111,477 research outputs found

    Living with Nkrumahism: Nation, state, and pan-Africanism in Ghana

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    This dissertation explores the construction of the pan-Africanist and socialist discourse of Kwame Nkrumah‚Äôs government‚ÄĒGhana‚Äôs first independent government‚ÄĒduring the nation-building project of the 1950s and 1960s. In 1957, when Ghana became independent, the country‚Äôs transition to self-rule emerged as a watershed moment in African and world history as this small West African country challenged an international community rooted in the political and institutional framework of the territorial nation-state with a radical program of pan-African liberation and global socialist development. By 1958, the Nkrumah government‚Äôs commitment to this radical program had resulted in supra-territorial federations with Guinea-Conakry and later Mali, while, at home, Nkrumah and his Convention People‚Äôs Party (CPP) presented the nascent nation as a model for a new form of modern, disciplined, and continental citizenship. Based on eighteen months of oral and archival research in Ghana, this dissertation reconstructs the development and performance of Nkrumah‚Äôs program of pan-African liberation and socialist development in the Ghanaian public sphere. In doing so, it interrogates the role of pan-Africanism and global socialism in shaping a vision of a growing modern, disciplined, and socialist citizenry within the Nkrumahist state. Moreover, through an examination of the press, youth, women‚Äôs, and workers‚Äô organizations, this dissertation traces how key groups of both ‚Äúelite‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúordinary‚ÄĚ Ghanaians embedded aspects of Nkrumahist ideology into existing idioms of power, corruption, and progress in their communities as they sought to negotiate the increasingly volatile realities associated with life in postcolonial Africa. As a result, I argue that, through the institutional framework of Nkrumah-era pan-Africanist and socialist politics, an interactive debate developed within Nkrumah‚Äôs Ghana whereby an eclectic array of Ghanaian men and women came together to debate and contest their changing places, roles, and responsibilities in the postcolonial nation. Such an analysis, I contend, provides a framework for understanding decolonization and nation-building in Africa not as the elite program of political re-organization that most scholars have portrayed it as, but as part of a dynamic set of local and transnational imaginings and contestations aimed at addressing the challenges and inequities associated with Africa‚Äôs transition to self-rule.U of I Only2 year U of I Access extension requested by author and approved by Emily Wuchner. Embargo applied by [email protected] 2019-05-16

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005‚Äď2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Del modelo del Plan Badajoz a la Declaración de Gredos. Dos modelos de desarrollo rural = From the Badajoz Plan model to the Gredos Declaration. Two models of rural development

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    El problema de la despoblaci√≥n derivado de la falta de oportunidades econ√≥micas ha sido una constante en la Espa√Īa rural desde mediados del siglo XX. En este sentido, el plan Badajoz (1952) fue considerado como el primer ensayo espa√Īol de planificaci√≥n regional a trav√©s de la transformaci√≥n de campos de secano a regad√≠o y su posterior colonizaci√≥n con la creaci√≥n de pueblos que permitieran un desarrollo econ√≥mico de la zona. Transcurridos 67 a√Īos de la realizaci√≥n del plan, la despoblaci√≥n en Extremadura ha seguido persistiendo e incluso se ha agravado en la √ļltima d√©cada pese al incremento poblacional en Espa√Īa. Entre las diferentes alternativas existentes, la declaraci√≥n de Gredos (2019) pretende nuevamente la involucraci√≥n de las diferentes administraciones p√ļblicas, tanto nacionales como supranacionales, al objeto de promover unas condiciones favorables que permitan el progreso social y econ√≥mico de las diferentes regiones espa√Īolas, evitando no solamente la despoblaci√≥n de las zonas rurales, sino tambi√©n una distribuci√≥n de la renta regional y personal m√°s equitativa que la actualmente existente entre el campo y la ciudad. Si bien en la actualidad, la estructura socioecon√≥mica del pa√≠s es sustancialmente distinta a la que origin√≥ el plan Badajoz y por tanto las estrategias a seguir son radicalmente opuestas, los objetivos perseguidos siguen siendo los mismos, as√≠ como la necesidad de coordinar unas pol√≠ticas p√ļblicas encaminadas al logro de dicho fin. El objetivo de esta investigaci√≥n ser√° comparar ambos planes, analizando los errores cometidos en el plan Badajoz y su posible traslaci√≥n a las nuevas estrategias de desarrollo desde una perspectiva de la planificaci√≥n estrat√©gica

    How Does Reciprocity Affect Undergraduate Student Orientation towards Stakeholders?

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    5987Nowadays, students are more aware of the impact of companies on their stakeholders and the need for properly handling their expectations to operationalize corporate social responsibility. Nevertheless, little is known about how certain individual traits may relate to their stance on the issue. This exploratory research contributes to stakeholder theory by analysing the e ect of the individual’s decision-making process, including the consideration of their social preferences, on their orientation toward stakeholder management. Here, we draw upon a theoretical model for resource-allocation decision-making consisting of reciprocal and non-reciprocal components. Our data, from undergraduate students enrolled in di erent degrees, were collected through a questionnaire and two social within-subject experiments (ultimatum and dictator games). Thus, our results show that the presence of a reciprocal component when decisions are made is positively linked to an instrumental orientation toward stakeholders. In addition, a greater non-reciprocal component in the decision-making process corresponds to a more normative orientation.S

    Introduction to Special Issue ‚ÄúAdvances in Sustainability-Oriented Innovations‚ÄĚ

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    8836This Special Issue focuses on the study of Sustainability-Oriented Innovations (SOIs). Our purpose is to shed light on the SOIs literature regarding their determining factors, implications and new challenges for the future. In this editorial, we are delighted to present the three papers included in this Special Issue. Each of them tackles di erent issues related to SOIs having important academic and managerial implications. Two papers analyze the influence of SOIs on urban development and resource productivity, respectively, and the third studies SOIs determinants, in particular, cooperation networks. Moreover, two of the papers analyze SOIs considering territory (cities or countries) as their unit of analysis while the third focuses on firms. This denotes that SOIs’ actions are important whatever the level of analysis and as either a determinant or a consequence.S

    A new index of resilience applicable to external pulse-disturbances that considers the recovery of communities in the short term

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    .Resilience is a key concept in the study of the recovery of ecosystems affected by disturbances. Currently, there are numerous indices to measure resilience, but many of them do not show the accuracy of the resilience value or the behaviour of ecological parameters in the face of disturbances. New approaches and technologies enable large amounts of information to be obtained, facilitating the proposal of new resilience indices that work consistently and intuitively for a wide variety of ecological response variables under different scenarios after pulse-disturbances. In this study, we propose and verify a new resilience index, comparing its performance with others previously published. We validated the performance of the new index using real data based on field measurements of changes in soil bacterial OTUs diversity and abundance after a wildfire. The new resilience index provided an automatic and robust functional classification of the behaviour of ecosystems after disturbances, supported by a bootstrap analysis. We identified 5 scenarios of ecosystem resilience performance according to their behaviour after a pulse-disturbance: resilient, non-resilient, recovering, rebound, and continuing.S

    Calidad percibida del servicio en la cadena de aprovisionamiento en la industria turística

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    Este trabajo contribuye a relacionar las √°reas de la gesti√≥n de la calidad del servicio y la gesti√≥n de la cadena de aprovisionamiento. M√°s concretamente, permite comprender mejor c√≥mo la gesti√≥n de la calidad del servicio puede ayudar a describir, explicar y predecir los resultados en la cadena de aprovisionamiento. Se analizan qu√© factores son importantes considerar en la calidad percibida del servicio de la cadena de aprovisionamiento y c√≥mo influyen √©stos en la futura relaci√≥n comprador-proveedor. Para ello, se desarrolla y verifica un modelo incorporando constructos tales como desempe√Īo del servicio, calidad del servicio percibida, satisfacci√≥n y lealtad. La literatura aporta trabajos de estos constructor en la relaci√≥n empresa-cliente final y comprador-vendedor en empresas manufactureras, pero existe una laguna en la relaci√≥n entre miembros de de la cadena de aprovisionamiento en empresas de servicios. Por ello, el modelo fue verificado con 908 evaluaciones que realizaron los gerentes de establecimientos hoteleros sobre la calidad percibida del servicio del proveedor. El an√°lisis de los datos soporta el modelo conceptual donde la satisfacci√≥n y la lealtad de los gerentes de los hoteles al proveedor est√° muy influenciada por la calidad del servicio que recibe de √©ste

    El uso de los resultados espa√Īoles de PISA en publicaciones cient√≠ficas

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    p. 183-202En la √ļltima d√©cada, el inter√©s por los resultados de PISA ha crecido, tanto en el debate p√ļblico como en el uso de los datos para la investigaci√≥n. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en analizar la utilizaci√≥n de los resultados espa√Īoles de PISA por parte de la comunidad cient√≠fica. Se realiz√≥ un an√°lisis bibliom√©trico de 119 art√≠culos cient√≠ficos incluidos en las bases de datos Scopus, Eric EBSCOHost y Web of Science entre 2002 y 2019 mediante an√°lisis de frecuencias, an√°lisis MDS y regresiones log√≠sticas binarias. Los resultados reflejan el creciente inter√©s por los resultados espa√Īoles de PISA desde 2005 hasta la actualidad, perteneciendo los autores principalmente al √°mbito universitario de la Educaci√≥n. Respecto al uso de la informaci√≥n de PISA, la mayor√≠a de los estudios emplean los datos como v√≠a para generar conocimiento, siendo los temas socioecon√≥micos como la familia y la equidad los que han tenido una mayor presencia junto al rendimiento de los estudiantes. Se concluye que, a pesar de que PISA ha tardado en tener impacto entre la comunidad acad√©mica espa√Īola, sus resultados son cada vez m√°s utilizados como fuente de informaci√≥n primaria para la realizaci√≥n de estudios detallados sobre temas muy diversos. No obstante, a su vez, PISA se utiliza de forma gen√©rica como indicador de calidad del sistema educativo, sin entrar en detalle en el an√°lisis contextualizado del rendimiento en las competencias objeto de estudio.S

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: insulation sector summary

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