29,347 research outputs found

    Complex regional pain syndrome: diagnosis and management

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    Complex regional pain syndrome is a rare and not well understood chronic pain condition that can affect anyone, irrespective of age and sex. It is important that nurses and the wider healthcare team are aware of the symptoms and recommended management of this condition, with timely diagnosis and appropriate rehabilitation being particularly important. This article provides an overview of complex regional pain syndrome and explains what is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Understanding the complexity of the condition and the relevant management guidelines will enable nurses to provide effective care and support for patients


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    The family is essential in improving the older adults’ quality of life, where the family's role can be reflected in the eight family function practices: 1) Religious; 2) Sociocultural; 3) Love; 4) Protection; 5) Reproductive; 6) Socio-education; 7) Economic; and 8) Environmental. This study aimed to determine the differences in family function practices among aging families in rural and urban areas. Data were analyzed using Cross-Tabulation with the Chi-Square and Independent T-test from a sample of 12,391 aging families in the 2019 Program Accountability Performance Survey. The results of the Independent T-test p<0.001 indicate a significant difference in implementing each family function between aging families in urban and rural areas. Despite both regions' low index scores for eight family function practices, aging families in the urban area practice slightly better than aging families in the rural. The characteristics that distinguished the implementation of family functions in urban and rural areas were educational and economic factors. In aging families, economic and love functions are most commonly performed in rural and urban areas, whereas reproductive and educational functions are the least performed. This research suggests intensively socializing about the eight family functions and educating on the importance of reproductive and educational functions in improving the quality of life in aging families

    A Comparison of the Human Umbilical Cord's Histomorphometric and Histological Structure in Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women

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    This study aimed to explore the histomorphometrical and histopathological alterations of umbilical cord (UC) vessels caused by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM). A total of thirty UC samples were obtained from full term pregnant women without any complications. Ten out of thirty UCs were obtained from non-diabetic pregnant women (normal group), 10 from GDM and 10 from PGDM pregnant women. Segments from the placental attachment, center and fetal side of UCs were taken for each group. These segments were processed for paraffin blocks, sectioned, and stained with H&E, Masson trichrome (MT) and Periodic Acid Shift (PAS). The results of the histomorphometric study showed no significant differences in the UC mean weight among these three groups. In three different segments, GDM resulted in a significant decrease in artery and vein wall thickness compared to the control group. GDM and PGDM resulted in a non-significant difference in the diameter of artery and vein in fetal segment, the vein in placental segment, and artery in the central segment compared with normal. All the UCs in the three groups contained two arteries and one vein but only one cord recorded in the GDM group contained one artery and one vein. Histological study of diabetic UC segments showed extravasation of blood, artery discordance, degeneration of Warton’s jelly (WJ) fibers with formation of honeycomb like empty spaces, formation of multiple spaces between smooth muscle cells of tunica media and detachment of the umbilical arteries from surrounding WJ. In both diabetic groups, there was a marked decrease in collagen fibers in tunica intima and media with their irregular arrangement in both arteries and vein especially in placental segment. The results also showed there was a rich carbohydrate content in the intima and media in all three groups. In conclusion, the current results proved that GDM and PGDM have an adverse effect on the structure of UC and its vessels. Keywords: Umbilical cord; Diabetes mellitus; Histological study; Special stains; Blood vessels DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/13-6-04 Publication date: April 30th 2023

    The Relationship Between Self-Perceived Hearing Ability and Listening-Related Fatigue

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    Background: Many adults experience hearing problems despite a diagnosis of normal hearing. An invalidation of self-perceived hearing problems can be emotionally distressing. Previous research describes a normal hearing test with perceived trouble understanding speech-in-noise as hearing difficulties (HD). Additionally, an individual's reported listening-related fatigue is associated more with their perceived HD than their degree of hearing loss. Recent studies investigated factors that contribute to deficits in speech-in-noise performance, a common symptom of HD. Specifically, adults with poorer working memory and poorer extended high-frequency (EHF) hearing exhibited poorer speech-in-noise performance than adults with better working memory and better EHF hearing. Purpose: The primary purpose of this thesis was to examine the relationship between auditory working memory, EHF thresholds, speech-in-noise performance, and the perception of one's HD. A secondary purpose was to understand the influence of listening-related fatigue, effort, and the perception of one's HD. By confirming auditory deficits via clinical test results, individuals can be counseled and treated more effectively. Methods: Participants were 17 adults (ages 18 – 58 years of age, 3 males, 14 females) with normal to "near normal hearing" as defined by Moore et al. (2012). Self-perceived HD were determined by the Adult Auditory Performance Scale (AAPS; Roup et al., 2021). The Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM; Smith et al., 2016) was used to evaluate auditory working memory. Listening-related fatigue was assessed with the Vanderbilt Fatigue Scale for Adults (VFS-A; Hornsby et al., 2021) and listening effort was evaluated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX; Hart & Staveland, 1988) in order to assess their potential relationship with self-perceived HD. Results: Results revealed significant correlations between self-reported HD and listening-related fatigue for the total and cognitive domain VFS-A scores. Specifically, adults with greater degrees of HD also reported greater degrees of listening-related fatigue. In addition, results revealed that listening-related fatigue and listening effort (i.e., mental demand) were significantly correlated, meaning when adults experienced greater listening-related fatigue from auditory situations, they had to exert more effort. Of the auditory tests administered, participants reported that pure-tone detection required much less effort than the other auditory tasks. This illustrates that the typical hearing test is a relatively low effort task that does not compare to the everyday auditory situations of adults' lives. Conclusions: Results from the present study suggest that it is essential to employ more rigorous tests of auditory function that are more representative of everyday listening (e.g., auditory and cognitive resources) to more accurately assess an individual's hearing ability and validate their self- perception of HD.No embargoAcademic Major: Speech and Hearing Scienc

    Circadian variations in aortic stiffness, sympathetic vasoconstriction, and post-ischemic vasodilation in adults with and without type 2 diabetes.

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    The current literature reveals a lack of information on the circadian variations of some important cardiovascular risk factors related to the work of the heart or the capacity to provide blood and oxygen to various tissues. These factors include aortic stiffness, peripheral vasoconstrictor responsiveness, and post-ischemic vasodilation capacity. Furthermore, it is not clear whether the impact of an external stressor capable of activating the sympathetic nervous system could have greater repercussions on the cardiovascular system in the morning than in the evening. Given the higher incidence of acute cardiovascular events in the morning than in the evening, the studies undertaken in this thesis aim to investigate the circadian variations of these factors that are linked to cardiovascular risk, both at rest and during acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a condition that induces deleterious changes in cardiovascular function, impacting cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Thus, the impact of diabetes will be evaluated. As a secondary purpose, considering the sex differences in the incidence and prognosis of cardiovascular disease, the effect of sex will be evaluated. Aortic stiffness proved not to be increased in the morning compared to the evening at specific times when the cardiovascular risk is significantly different, both at rest and during sympathetic activation. However, while healthy older women show similar aortic stiffness values compared to their male counterparts during acute stress, older women with T2DM reported greater aortic stiffness compared to men with T2DM. The post-ischemic forearm vasodilation is blunted in the morning compared to the evening in healthy elderly and such an attenuated vasodilation capacity impairs blood flow supply towards the ischemic area. The presence of T2DM does not affect vasodilation capacity and reactive hyperemia, but induces circadian variations in arterial pressure. The peripheral vasoconstriction triggered by a standardized sympathetic stressor is similar between morning and evening, regardless of the presence of T2DM and reduced baseline vascular conductance values in the morning. However, the peripheral vasoconstriction responsiveness is blunted in individuals with T2DM than in healthy ones as sympathetic activation induces vasodilation on the contralateral forearm in individuals with T2DM and vasoconstriction in healthy age-matched subjects. This finding highlights a neurovascular response to an external stressor altered by T2DM. Taken together, our findings suggest that the baseline state of constriction of the peripheral vascular tissue is greater in the morning than in the evening, but this fact is not due to greater sympathetic vasoconstriction responsiveness in the morning. Higher morning vasoconstriction at baseline however affects the capacity of a vascular tissue to dilate and, in turn, to supply blood to an ischemic tissue. Similar sympathetic vasoconstriction responsiveness between morning and evening is a likely factor explaining similar or lower values of central artery stiffness in the morning than in the evening, not only at rest but also during sympathetic excitation. Paradoxically, adults with T2DM report an increase in sympathetic-mediated dilatation capacity on the vascular tissue, which might be a defense mechanism that allows to reduce the central pressor response during sympathetic excitation

    A proprietary black cumin oil extract (Nigella sativa) (BlaQmax®) modulates stress-sleep-immunity axis safely: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

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    ObjectiveStress, sleep, and immunity are important interdependent factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of health. It has been established that stress can affect sleep, and the quality and duration of sleep significantly impact immunity. However, single drugs capable of targeting these factors are limited because of their multi-targeting mechanisms. The present study investigated the influence of a proprietary thymoquinone-rich black cumin oil extract (BCO-5) in modulating stress, sleep, and immunity.MethodsA randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study was carried out on healthy volunteers with self-reported non-refreshing sleep issues (n = 72), followed by supplementation with BCO-5/placebo at 200  mg/day for 90  days. Validated questionnaires, PSQI and PSS, were employed for monitoring sleep and stress respectively, along with the measurement of cortisol and melatonin levels. Immunity markers were analyzed at the end of the study.ResultsIn the BCO-5 group, 70% of the participants reported satisfaction with their sleep pattern on day 7 and 79% on day 14. Additionally, both inter- and intra- group analyses of the total PSQI scores and component scores (sleep latency, duration, efficiency, quality, and daytime dysfunction) on days 45 and 90 showed the effectiveness of BCO-5 in the improvement of sleep (p < 0.05). PSS-14 analysis revealed a significant reduction in stress, upon both intra (p < 0.001) and inter-group (p < 0.001) comparisons. The observed reduction in stress among the BCO-5 group, with respect to the placebo, was significant with an effect size of 1.19 by the end of the study (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was also observed between improved sleep and reduced stress as evident from PSQI and PSS. Furthermore, there was a significant modulation in melatonin, cortisol, and orexin levels. Hematological/immunological parameters further revealed the immunomodulatory effects of BCO-5.ConclusionBCO-5 significantly modulated the stress-sleep-immunity axis with no side effects and restored restful sleep

    Small newborns in post-conflict Northern Uganda: Burden and interventions for improved outcomes

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    Introduction: A small newborn can be the result of either a low birthweight (LBW), or a preterm birth (PB), or both. LBW can be due to either a preterm appropriate-for gestational-age (preterm-AGA), or a term small-for-gestational age (term-SGA) or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). An IUGR is a limited in-utero foetal growth rates or foetal weight < 10th percentile. Small newborns have an increased risk of dying, particularly in low-resource settings. We set out to assess the burden, the modifiable risk factors and health outcomes of small newborns in the post-conflict Northern Ugandan district of Lira. In addition, we studied the use of video-debriefing when training health staff in Helping Babies Breathe. Subjects and methods: In 2018-19, we conducted a community-based cohort study on 1556 mother-infant dyads, nested within a cluster randomized trial. In our cohort study, we estimated the incidence and risk factors for LBW and PB and the association of LBW with severe outcomes. We explored the prevalence of and factors associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia, as well as any association between neonatal death and hypoglycaemia. In addition, we conducted a cluster randomized trial to compare Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training in combination with video debriefing to the traditional HBB training alone on the attainment and retention of health worker neonatal resuscitation competency. Results: The incidence of LBW and PB in our cohort was lower than the global estimates, 7.3% and 5.0%, respectively. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria was associated with a reduced risk of LBW. HIV infection was associated with an increased risk of both LBW and PB, while maternal formal education (schooling) of ≥7 years was associated with a reduced risk of LBW and PB. The proportions of neonatal deaths were many-folds higher among LBW infants compared to their non-LBW counterparts. The proportion of neonatal deaths among LBW was 103/1000 live births compared to 5/1000 among the non-LBW. The prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia in our cohort was 2.5%. LBW and PB each independently were associated with an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Neonatal hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation and severe outcomes. We demonstrated that neonatal resuscitation training with video debriefing, improved competence attainment and retention among health workers, compared to traditional HBB training alone. Conclusion: In northern Uganda, small infants still have a many-fold higher risk of dying compared to normal infants. In addition, small infants are also at more risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia compared to normal infants. Efforts are needed to secure essential newborn care, should we reach the target of Sustainable Development Goal number 3.2 of reducing infant mortality to less than 12/1000 live births by 2030

    Internet-based and mobile-based cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Abstract Positive adjustment to chronic diseases reduces psychiatric comorbidity and enhances quality of life. Very little is known about the benefit of internet-based and mobile-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IM-CBT) on physical outcomes and its reciprocal interactions with psychiatric outcomes, the active therapeutic elements, and effect moderators among people with major chronic medical conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42022265738), CINAHL of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science are systematically searched up to 1 June 2022, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IM-CBT against non-CBT control condition(s) among people with chronic disease(s). Primary outcomes include improvements in psychiatric symptoms (depressive, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, general psychological distress) from baseline to post-intervention and follow-ups. Secondary outcomes include improvements in physical distress (physical symptoms, functional impairment, self-rated ill health, objective physiological dysfunction). Among 44 RCTs (5077 patients with seven different chronic diseases), IM-CBT improves depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and general psychological distress at post-intervention and across follow-ups, and improves physical distress and functional impairment at post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests that behavioral modification and problem-solving could be necessary components to reduce psychiatric symptoms in IM-CBT, whereas cognitive restructuring, psychoeducation, and mindfulness elements relate to reduced physical distress. IM-CBT shows stronger benefits in chronic pain, cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease, relative to other conditions. Changes in psychiatric symptoms and physical distress prospectively predict each other over time. IM-CBT is an effective intervention for comprehensive symptom management among people with chronic diseases