532,819 research outputs found

    Presence of Legionellaceae in warm water supplies and typing of strains by polymerase chain reaction

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    Outbreaks of Legionnaire's disease present a public health challenge especially because fatal outcomes still remain frequent. The aim of this study was to describe the abundance and epidemiology of Legionellaceae in the human-made environment. Water was sampled from hot-water taps in private and public buildings across the area of G枚ttingen, Germany, including distant suburbs. Following isolation, we used polymerase chain reaction in order to generate strain specific banding profiles of legionella isolates. In total, 70 buildings were examined. Of these 18 (26%) had the bacterium in at least one water sample. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 4, 5 and 6 could be identified in the water samples. Most of the buildings were colonized solely by one distinct strain, as proven by PCR. In three cases equal patterns were found in separate buildings. There were two buildings in this study where isolates with different serogroups were found at the same time

    Vulnerability of public buildings subjected to earthquake by finite element modelling

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    Tremors in Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia due to Sumatra and Philippine earthquakes have been reported several times. Engineers are concerned of the seismic vulnerability of public buildings due to lack of earthquake consideration in Malaysia芒鈧劉s building design procedure. This study addresses the vulnerability of public buildings in Malaysia subjected to earthquakes from Sumatra and Philippines. A case study has been conducted on low rise to medium rise reinforced concrete buildings, which are mostly categorized as moment resisting frames. The buildings are analyzed using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) under different types of analyses including Free Vibration Analysis (FVA), and Time History Analysis (THA) considering low to medium earthquake intensities. The study indicates that more than 50% of the buildings produced dynamic amplification factors of slightly more than one indicating not much of a dynamic response to the buildings. The performances of the structure are shown by the yield point at beam-column connections where the internal forces at beam elements exceed the design capacity of the beams. In the non-linear analysis, the largest damage index is still under the intermediate level where no structural damage is indicated, but some non-structural damage are expected

    Microbiological hazard in buildings based on the example of dwelling houses and public utility buildings in Warsaw

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    This paper contains preliminary results of mycological research in residential and public buildings in Warsaw and its surroundings. The study focuses on the qualitative survey of fungi in buildings of various categories. It includes research objects divided into six categories depending on the age of the buildings and their use: new buildings and the objects of about twenty years and older, as well as twenty-year single-family houses. Two houses that are in the registry of monuments (National Heritage Institute) were also in the scope of the analysis. There have also been attempts to classify the identified species of fungi into groups of BSL (Biological Safety Level), in order to identify their potential allergenic impact on buildings users. In more than half of the studied objects the most frequently isolated species was Alternaria alternata (55% of cases) and fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus niger was identified in 33% of the objects, exclusively in the neglected buildings, including those abandoned for at least one year.W ponad po艂owie obiekt贸w najcz臋艣ciej izolowano Alternaria alternata (55% przypadk贸w) oraz grzyby z rodzaj贸w Aspergillus i Penicillium, w tym Aspergillus niger, kt贸ry zidentyfikowano w 33% badanych obiekt贸w: w budynkach zaniedbanych, w tym niezamieszka艂ych od przynajmniej rok

    An Experimental Study of a Flat Slab Floor Reinforced with Welded Wire Fabric

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    Reinforced Concrete Reserach CouncilOffice of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army.General Services Administration, Public Buildings ServiceHeadquarters, U.S. Air Force. Contract AF 33(658)-47U.S. Navy, Engineering Division. Bureau of Yards and Docks. NBy 3763

    Shuttered Public Schools: The Struggle to Bring Old Buildings New Life

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    Large-scale public school closures have become a fact of life in many American cities, and that trend is not likely to stop now. This report looks at what happens to the buildings themselves, studying the experiences of Philadelphia and 11 other cities that have decommissioned large numbers of schools in recent years: Atlanta, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Kansas City, Mo., Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Tulsa and Washington
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