130,258 research outputs found

    Health-related quality of life in the WA HIV Cohort: 2008

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    Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome of HIV treatment and a priority in the management of HIV. A new Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) questionnaire to measure the QOL in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from different cultures and language groups has been developed. The instrument, PROQOL-HIV, has undergone psychometric validation in 791 individuals from 8 countries including 99 people from the WA HIV Cohort Study

    A Cure for HIV Infection: "Not in My Lifetime" or "Just Around the Corner"?

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    With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding "a cure." The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust. In this "salon" two editors of Pathogens and Immunity, Michael Lederman and Daniel Douek ask whether curing HIV is a realistic, scalable objective. We start with an overview perspective and have asked a number of prominent HIV researchers to add to the discussion

    HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors From Marine Brown Alga: A Literature Review

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    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes an infectious disease that if left untreated can progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and be fatal. Finding a cure and more treatments for HIV has become a top priority in medical research, and due to the cost of synthetic HIV medication, finding a low-cost alternative is essential. Marine pharmacology has provided a possible solution to costly HIV medication through compounds derived from marine brown algae that inhibit the HIV-1 protease (PR). The objective of this study is to emphasize the necessity for further research in HIV-1 protease inhibition using marine wildlife-derived compounds. In order to better understand the process of protease inhibitors, I will investigate the process of producing and purifying HIV-1 PR, extracting and isolating brown algal compounds, and the assays used to test the inhibition effects of the brown alga compounds. This study demonstrates the potential of marine pharmacology as an inexpensive alternative to synthetic pharmaceuticals for HIV-1 PR inhibition

    Bringing HIV Prevention to Scale: An Urgent Global Priority

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    Illustrates the need for a scaled-up HIV prevention response in order to stem the epidemic, describes impediments to HIV prevention efforts and examples of successful initiatives, and includes recommendations for governments, health agencies, and donors

    Ethical Challenges of Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV

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    On July 16, 2012, emtricitabine/tenofovir (Truvada) became the first drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for adults at high risk. While PrEP appears highly effective with consistent adherence, effective implementation poses ethical challenges for the medical and public health community. For PrEP users, it is necessary to maintain adherence, safe sex practices, and routine HIV testing and medical monitoring, to maximize benefits and reduce risks. On a population level, comparative cost-effectiveness should guide priority-setting, while safety measures must address drug resistance concerns without burdening patients\u27 access. Equitable distribution will require addressing the needs of underserved populations, women (for whom efficacy data are mixed) and people living in developing countries with high HIV incidence; meanwhile, it is necessary to consider the fair use of drugs for treatment vs. prevention and the appropriate design of new HIV prevention studies

    Anti-HIV therapy: pipeline approaches and future directions

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    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with about 30 million deaths and double infections (in developing countries), is an open challenge today for global scientists. Developing safe and effective measurements against it has become the prime need of hour. Though, putting it at health priority, various efforts like chemotherapy, vaccines and others are attempted globally over last decade. Consequently, highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced but fails to completely block the viral replication due to drug resistance and various other severe side effects. The antigenic variability and lack of appropriate experimental models is the major obstacle in the development of an ever effective treatment against HIV. However, to overcome the present hurdles and to emerge a preventive HIV vaccine efforts at various platforms are done. A renewed, coordinated research, preclinical studies, clinical trials together with sufficient long term scientific and commercial commitments are made. Few of the therapeutic efforts viz. RNA interference (RNAi) based replication arrest of HIV, viral enzymes’ inhibitors, nanotechnology based HIV control and various preclinically trialed vaccines are reviewed in this paper. Also, the observed toxicity of existing therapeutic regimen, key challenges and future prospects for the development of better tolerated prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine are discussed

    HIV/AIDS and Conflict: Micro Evidence from Burundi

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    This paper studies the relationship between civil war and HIV/AIDS in Burundi. It contributes to the empirical literature by providing micro level evidence using an identification strategy based on original data on the dynamics of rebel movements. The presence of exit and entry points from and to rebel safe havens is used to generate exogenous variation in conflict intensity. These points are plausibly assumed to serve as starting or end points for rebel attack, but are not directly related to HIV/AIDS or correlated with unobservables. The case of Burundi provides fruitful grounds of analysis, as seroprevalence rates are heterogeneous across the country, the serological and conflict data for Burundi is of good quality and conclusions are likely to serve as valuable insights in Burundi and other fragile countries with similar HIV/AIDS policy agendas. OLS, instrumental variable and binary response model results indicate that within provinces in Burundi there is no clear-cut relationship between local conflict intensity and seroprevalence, condom knowledge and use, knowledge of test opportunities and actual test taking, or rape. Findings suggest that although HIV/AIDS is a general development priority, it is not as urgent a post-conflict priority as commonly assumed.HIV, AIDS, Civil War, Instrumental Variables, Burundi

    Implications of prioritizing HIV cure: new momentum to overcome old challenges in HIV.

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    BACKGROUND: Curing HIV is a new strategic priority for several major AIDS organizations. In step with this new priority, HIV cure research and related programs are advancing in low, middle, and high-income country settings. This HIV cure momentum may influence existing HIV programs and research priorities. DISCUSSION: Despite the early stage of ongoing HIV cure efforts, these changes have directly influenced HIV research funding priorities, pilot programs, and HIV messaging. The building momentum to cure HIV infection may synergize with strategic priorities to better identify adults and infants with very early HIV infection. Although HIV cure represents a new goal, many existing programs and research techniques can be repurposed towards an HIV cure. HIV messages focused on engaging communities towards an HIV cure need to be careful to promote ARV adherence and retention within the HIV continuum of care. An increased emphasis within the AIDS field on finding an HIV cure has several important implications. Strengthening connections between HIV cure research and other areas of HIV research may help to catalyze research and facilitate implementation in the future
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