97,434 research outputs found

    Implementation of a novel online condition monitoring thermal prognostic indicator system

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    This research aims to develop a reliable and robust online condition monitoring thermal prognostic indicator system which will reduce the risk of failures in a Power System Network. Real-time measurements (weather conditions, temperature of the cable joints or terminations, loading demand) taken close to underground cable will update the prognostic simulation model. Anomalies of the measurements along the cable will be compared with the predicted ones hence indicating a possible degradation activity in the cable. The use of such systems within a power networks will provide a smarter way of prognostic condition monitoring in which you measure less and model more. The use of suggested thermal models will enable the power network operators to maximize asset utilization and minimize constraint costs in the system

    Intra-tumour signalling entropy determines clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer.

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    The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample's genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers

    Hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma

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    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the increasing afflictions and is the 2nd commonest cause of death from cancer in the Western world. It accounts from 14% of cancer deaths in men and 16% of deaths in women. The best prognostic indicator for survival in colorectal disease has been based on the extent and spread of the disease. In this article the author mentions chemotherapy and surgery as the possible treatment options.peer-reviewe

    Eosinophils and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Review

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    The eosinophil cell has been related as a prognostic indicator for cancers. However, its exact function in tumour behaviour is still not clearly defined. In the oral cavity the presence of eosinophils can be a favourable prognostic indicator as well as it may be associated with a poor prognosis. In this short review, we briefly summarize the role of the eosinophils in the general context of immunoregulation and its relation to oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Tissue microarray immunohistochemical detection of brachyury is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

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    Brachyury is a marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, such as chordoma. However, the prognostic relevance of brachyury expression in chordoma is still unknown. The improvement of tissue microarray technology has provided the opportunity to perform analyses of tumor tissues on a large scale in a uniform and consistent manner. This study was designed with the use of tissue microarray to determine the expression of brachyury. Brachyury expression in chordoma tissues from 78 chordoma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray. The clinicopathologic parameters, including gender, age, location of tumor and metastatic status were evaluated. Fifty-nine of 78 (75.64%) tumors showed nuclear staining for brachyury, and among them, 29 tumors (49.15%) showed 1+ (<30% positive cells) staining, 15 tumors (25.42%) had 2+ (31% to 60% positive cells) staining, and 15 tumors (25.42%) demonstrated 3+ (61% to 100% positive cells) staining. Brachyury nuclear staining was detected more frequently in sacral chordomas than in chordomas of the mobile spine. However, there was no significant relationship between brachyury expression and other clinical variables. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, brachyury expression failed to produce any significant relationship with the overall survival rate. In conclusion, brachyury expression is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma

    The modified Glasgow prognostic score in prostate cancer: results from a retrospective clinical series of 744 patients

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    <p>Background: As the incidence of prostate cancer continues to rise steeply, there is an increasing need to identify more accurate prognostic markers for the disease. There is some evidence that a higher modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) may be associated with poorer survival in patients with prostate cancer but it is not known whether this is independent of other established prognostic factors. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the relationship between mGPS and survival in patients with prostate cancer after adjustment for other prognostic factors.</p> <p>Methods: Retrospective clinical series on patients in Glasgow, Scotland, for whom data from the Scottish Cancer Registry, including Gleason score, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, six months prior to or following the diagnosis, were included in this study.</p> <p>The mGPS was constructed by combining CRP and albumin. Five-year and ten-year relative survival and relative excess risk of death were estimated by mGPS categories after adjusting for age, socioeconomic circumstances, Gleason score, PSA and previous in-patient bed days.</p> <p>Results: Seven hundred and forty four prostate cancer patients were identified; of these, 497 (66.8%) died during a maximum follow up of 11.9 years. Patients with mGPS of 2 had poorest 5-year and 10-year relative survival, of 32.6% and 18.8%, respectively. Raised mGPS also had a significant association with excess risk of death at five years (mGPS 2: Relative Excess Risk = 3.57, 95% CI 2.31-5.52) and ten years (mGPS 2: Relative Excess Risk = 3.42, 95% CI 2.25-5.21) after adjusting for age, socioeconomic circumstances, Gleason score, PSA and previous in-patient bed days.</p> <p>Conclusions: The mGPS is an independent and objective prognostic indicator for survival of patients with prostate cancer. It may be useful in determining the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer in addition to established prognostic markers.</p&gt

    Leukocytosis as Prognostic Indicator of Major Injury

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    Objective To test the diagnostic use of the triage white blood cell (WBC) count in differentiating major from minor injuries. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of trauma patients 13 years of age or older at a Level I trauma center from January 2005 through December 2008. We excluded all patients with obvious life-threatening injuries requiring immediate surgery, isolated head trauma, transferred from another institution or dead on arrival. We recorded age, sex, injury mechanism, vital signs, WBC, base deficit (BD), lactate (LAC) and calculated injury severity scores (ISS). Major injury was defined as either a change in hematocrit \u3e10 points or blood transfused within 24 hours, or ISS \u3e15. Results 805 patients were included in the study with an average age of 38.6 years (Range 13–95 yrs) years. 75.3% of patients were male, 45.6% had blunt and 34.4% had penetrating trauma. For vital signs, blood pressure was not significantly different between major and minor injury patients. Major compared to minor injury patients had a statistically but not clinically significant higher heart rate. Major injury patients had significantly (p \u3c 0.0001) higher WBC count (10.53 K/μl, 95% CI: 9.7–11.3) compared to patients with minor injuries (8.92 K/μl, 95% CI: 8.7–9.2), but both were in the normal range. Patients with major compared to minor injury had significantly (p \u3c 0.0001) higher BD (−3.1 versus −0.027 mmol/L) and higher LAC (3.9 versus 2.48 mmol/L). Areas under the curve for WBC count (0.60, 95% CI: 0.54–0.66) are similar to BD (0.69, 95% CI: 0.63–0.74) and LAC (0.66, 95% CI: 0.60–0.71). Conclusion WBC count is not a useful addition as a diagnostic indicator of major trauma in our study population

    Stroma AReactive Invasion Front Areas (SARIFA) - a new easily to determine biomarker in Colon cancer - results of a retrospective study

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    Simple Summary Many studies have used histomorphological features to more precisely predict the prognosis of patients with colon cancer, focusing on tumor budding, poorly differentiated clusters, and the tumor–stroma ratio. Here, we introduce SARIFA: Stroma AReactive Invasion Front Area(s). We defined SARIFA as the direct contact between a tumor gland/tumor cell cluster (≥5 cells) and inconspicuous surrounding adipose tissue in the invasion front. SARIFA shows an excellent interobserver reliability and high prognostic value and is thus a promising histomorphological prognostic indicator for adipose-infiltrative adenocarcinomas of the colon. Abstract Many studies have used histomorphological features to more precisely predict the prognosis of patients with colon cancer, focusing on tumor budding, poorly differentiated clusters, and the tumor–stroma ratio. Here, we introduce SARIFA: Stroma AReactive Invasion Front Area(s). We defined SARIFA as the direct contact between a tumor gland/tumor cell cluster (≥5 cells) and inconspicuous surrounding adipose tissue in the invasion front. In this retrospective, single-center study, we classified 449 adipose-infiltrative adenocarcinomas (not otherwise specified) from two groups based on SARIFA and found 25% of all tumors to be SARIFA-positive. Kappa values between the two pathologists were good/very good: 0.77 and 0.87. Patients with SARIFA-positive tumors had a significantly shorter colon-cancer-specific survival (p = 0.008, group A), absence of metastasis, and overall survival (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, group B). SARIFA was significantly associated with adverse features such as pT4 stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor budding, and higher tumor grade. Moreover, SARIFA was confirmed as an independent prognostic indicator for colon-cancer-specific survival (p = 0.011, group A). SARIFA assessment was very quick (<1 min). Because of low interobserver variability and good prognostic significance, SARIFA seems to be a promising histomorphological prognostic indicator in adipose-infiltrative adenocarcinomas of the colon. Further studies should validate our results and also determine whether SARIFA is a universal prognostic indicator in solid cancers