5,087 research outputs found

    Full-scale experimental and field investigations into expansion mechanism of foamed polyurethane and its lifting behaviors for repair and maintenance of railway slab track systems

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    Excessive settlement of the subgrade seriously reduces the service quality of slab tracks and threatens trains’ running safety. While the utilization of foamed polyurethane is recognized as an effective solution, previous research on its expansion mechanism and its impact on track lifting requires further refinement. Accordingly, a series of full-scale tests, including expansion force tests on foamed polyurethane with diverse qualities and lifting tests of polyurethane grouting with varied qualities on the track structure, have been conducted. The expansion development process of foamed polyurethane is meticulously elucidated, and key expansion parameters are analyzed. Simultaneously, this research explores the lifting behavior of foamed polyurethane grouting under the slab tracks, yielding new insights into essential lifting parameters for track formation repair and maintenance. Based on the experimental data, this study proposes new empirical formulas to comprehensively describe both the expansion mechanism of foam polyurethane and its lifting behavior under the slab tracks. The outcomes of this research offer a new breakthrough for the design of lifting mechanism for maintaining slab track structures through the utilization of foam polyurethane slurry grouting, such as determining the optimal grouting quantity. In addition, these results are instrumental to the evaluation of lifting effects and service life, enhancing the circular economy of railway track systems

    Droplet Memory on Liquid-Infused Surfaces

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    The knowledge of droplet friction on liquid-infused surfaces (LIS) is of paramount importance for applications involving liquid manipulation. While the possible dissipation mechanisms are well-understood, the effect of surface texture has thus far been mainly investigated on LIS with highly regular solid topographies. In this work, we aim to address this experimental gap by studying the friction experienced by water droplets on LIS based on both random and regular polysilsesquioxane nanostructures. We show that the available models apply to the tested surfaces, but we observe a previously unreported droplet memory effect: as consecutive droplets travel along the same path, their velocity increases up to a plateau value before returning to the original state after a sufficiently long time. We study the features of this phenomenon by evaluating the motion of droplets when they cross the path of a previous sequence of droplets, discovering that moving droplets create a low-friction trace in their wake, whose size matches their base diameter. Finally, we attribute this to the temporary smoothing out of an initially conformal lubricant layer by means of a Landau–Levich–Derjaguin liquid film deposition behind the moving droplet. The proposed mechanism might apply to any LIS with a conformal lubricant layer

    Oxygen tri-clusters make glass highly crack-resistant

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    Identifying key structural factors that surmount their intrinsic brittleness and poor crack initiation resistance (CR) is crucial for designing glass efficiently and predictably. In this study, we present three significant discoveries that contribute to the design of glasses with superior mechanical performances. Firstly, the CR of the aluminosilicate glasses exhibited a drastic increase when the alumina content surpasses a critical threshold. Secondly, the fraction of three-coordinated oxygens (i.e., oxygen tri-cluster fraction [(3)O]) was successfully quantified using our new Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique. Thirdly, a correlation between the evolution trend of the [(3)O] and the alumina content was established, which aligns closely with the CR trend. These findings suggest that oxygen tri-clusters play a crucial role in significantly enhancing CR in aluminosilicate glasses.</p

    LANGMUIR-BLODGETT-FILMS OF PHTHALOCYANINATO-POLYSILOXANE-POLYMERS AS A NOVEL TYPE OF CHEMFET-MEMBRANE

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    The formation of Langmuir-Blodgett films (LB-films) by substituted phthalocyaninato-polysiloxane-polymers is a new principle in this field of research since this material lacks the amphiphilic nature which has been thought of being the basic requirement for successful LB film production. Multilayers of the polymere were built up and successfully transferred to Si/SiO, -substrates. They formed macroscopically well-ordered, thermally and chemically stable films. In an Electrolyte/Insulator/Silicon-configuration (EIS-system) they were tested for their usability as CHEMFET-membranes. A long-time stability of at least 3 months in contact with buffer solutions was observed. A pH-sensitivity of 40-50 mV/pH was found with a permanent but irregular baseline drift probably due to ionic migration in the membrane

    GC-MS analysis of alkylpyrazines in the pyrolysis oils of silica-polyethylenimine CO2 sorbents

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    Solid sorbents based on silica and polyethyleneimine (PEI) are intensively investigated in the field of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Pyrolysis was proposed as a thermal process to recover the pure silica from exhausted sorbents and convert PEI into potentially useful products, such as alkylated pyrazines. A GC-MS method based on internal standardisation with 2-methoxypyrazine was developed and evaluated to determine the concentration of six pyrazines in the pyrolysis oils of exhausted silica-PEI sorbent pyrolysed at 400, 500, 600 and 650°C. The most abundant pyrazines were 2-ethyl and 2,3-dimethyl, occurring at concentrations of 5-28 mg g−1, followed by pyrazine, 2-methyl, 2-ethyl-3-methyl and 2-propylpyrazine. The GC-MS results were compared to those from a HPLC-DAD method using the Welch's test. The 37 % discrepancy of concentrations was attributed to spectral interference in LC-DAD. GC was slightly less precise than HPLC, calibration errors were lower and enabled the identification of highly alkylated pyrazines. Both methods provided comparable values of total pyrazine yields (around 4-7 % by weight)

    Identification of Plastics in Mixtures and Blends through Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

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    : In this paper, the possibility of detecting polymers in plastic mixtures and extruded blends has been investigated. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) allows researchers to identify multicomponent mixtures and low amounts of polymers without high spatial resolution, background noise and constituents mix interfering, as with molecular spectrometry techniques normally used for this purpose, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In total, 15 solid mixtures of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyamide (PA) and polycarbonate (PC) in various combinations have been qualitatively analyzed after choosing their characteristic pyrolysis products and each polymer has been detected in every mix; thus, in extruded blends of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), PP and PS had varying weight percentages of the individual constituents ranging from 10 up to 90. Moreover, quantitative analysis of these polymers has been achieved in every blend with a trend that can be considered linear with coefficients of determination higher than 0.9, even though the limits of quantification are lower with respect to the ones reported in the literature, probably due to the extrusion process

    Computational and experimental studies on the reaction mechanism of bio-oil components with additives for increased stability and fuel quality

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    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers, Malaysia encountered a major disposal problem as vast amount of oil palm biomass wastes are produced. To overcome this problem, these biomass wastes can be liquefied into biofuel with fast pyrolysis technology. However, further upgradation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil via direct solvent addition was required to overcome it’s undesirable attributes. In addition, the high production cost of biofuels often hinders its commercialisation. Thus, the designed solvent-oil blend needs to achieve both fuel functionality and economic targets to be competitive with the conventional diesel fuel. In this thesis, a multi-stage computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) framework was employed for bio-oil solvent design. In the design problem, molecular signature descriptors were applied to accommodate different classes of property prediction models. However, the complexity of the CAMD problem increases as the height of signature increases due to the combinatorial nature of higher order signature. Thus, a consistency rule was developed reduce the size of the CAMD problem. The CAMD problem was then further extended to address the economic aspects via fuzzy multi-objective optimisation approach. Next, a rough-set based machine learning (RSML) model has been proposed to correlate the feedstock characterisation and pyrolysis condition with the pyrolysis bio-oil properties by generating decision rules. The generated decision rules were analysed from a scientific standpoint to identify the underlying patterns, while ensuring the rules were logical. The decision rules generated can be used to select optimal feedstock composition and pyrolysis condition to produce pyrolysis bio-oil of targeted fuel properties. Next, the results obtained from the computational approaches were verified through experimental study. The generated pyrolysis bio-oils were blended with the identified solvents at various mixing ratio. In addition, emulsification of the solvent-oil blend in diesel was also conducted with the help of surfactants. Lastly, potential extensions and prospective work for this study have been discuss in the later part of this thesis. To conclude, this thesis presented the combination of computational and experimental approaches in upgrading the fuel properties of pyrolysis bio-oil. As a result, high quality biofuel can be generated as a cleaner burning replacement for conventional diesel fuel

    New Liquid Crystalline Elastomeric Films Containing a Smectic Crosslinker: Chemical and Physical Properties

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    Side-chain liquid crystal elastomers (SC-LCEs) have been designed by using a new smectic crosslinker. Two types of monodomain films were prepared based on polysiloxane chains, with a different relative concentration of both crosslinker and mesogenic comonomers. The mesomorphic behavior of the two SC-LCE systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy showing a different mesomorphic behavior: in one case, we obtained a nematic SC-LCE film, in the other case, a Smectic A SC-LCE film. In both systems, the mesophases were stable in a wide temperature range. Moreover, the SC-LCE films possess a relatively high orientation at room temperature. The physical-chemical properties, such as the local orientational ordering, structural organization, and dynamics of SC-LCEs’ constituents were studied by means of static and dynamic 2H NMR experiments, small-angle X-ray, and wide-angle X-ray diffractions. The relevant physical properties, such as the thermo-elastic and thermo-mechanic behaviors, are reported and discussed in view of the practical applications

    Propuesta de ruta de degradación del BPA durante la reacción del ozono

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    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are present in surface water bodies that supply water to the population. One of them is bisphenol A (BPA), which is listed as a carcinogen. This research addresses its degradation through the ozone reaction and presents a likely pathway established by analyzing products and degradation products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BPA degradation was carried out under pseudo-first-order conditions, where liquid phase ozone was the limiting reactive, in doses of ≈2.29 × 10-4 M and BPA doses of 1.25 × 10-4, 17.5 × 10-4, and 35.0 × 10-4 M, looking to have molar ratios [BPA]> [O3]; the oxidation reaction was carried out in a stopped-flow system that allows obtaining results in the order of seconds. The degradation pathway obtained shows the rupture of one of the benzene rings, decreasing the phenolic toxicity of the BPA compound. The proposed pathway can contribute to the understanding of the degradation of BPA in the environment and tertiary treatment processes with the use of ozone. Likewise, it is intended to contribute with new data to the issues of drinking water treatment to offer safe water to the population
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