1,292 research outputs found

    L’artisanat du cuir dans l’ExtrĂȘme-Nord du Cameroun du XIXe siĂšcle Ă  2007

    Get PDF
    A partir des documents Ă©crits divers, des sources orales, iconographiques et des observations sur le terrain, ce travail ambitionne d’analyser l’évolution de l’artisanat du cuir dans l’ExtrĂȘme-Nord du Cameroun Ă  travers le contexte de son dĂ©veloppement, les mĂ©canismes d’acquisition des peaux, de production, d’usage et de commercialisation du cuir et d’objets en cuir, de mĂȘme que l’impact et les problĂšmes auxquels cette activitĂ© locale fait face. C’est entre les XIXe et XXe siĂšcles que des foyers d’activitĂ© du cuir Ă  une Ă©chelle importante se dĂ©veloppent dans les localitĂ©s de Maroua, Bogo, Mindif et Doumrou par des communautĂ©s kanouri et haoussa. Ces derniĂšres qui ont migrĂ© au Nord-Cameroun Ă  la suite du Jihad peul du XIXe siĂšcle, dĂ©veloppent le commerce et l’industrie traditionnelle avec plusieurs filiĂšres parmi lesquelles celle du cuir. Les peaux d’animaux tels que les bƓufs, les moutons et les chĂšvres sont transformĂ©es en cuir selon des techniques qui font usage des produits prĂ©levĂ©s de la nature pour la plupart. Les objets fabriquĂ©s sont les tapis de priĂšre, les couvertures de Coran, les chaussures, les arsenaux de guerre, les cache-sexe et les harnachements des chevaux, destinĂ©s Ă  la vente. Entre les annĂ©es 1940 et 2007, l’artisanat du cuir de Maroua spĂ©cifiquement, connaĂźt de nombreux changements dus Ă  plusieurs facteurs. L’action des autoritĂ©s coloniales françaises, l’avĂšnement du tourisme et des ONG qui travaillent dans le secteur du cuir, la crĂ©ation des associations, des coopĂ©ratives et des groupements d’initiative commune, ont contribuĂ© Ă  changer le visage de cette activitĂ© tant du point de vue du tannage que de la fabrication d’objets en cuir. C’est ainsi que les filiĂšres du cuir ont Ă©tĂ© organisĂ©es, les modĂšles de produits fabriquĂ©s ont changĂ©, s’orientant de plus en plus vers la civilisation occidentale, des structures de vente d’objets artisanaux ont vu le jour Ă  l’instar du Centre Artisanal de Maroua en 1955 et du Complexe Artisanal en 2007. Dans les autres localitĂ©s par contre, l’artisanat du cuir n’a pas connu d’influences notables. Les objets fabriquĂ©s sont restĂ©s presque les mĂȘmes que ceux du XIXe siĂšcle. Ces zones font davantage dans le tannage dont les cuirs sont acheminĂ©s vers Maroua. Du XIXe siĂšcle Ă  2007, les objets en cuir sont vendus dans les marchĂ©s et autres centres de vente crĂ©Ă©s dans les localitĂ©s d’activitĂ© du cuir et leurs environs, des zones de l’ex Émirat de l’Adamawa, dans la partie mĂ©ridionale du Cameroun, dans d’autres pays d’Afrique et mĂȘme d’Europe. Les populations locales, les Ă©trangers rĂ©sidant au Cameroun, les touristes et les populations d’ailleurs constituent la clientĂšle des artisans de l’ExtrĂȘme-Nord. Les objets fabriquĂ©s servent aux usages multiples, Ă  savoir vestimentaires, Ă©sotĂ©riques, esthĂ©tiques. Dans les autres localitĂ©s d’activitĂ© du cuir de l’ExtrĂȘme-Nord, ce sont les Kanouri et les Haoussa qui dĂ©tiennent depuis toujours le monopole de cette activitĂ© alors qu’à Maroua ce n’est plus le cas. Les changements qu’y a connus ce secteur ont contribuĂ© Ă  briser le monopole ethnique et impliquer des acteurs d’origines diverses parmi lesquels se retrouvent mĂȘme quelques femmes. ActivitĂ© pourvoyeuse d’objets importants pour les populations, les artisans du cuir avaient par consĂ©quent une place privilĂ©giĂ©e dans la sociĂ©tĂ© au XIXe siĂšcle et mĂȘme pendant la colonisation française Ă  Maroua. L’avĂšnement des produits Ă  caractĂšre moderne qui ont remplacĂ© peu Ă  peu ceux de l’artisanat local, a affectĂ© la considĂ©ration sociale des acteurs du secteur du cuir. MalgrĂ© les prĂ©jugĂ©s dĂ©veloppĂ©s autour du travail du cuir, il faut relever que dans la ville de Maroua par exemple, certains artisans de par les revenus qu’ils tirent de leur activitĂ©, bĂ©nĂ©ficient d’une position sociale respectable. Au total, l’artisanat du cuir a un impact multidimensionnel. Il gĂ©nĂšre des revenus Ă  la chaĂźne d’acteurs impliquĂ©s, participe au brassage inter-ethnique, alimente le marchĂ© du tourisme et contribue par le biais de ses produits Ă  la promotion de l’identitĂ© culturelle de l’ExtrĂȘme-Nord Ă  travers le monde. Mais il pollue aussi l’environnement par ses odeurs nausĂ©abondes et le dĂ©truit par l’usage des peaux de la faune sauvage, attire les jeunes gens qui se dĂ©sintĂ©ressent de l’école, d’oĂč l’analphabĂ©tisme. Depuis quelques annĂ©es, cet art local souffre de la rarĂ©faction des peaux, des intrants de tannage et des matĂ©riels qui entrent dans la confection d’objets en cuir. Des conflits entre les artisans, les revendeurs d’objets en cuir et les ONG perturbent aussi cette filiĂšre dont la qualitĂ© des produits, souvent dĂ©plorĂ©e, affecte les ventes.Based on different written documents, oral and iconographic sources and field observation, this work intends to analyse the evolution of leather activity within the context of its development, the methods of acquiring skins, the production, the use and the trade of leather and leather objects. This thesis emphasizes also on the impact and the problems faced by the leather handicraft. It was between the 19th and the 20th centuries that pockets of leather activities on a high scale developed in the localities of Maroua, Bogo, Mindif and Doumrou. It was introduced by the Kanuri and the Hausa peoples. The latter migrated into Northern Cameroon during the Fulani Jihad of the 19th century and developed traditional trade and industry in many domains among which was leather. Skins of animals such as cows, sheep and goats were transformed into leather through techniques which make use of products retrieved from nature in their majority. Fabricated items include prayer mats, covers for the Koran, shoes, war arsenals, G-strings and horse-riding paraphernalia destined to trade. Between the 1940s and 2007, Maroua leather artwork has particularly witnessed various changes caused by many factors. Measures taken by: the French colonial masters, the development of tourism and the advent of NGOs working the leather sector, the creation of associations, cooperative groups and common initiative groups, have contributed in changing the face of that sector of activity not only from the perspective of tanning, but also from the fabrication of leather objects. As a result of this, leather handicraft was organised, the models of products were then changed taking more and more the shape of western civilization. Such structures for the sale of leather objects have been created such as the Maroua Artisanal Centre in 1955 and the Artisanal Complex in 2007. In the other localities, however, leather artwork has not undergone major influences. Fabricated items remained almost the same as those of the 19th century. Those localities specialize more in tanning and the leather is forwarded to Maroua. From the 19th century to 2007, leather objects were sold in markets and other market centers created in localities of leather activities and their environs, in the areas of the ex-Adamawa Emirate, in the Southern parts of Cameroon. These objects are also sold in other African and even European countries. The local populations, foreigners living in Cameroon, tourists and people from other parts of Cameroon are the main buyers of the Far Northern artworks. Objects which are fabricated serve various purposes especially for clothing, esoteric and esthetic purposes. In other localities of leather activity, the Kanuris and the Hausas have always taken the lead, whereas in Maroua, it does not go the same. The changes that took place there have contributed to break the ethnic monopoly and to involve people from diverse origins among whom some women. As an activity providing useful products for the people, the leather craftsmen thus occupied a privileged position in 19th century society and even during the French colonial period in Maroua. The advent of modern products which progressively replaced those of local handicraft has had an impact on the social consideration of operators of this sector. Despite the prejudices on the leather work, it is worthy to note that in Maroua, for example, certain leather workers still enjoy a respectable social position thanks to their incomes. Overall, leather craftsmanship has a multidimensional impact. It is a source of income to the whole chain of operators who are involved; it takes part to interethnic mixing, supplies the market of tourism and through its products, it contribute to the promotion of cultural identity of the Far North region worldwide however, it pollutes the environment through its nauseating smells and destroys it by the use of wild animals’ skins, attracts young school drop-outs thus contributing to illiteracy. For some years now, this local craft has suffered from the scarcity of skins and other materials which contribute to tanning and the making of leather objects. Conflicts between craftsmen, leather products dealers, and NGOs mars this sector of activities whose products’ quality, sometimes doubtful, affects its sale

    La construction du chemin de fer Congo Océan : impératifs impériaux, travail forcé et quotidienneté (1921-1934)

    Get PDF
    Ce mĂ©moire a pour objectif d’explorer la construction du chemin de fer Congo-OcĂ©an, une voie ferrĂ©e de quelque 500 km construite entre 1921 et 1934 en Afrique-Équatoriale française. Il vise notamment Ă  analyser le discours colonial entourant la « mise en valeur » et la « mission civilisatrice » ainsi que les rĂ©actions des nombreux acteurs impliquĂ©s dans ce projet de grande envergure. L’analyse menĂ©e dans le cadre de cette recherche touche surtout les dynamiques spatiales de contrĂŽle, de rĂ©sistance et de nĂ©gociation au coeur du domaine colonial français dans le cadre d’un projet de « mise en valeur ». En cherchant Ă  construire une voie ferrĂ©e sans se doter des infrastructures minimales pour assurer la sĂ©curitĂ© des travailleurs, l’administration coloniale s’est retrouvĂ©e face Ă  une crise gĂ©nĂ©ralisĂ©e. D’une part, la surmortalitĂ© sur les chantiers a occasionnĂ© une fuite massive des habitants et d’autre part, le manque de personnel administratif et de moyen financier l’a obligĂ© Ă  constamment improviser des solutions rarement suffisantes. Face Ă  ces nombreux ratĂ©s, les travailleurs, conscients de l’incapacitĂ© de l’État colonial Ă  mener son projet selon ses propres desseins, ont su mobiliser diffĂ©rentes stratĂ©gies dans l’objectif de modifier les conditions de leur subjugation. Dans ce contexte, nous suggĂ©rons qu’un nouvel espace est apparu au coeur de l’espace colonial, celui de la nĂ©gociation, alors que les administrateurs coloniaux ont Ă©tĂ© contraints de modifier les modalitĂ©s de la relation coloniale dans l’espoir de mener Ă  terme leur projet de construction. En somme, ce mĂ©moire vise Ă  mieux comprendre la relation spatiale entre les travailleurs forcĂ©s, l’espace colonial et l’administration aefienne dont les objectifs Ă©taient de contrĂŽler, policer et punir les travailleurs, mais aussi la rĂ©ponse de ces derniers qui refusĂšrent le contrĂŽle Ă  outrance

    Data ethics : building trust : how digital technologies can serve humanity

    Get PDF
    Data is the magic word of the 21st century. As oil in the 20th century and electricity in the 19th century: For citizens, data means support in daily life in almost all activities, from watch to laptop, from kitchen to car, from mobile phone to politics. For business and politics, data means power, dominance, winning the race. Data can be used for good and bad, for services and hacking, for medicine and arms race. How can we build trust in this complex and ambiguous data world? How can digital technologies serve humanity? The 45 articles in this book represent a broad range of ethical reflections and recommendations in eight sections: a) Values, Trust and Law, b) AI, Robots and Humans, c) Health and Neuroscience, d) Religions for Digital Justice, e) Farming, Business, Finance, f) Security, War, Peace, g) Data Governance, Geopolitics, h) Media, Education, Communication. The authors and institutions come from all continents. The book serves as reading material for teachers, students, policy makers, politicians, business, hospitals, NGOs and religious organisations alike. It is an invitation for dialogue, debate and building trust! The book is a continuation of the volume “Cyber Ethics 4.0” published in 2018 by the same editors

    Urban poverty in Burundi : salient reasons and church response

    Get PDF
    Based on the author's doctoral thesis titled: The response of the Anglican Diocese of Bujumbura to the challenge of urbanization in Burundi, 2016, University of South Africa.This handbook is a deep dive on the causes of urban poverty in Burundi (Africa) guided by the results of an extensive research carried out by the author, Doctor in Theology and expert in Urban Ministry and Missiology. The analysis Thierry Bahizi offers here arises from a holistic viewpoint, including not only the variable of physical, also called material, poverty, but also its spiritual side. Along its pages, the reader is going to find a complete relation of the multiple faces of poverty in the urban nuclei of Burundi, how the local Churches and Parishes can and, in fact, do tackle the situation, and the essential conclusion on the importance of the spiritual work for pauperized collectives

    The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa : a commentary

    Get PDF
    Since its adoption on 11 July 2003, the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (the Maputo Protocol) has become a landmark on the African human rights landscape. It has steadily gained prominence as a trail-blazing instrument, responsive to the diverse realities of women on the African continent. This comprehensive Commentary on the Maputo Protocol, the first of its kind, provides systematic analysis of each article of the Protocol, delving into the drafting history, and elaborating on relevant key concepts and normative standards. This Commentary aims to be a ‘one-stop-shop’ for anyone interested in the Maputo Protocol, such as researchers, teachers, students, practitioners, policymakers and activists.https://www.pulp.up.ac.za/pulp-commentaries/the-protocol-to-the-african-charter-on-human-and-peoples-rights-on-the-rights-of-women-in-africa-a-commentaryhj2023Centre for Human Right

    Les prisons sont-elles utiles pour l’avenir de la sociĂ©tĂ© ? : droits de l’homme et milieu carcĂ©ral : le cas du Gabon

    Get PDF
    Dans ce livre, les auteurs dĂ©montrent que les prisons sont des lieux oĂč on limite la libertĂ© de l’individu de maniĂšre le plus souvent inutile. Il n’est pas absurde de poser la question si le concept mĂȘme de prison ne devrait pas ĂȘtre reconsidĂ©rĂ© comme quelque chose de dĂ©passĂ© pour l’avenir des sociĂ©tĂ©s. L’institution des prisons africaines pose en particulier problĂšme, par exemple celle du Gabon, qui rĂ©cupĂ©rĂ©e et conservĂ©e intacte aprĂšs l’indĂ©pendance, n’est plus adaptĂ©e aux rĂ©alitĂ©s actuelles du pays. Soixante ans aprĂšs l’indĂ©pendance, les prisons au Gabon ne rĂ©pondent toujours pas aux exigences internationales en matiĂšre des droits de l’homme, et s’éloignent de plus en plus des attentes de la sociĂ©tĂ©. En se focalisant sur l’étude du cas de la Prison Centrale de Libreville, les auteurs cherchent Ă  isoler de maniĂšre, d’abord descriptive, puis normative, les caractĂ©ristiques gĂ©nĂ©rales qui reflĂštent les dĂ©fis principaux des prisons sur le continent africain. Il est suggĂ©rĂ© que les prisons soient rĂ©formĂ©es afin de redevenir utiles Ă  la sociĂ©tĂ©. Des pistes de rĂ©flexion et solutions concrĂštes sont proposĂ©es, dont l’idĂ©e ambitieuse in fine est de faire des prisons de demain des lieux humains oĂč se prĂ©pare la rĂ©insertion sociale

    La conversion progressive et le rĂŽle d’apĂŽtre dans l’histoire du salut : les cas de Simon Pierre et Paul de Tarse dans Luc-Actes : Ă©tude exĂ©gĂ©tique

    Get PDF
    Doctoral thesis. 2017. UniversitĂ© Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, RDC.Fruit d’une thĂšse de doctorat lĂ©gĂšrement modifiĂ©e, le prĂ©sent ouvrage vise Ă  montrer que l’Ɠuvre de Luc prĂ©sente la conversion comme le rĂ©sultat d’une longue marche en vue d’atteindre la consĂ©cration voulue par Dieu. Il ne s’agit pas lĂ  d’un Ă©tat d’ĂȘtre tout abouti, mais d’un cheminement qui s’étend jusqu’à la Parousie du Christ. Pour cette Ă©tude, les textes choisis se sont concentrĂ©s sur Simon Pierre et Paul de Tarse, deux grandes figures du Nouveau Testament reprĂ©sentant pour tout croyant des modĂšles de conversion progressive dans le diptyque de Luc–Actes. À l’image de ces deux figures paradigmatiques, le converti, Ă  l’ùre moderne, est exhortĂ© Ă  faire sauter les verrous du cloisonnement religieux, social et politique afin de devenir un ferment du dĂ©veloppement, un charisme pour la paix et la rĂ©conciliation de sa sociĂ©tĂ©

    An analysis of the implementation of women's right to peace by the African Union Peace and Security Architecture : A cases study of Zimbabwe

    Get PDF
    Thesis (LLD)--University of Pretoria, 2023.Abstract The study interrogates how the African Union Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) implements women’s right to peace enshrined in both the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) and the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol). The study uses the sex and gender approach and the feminist standpoint theories as analytical frameworks for interrogating how APSA implements women’s right to peace. This research is novel because it is the first to analyse the implementation of women’s right to peace by APSA, using a case study of Zimbabwe. This thesis argues that the African Human Rights Architecture provides a limited scope of women’s right to peace which does not take into account the broad nature of what the right to peace entails. The African Charter provides for the right to peace in terms of state security and self-determination. Articles 23(1) and 23(2) of the African Charter provide that the right to peace shall be maintained by preserving principles of sovereignty and cooperation among states. This thesis also argues that APSA does not adopt a gendered approach in implementing women’s right to peace. The study found that the normative content of women’s right to peace is not clearly pronounced in human rights instruments, making it difficult to monitor its implementation. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights has not adopted guidelines and general comments to guide the implementation of the right to peace by state parties. The study also found that the APSA mainly adopts a minimalist approach to peace by paying more attention to negative peace at the neglect of structural inequalities which also are also a violation of women’s right to peace. The approach neglects critical non-military issues that negatively affect women’s right to peace. The study recommends a complete overhaul of APSA and the streamlining of mandates of its structures such as POW, PSC and the special envoy on peace. This recommendation is based on the fact that APSA is financially constrained, negatively affecting its capacity to implement the peace and security agenda. It also recommends the effective participation of women in all APSA structures to enable them to conceptualise peace from their standpoint. The study also proposes elements that should constitute the right to peace.self sponsoredCentre for Human RightsLLDUnrestricte

    The World Wide Web of Work

    Get PDF
    Global Labour History has rapidly gained ground as a field of study in the 21st century, attracting interest in the Global South and North alike. Scholars derive inspiration from the broad perspective and the effort to perceive connections between global trends over time in work and labour relations, incorporating slaves, indentured labourers and sharecroppers, housewives and domestic servants. Casting this sweeping analytical gaze, The World Wide Web of Work discusses the core concepts ‘capitalism’ and ‘workers’, and refines notions such as ‘coerced labour’, ‘household strategies’ and ‘labour markets’. It explores in new ways the connections between labourers in different parts of the world, arguing that both ‘globalisation’ and modern labour management originated in agriculture in the Global South and were only later introduced in Northern industrial settings. It reveals that 19th-century chattel slavery was frequently replaced by other forms of coerced labour, and it reconstructs the laborious 20th-century attempts of the International Labour Organisation to regulate labour standards supra-nationally. The book also pays attention to the relational inequality through which workers in wealthy countries benefit from the exploitation of those in poor countries. The final part addresses workers’ resistance and acquiescence: why collective actions often have unanticipated consequences; why and how workers sometimes organise massive flights from exploitation and oppression; and why ‘proletarian revolutions’ took place in pre-industrial or industrialising countries and never in fully developed capitalist societies

    Enduring Displacement, Enduring Violence: Camps, Closure, and Exile In/After Return (Experiences of Burundian Refugees in Tanzania)

    Get PDF
    “Return home” was the joint message by the Burundian and Tanzanian presidents in 2017, just two years after hundreds of thousands Burundians were recognized as refugees in neighbouring countries, and as more continued to seek refuge or asylum each month. In Tanzania, where refugees are subject to strict encampment, the vast majority of Burundian refugees had previously been refugees at least once before. Many returned to Tanzania less than three years after their prior return to Burundi, which, as camps were closed, had been framed as a “durable solution” to their displacement. This thesis explores the interrelated dynamics of enduring displacement, encampment, and closure, by drawing on life history research with Burundian refugees in two camps in Tanzania (2017-8), as well as semi-structured interviews with government and humanitarian staff, and ethnographic methods. Empirically, this dissertation contributes to knowledge by tracing the diverse prior trajectories of current Burundian refugees, both within and beyond camp boundaries, challenging there-and-back-again geographical imaginary of refuge management. It highlights an understudied but constitutive aspect of camps—their ultimate closures—by recounting refugees’ memories of the violent closure of Mtabila camp, as well as its fearful afterlives and present-presence. The violence of past camp closure is part of the violence of current encampment due to its evocation as a a disciplinary dispositif to “encourage” return, threatening and anticipating future violence. State and humanitarian practices “close” and harden space for those deemed “undesirable,” through forced encampment, camp closures, and coerced or forced return. In so doing, they produce and prolong displacement, in which varied spatio-temporalities of violence endure. Burundian refugees’ life histories thus trace the ways displacement endures, and is endured
    • 

    corecore