221,511 research outputs found

    The prognostic significance of ALDH1A1 expression in early invasive breast cancer

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    Aims: Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1)is reportedly a key ALDH isozyme linked to the cancer stem cells (CSC) of many solid tumours, where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. In this study, the prognostic significance of ALDH1A1 expression in early invasive breast cancer (BC) and its role as a BC stem cell (BCSC) were evaluated.Methods: ALDH1A1 expression was assessed, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays, in a large well- characterised BC cohort. ALDH1A1 mRNA expression was also assessed at the transcriptomic levels, utilising data from the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium. The associations of ALDH1A1 with clinicopathological parameters, other stem cell markers and patient outcomes were determined.Results: ALDH1A1 was expressed in 71% of BC cases, at both the protein and mRNA levels. High ALDH1A1 expression was associated with poor prognostic features, including high grade, poor Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), lymph node metastasis and highly proliferative ER+ (luminal B) and triple negative (TNBC) subtypes. ALDH1A1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of CD44, CD24, TWIST, SOX9, EPCAM and CD133. The high immunoexpression of ALDH1A1 was significantly associated with poor BC-specific survival [less than] 0.001), and specifically in the luminal B and TNBC subtypes (P=0.042 and P=0.003, respectively). The immunoexpression of ALDH1A1 was an independent predictor of poor prognosis (P=0.015).Conclusions: ALDH1A1, as assessed using IHC, seems to act as a BCSC marker associated not only with other BCSC markers but also with poor prognostic characteristics and poor outcomes, particularly in the luminal B and TNBC subtypes

    The prognostic significance of Interferon Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15) in invasive breast cancer

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    BackgroundLymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a prognostic factor in early-stage invasive breast cancer (BC). Through bioinformatics, data analyses of multiple BC cohorts revealed the positive association between interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) LVI status. Thus, we explored the prognostic significance of ISG15 in BC.MethodsThe prognostic significance of ISG15 mRNA was assessed in METABRIC (n = 1980), TCGA (n = 854) and Kaplan–Meier Plotter (n = 3951). ISG15 protein was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (n = 859) in early-stage invasive BC patients with long-term follow-up. The associations between ISG15 expression and clinicopathological features, expression of immune cell markers and patient outcome data were evaluated.ResultsHigh mRNA and protein ISG15 expression were associated with LVI, higher histological grade, larger tumour size, hormonal receptor negativity, HER2 positivity, p53 and Ki67. High ISG15 protein expression was associated with HER2-enriched BC subtypes and immune markers (CD8, FOXP3 and CD68). High ISG15 mRNA and ISG15 expressions were associated with poor patient outcome. Cox proportional multivariate analysis revealed that the elevated ISG15 expression was an independent prognostic factor of shorter BC-specific survival.ConclusionThis study provides evidence for the role of ISG15 in LVI development and BC prognosis. Further functional studies in BC are warranted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ISG15

    Prognostic Significance of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (Serum Vegf-C) and Lymph-Vascular Space Invasion in Early Stage Cervical Cancer

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    Background: Management of early stage cervical cancer is still challenging. Several clinical-pathological prognostic factors that are currently used in clinical practice include stage, bulky tumor, stromal deep invasion, differentiation, histology, lymph vascular space invasion and status of lymph-node. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGF-C) has an important role in metastasis as an angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factor. This study aimed to determine prognostic significance of serum VEGF-Cand lymph-vascular space invasionin early stage cervical cancer. Subjects and Method: This was a case-control study conducted at January to October 2007. A sample of47 early-stage cervical cancer patients including 14 patients with lymph node metastasis (case) and 33 patients without lymph node metastasis (control) was selected for this study. The dependent variable was lymph node metastasis. The independent variables were serum VEGF-C and lymph vascular space invasion. Serum VEGF-C levels were examined by ELISA method. The data were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: A cut-off point of serum VEGF-C level of 10.07 pg/ mLresulted in 78.57% sensitivity and 96.97% specificity. The risk of lymph node metastasis increased with serum VEGF-C level > 10.07 pg/ mL (OR= 80.0; 95% CI=7.99 to 800.71; p< 0.001) and lymph vascular space invasion (OR= 20.00; 95% CI=2.32 to 171.7; p= 0.006). Conclusion: Serum VEGF-C and lymph vascular space invasion can be used as independent prognostic factor on the risk of lymph-node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer. Keywords: cervical cancer, prognostic factor, serum VEGF-C, lymph node metastasis

    Loss of TRAIL-receptors is a recurrent feature in pancreatic cancer and determines the prognosis of patients with no nodal metastasis after surgery.

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    Agonistic antibodies targeting TRAIL-receptors 1 and 2 (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2) are being developed as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy including pancreatic cancer. However, the cellular distribution of these receptors in primary pancreatic cancer samples has not been sufficiently investigated and no study has yet addressed the issue of their prognostic significance in this tumor entity. Applying tissue microarray (TMA) analysis, we performed an immunohistochemical assessment of TRAIL-receptors in surgical samples from 84 consecutive patients affected by pancreatic adenocarcinoma and in 26 additional selected specimens from patients with no lymph nodes metastasis at the time of surgery. The prognostic significance of membrane staining and staining intensity for TRAIL-receptors was evaluated. The fraction of pancreatic cancer samples with positive membrane staining for TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 was lower than that of cells from surrounding non-tumor tissues (TRAIL-R1: p<0.001, TRAIL-R2: p = 0.006). In addition, subgroup analyses showed that loss of membrane staining for TRAIL-R2 was associated with poorer prognosis in patients without nodal metastases (multivariate Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratio: 0.44 [95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.87]; p = 0.019). In contrast, analysis of decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and -R4 in tumor samples showed an exclusively cytoplasmatic staining pattern and no prognostic relevance. This is a first report on the prognostic significance of TRAIL-receptors expression in pancreatic cancer showing that TRAIL-R2 might represent a prognostic marker for patients with early stage disease. In addition, our data suggest that loss of membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors could represent a molecular mechanism for therapeutic failure upon administration of TRAIL-receptors-targeting antibodies in pancreatic cancer. This hypothesis should be evaluated in future clinical trials

    Prognostic significance of DNA cytometry in cutaneous malignant lymphomas.

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    The current classification of cutaneous malignant lymphomas (ML) into low-grade and high-grade lymphomas was found to be of limited reproducibility and permitted only a rough prediction about outcome. With this in mind, the relationship between nuclear DNA content and both prognosis and histologic grading according to the Kiel classification was evaluated on Feulgen-stained imprint specimens. In all, 49 cases of malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, primary of the skin or with an involvement of the skin as one of the first symptoms, were studied using a computerized high-resolution image analysis system. The 2c deviation index (2cDI), which reflects the variation of the nuclear DNA values around the normal diploid peak, was found to be the best prognostically relevant criterion. Using the 2cDI, a significant discrimination (P less than 0.001 in the U test) between low-grade and high-grade ML was achieved. The prognostic benefit of the 2cDI was well documented by a significant inverse correlation between the 2cDI and the period of time until the patients progressed at least into one higher stage or died of lymphoma (r equals -0.63, P less than 0.05). In addition, the 2cDI enabled prognosis of the course of disease. In the group with low 2cDI values (2cDI, less than 0.5), no progression of the disease was observed after 1 year. In the groups presenting with a 2cDI between 0.5 and 1.0 and higher than 1.0, a progression was found in 57% and 64% of the cases studied, respectively. In conclusion, these measurements indicate that the determination of DNA distribution patterns in imprint specimens allows a precise and objective prognostic evaluation of cutaneous ML

    Prognostic significance of endogenous adhesion/growth-regulatory lectins in lung cancer

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    Objective: To determine the expression of endogenous adhesion/growth-regulatory lectins and their binding sites using labeled tissue lectins as well as the binding profile of hyaluronic acid as an approach to define new prognostic markers. Methods: Sections of paraffin-embedded histological material of 481 lungs from lung tumor patients following radical lung excision processed by a routine immunohistochemical method (avidin-biotin labeling, DAB chromogen). Specific antibodies against galectins-1 and - 3 and the heparin-binding lectin were tested. Staining by labeled galectins and hyaluronic acid was similarly visualized by a routine protocol. After semiquantitative assessment of staining, the results were compared with the pT and pN stages and the histological type. Survival was calculated by univariate and multivariate methods. Results: Binding of galectin-1 and its expression tended to increase, whereas the parameters for galectin-3 decreased in advanced pT and pN stages at a statistically significant level. The number of positive cases was considerably smaller among the cases with small cell lung cancer than in the group with non-small-cell lung cancer, among which adenocarcinomas figured prominently with the exception of galectin-1 expression. Kaplan-Meier computations revealed that the survival rate of patients with galectin-3-binding or galectin-1-expressing tumors was significantly poorer than that of the negative cases. In the multivariate calculations of survival lymph node metastases ( p < 0.0001), histological type ( p = 0.003), galectin-3-binding capacity ( p = 0.01), galectin-3 expression ( p = 0.03) and pT status ( p = 0.003) proved to be independent prognostic factors, not correlated with the pN stage. Conclusion: The expression and the capacity to bind the adhesion/growth regulatory galectin-3 is defined as an unfavorable prognostic factor not correlated with the pTN stage. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Development of Prognosis in Palliative care Study (PiPS) predictor models to improve prognostication in advanced cancer: prospective cohort study

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    OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel prognostic indicator for use in patients with advanced cancer that is significantly better than clinicians' estimates of survival. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre observational cohort study. SETTING: 18 palliative care services in the UK (including hospices, hospital support teams, and community teams). PARTICIPANTS: 1018 patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer, no longer being treated for cancer, and recently referred to palliative care services. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Performance of a composite model to predict whether patients were likely to survive for "days" (0-13 days), "weeks" (14-55 days), or "months+" (>55 days), compared with actual survival and clinicians' predictions. RESULTS: On multivariate analysis, 11 core variables (pulse rate, general health status, mental test score, performance status, presence of anorexia, presence of any site of metastatic disease, presence of liver metastases, C reactive protein, white blood count, platelet count, and urea) independently predicted both two week and two month survival. Four variables had prognostic significance only for two week survival (dyspnoea, dysphagia, bone metastases, and alanine transaminase), and eight variables had prognostic significance only for two month survival (primary breast cancer, male genital cancer, tiredness, loss of weight, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin). Separate prognostic models were created for patients without (PiPS-A) or with (PiPS-B) blood results. The area under the curve for all models varied between 0.79 and 0.86. Absolute agreement between actual survival and PiPS predictions was 57.3% (after correction for over-optimism). The median survival across the PiPS-A categories was 5, 33, and 92 days and survival across PiPS-B categories was 7, 32, and 100.5 days. All models performed as well as, or better than, clinicians' estimates of survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced cancer no longer being treated, a combination of clinical and laboratory variables can reliably predict two week and two month survival

    The prognostic value of cortical magnetic stimulation in acute middle cerebral artery infarction compared to other parameters

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    The prognostic value of magnetic evoked potentials (MEP), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), age and radiological parameters was determined in 50 patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction. We performed MEP and SSEP within 4 days and after 6 weeks and 3 months of the infarction and assessed clinical improvement by using the Barthel index (BI) and the Rankin scale. The localization and extent of the infarction was investigated by CT scanning or NMR. All parameters were correlated to clinical outcome and the prognostic significance of each parameter in addition to BI was determined. MEP, SSEP, and age were valuable prognostic parameters in predicting stroke outcome when used together with the BI. However, in stepwise regression analysis using all parameters simultaneously, only MEP and age significantly contributed to clinical outcome in addition to BI. Patients showed a better outcome when their MEP was normal or delayed, measured within 4 days of the infarction, compared to patients with absent MEP. Clinical outcome was better at a younger age

    The prognostic significance of Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ

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    BackgroundImpaired DNA repair mechanism is one of the cancer hallmarks. Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is essential for genomic integrity. FEN1 has key roles during base excision repair (BER) and replication. We hypothesised a role for FEN1 in breast cancer pathogenesis. This study aims to assess the role of FEN1 in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).MethodsExpression of FEN1 protein was evaluated in a large (n = 1015) well-characterised cohort of DCIS, comprising pure (n = 776) and mixed (DCIS coexists with invasive breast cancer (IBC); n = 239) using immunohistochemistry (IHC).ResultsFEN1 high expression in DCIS was associated with aggressive and high-risk features including higher nuclear grade, larger tumour size, comedo type necrosis, hormonal receptors negativity, higher proliferation index and triple-negative phenotype. DCIS coexisting with invasive BC showed higher FEN1 nuclear expression compared to normal breast tissue and pure DCIS but revealed significantly lower expression when compared to the invasive component. However, FEN1 protein expression in DCIS was not an independent predictor of local recurrence-free interval.ConclusionHigh FEN1 expression is linked to features of aggressive tumour behaviour and may play a role in the direct progression of DCIS to invasive disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate its mechanistic roles in DCIS progression and prognosis