective relative to laser monotherapy, the current standard of care. Cost-effectiveness of combination therapy is less certain. Ongoing studies will further inform on disease progression and the need for additional ranibizumab treatment

    Early CRT monitoring using time-domain optical coherence tomography does not add to visual acuity for predicting visual loss in patients with central retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal ranibizumab:A secondary analysis of trial data

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    Our primary purpose was to assess the clinical (predictive) validity of central retinal thickness (CRT) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 week and 1 month after starting treatment with ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion. The authors also assessed detectability of response to treatment

    Morphologic Criteria of Lesion Activity in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Consensus Article

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    Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs represent the current standard of care for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Individualized treatment regimens aim at obtaining the same visual benefits of monthly injections with a reduced number of injections and follow-up visits, and, consequently, of treatment burden. The target of these strategies is to timely recognize lesion recurrence, even before visual deterioration. Early detection of lesion activity is critical to ensure that clinical outcomes are not compromised by inappropriate delays in treatment, but questions remain on how to effectively monitor the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) activity. To assess the persistence/recurrence of lesion activity in patients undergoing treatment for nAMD, an expert panel developed a decision algorithm based on the morphological features of CNV. After evaluating all current retinal imaging techniques, the panel identified optical coherent tomography as the most reliable tool to ascertain lesion activity when funduscopy is not obvious

    Comparison of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Upload Followed by a Dexamethasone Implant versus Dexamethasone Implant Monotherapy for Retinal Vein Occlusion with Macular Edema

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    Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of three intravitreal bevacizumab upload injections followed by a dexamethasone implant versus dexamethasone implant monotherapy in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Sixty-four eyes of 64 patients were included in this prospective, consecutive, nonrandomized case series: group 1 consisted of 38 patients (22 with central retinal vein occlusion, CRVO, 16 with branch retinal vein occlusion, BRVO) treated using a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) alone; group 2 consisted of 26 patients (14 CRVO, 12 BRVO) treated with three consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections at monthly intervals followed by a dexamethasone implant. In case of recurrence, both cohorts received further dexamethasone implants. Preoperatively and monthly best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, ETDRS), central retinal thickness (Spectralis-OCT), intraocular pressure, and wide-angle fundus photodocumentation (Optomap) were performed. The primary clinical endpoint was BCVA at 6 months after initiation of therapy. Secondary endpoints were central retinal thickness and safety of the therapy applied. Results: In group 1, an increase in BCVA of 2.5 (+/- 1.6) letters in the CRVO and of 13.0 (+/- 3.2) letters in BRVO patients was seen after 6 months, in group 2 of 5.9 (+/- 0.4) letters (CRVO) and 3.8 (+/- 2.4) letters (BRVO), which was not statistically significant. When comparing the two treatment groups with respect to the type of vein occlusion, there was a significant advantage for BRVO patients for the dexamethasone implant monotherapy (BRVO patients in group 1, p = 0.005). Central retinal thickness showed a significant reduction after 6 months only in patients of group 1, both for CRVO (p = 0.01) and BRVO (p = 0.003). First recurrence after the first dexamethasone implant injection occurred after 3.8 months (mean) in CRVO and 3.5 months in BRVO patients (group 1), versus 3.2 and 3.7 months, respectively, in group 2. In group 1, 63.6% with CRVO and 50% with BRVO showed an increased intraocular pressure after treatment; in group 2, 57.1% with CRVO and 50.0% with BRVO, respectively. Conclusion: In CRVO, there was no difference between the two treatment strategies investigated. However, in BRVO, dexamethasone implant monotherapy was associated with better functional outcome. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Base
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