91,081 research outputs found

    Platelet-collagen adhesion: evidence for participation of antigenically distinct entities.

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    Univalent antibody fragments prepared from a rabbit antiserum raised against whole human platelets completely inhibited adhesion of platelets to immobilized trimeric collagen in a defined, Mg2+-dependent, adhesion assay. An octylglucoside extract of whole platelets completely neutralized this antibody, and all neutralizing activity bound to immobilized wheat germ agglutinin. Further fractionation on concanavalin A gave rise to subfractions that each neutralized only partially at saturation, when tested against antibody concentrations that inhibit 50% of platelet-collagen adhesion. When tested against higher antibody concentrations that completely inhibited adhesion, each subfraction had no detectable neutralizing effect, although the combined subfractions neutralized completely. This and other evidence suggests that more than one platelet entity participates in platelet-collagen adhesion. Although distinct, they appear to play interdependent roles in a single adhesion process

    An in vitro study of the adhesion of blood platelets onto vascular catheters. Part I

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    The adhesion of human blood platelets onto vascular catheters was studied using a specially designed perfusion chamber. Polyurethane catheters were exposed to citrated human blood for different periods (up to 20 min) and at different wall shear rates (190, 260, 330 sec-1). The rate of platelet adhesion was determined using 111In-labeled platelets, while the morphology of adhering platelets was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. A linear increase in platelet adhesion was found within the first 10 min of perfusion, after which a plateau value was reached. The number of adhering platelets did not vary significantly with the shear rates applied, which may indicate that within the range of shear rates studied, the adhesion of platelets onto the catheter surface is mainly determined by the rate of the reaction between the platelets and the material surface. Catheters coated with a conjugate of heparin and albumin showed a four- to five-fold reduction in platelet adhesion as compared to uncoated catheters. This reduction in platelet adhesion was not only due to the presence of albumin moieties at the surface but also to the presence of heparin residues in the adsorbed albumin-heparin conjugate

    Clotting Phenomena at the Blood-Polymer Interface and Development of Blood Compatible Polymeric Surfaces

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    In the past two decades many attempts have been made to relate surface and interfacial parameters with the blood compatibility of polymeric surfaces. It is however doubtful if by a single parameter the behaviour of blood on a surface can be predicted. Two major aspects of blood compatibility - the prevention of platelet adhesion and the deactivation of the intrinsic coagulation system are determined by the measure and nature of competitive blood protein adsorption on the foreign surface. The adhesion of blood platelets is promoted by adsorbed fibrinogen and gamma globulin, while adsorbed albumin inhibits platelet adhesion. Heparinised surfaces do not adsorb fibrin and consequently no adhesion of platelets takes place. Other surfaces with low platelet adhesion are the hydrogels, certain block copolyetherurethanes, polyelectrolyte complexes and biolised proteins. Heparinised surfaces of the cationically bonded type inhibit the intrinsic coagulation as well, however this may be due to unstable coatings and heparin leakage. \ud In the authors laboratory a synthetic heparinoid was prepared with the structure - [CH2 - C(CH3 NHSO3 Na - C(H) COONa - CH2 -]x with Mw = (7.5 /pm 1.0) × 105 and an in vivo anticoagulant activity of 50% of heparin. Its coatings on PVC, using tridodecylmethyl-ammonium chloride as a coupling agent, are stable in plasma and salt solutions and provide surfaces which show negligible platelet adhesion and a strong inhibition of the intrinsic coagulation on contact with blood. Similar results were found with polydimethylsiloxane surfaces coated with this heparinoid

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates Rap1 signaling in platelets : poster presentation

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    cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cGK and cAK) mediate the inhibitory effects of endothelium-derived messenger molecules nitric oxide and prostacyclin on platelets. To understand the mechanisms involved in platelet inhibition we searched for new substrates of cGK and cAK. We identified Rap1GAP2, the only GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 in platelets. Rap1 is a guanine-nucleotide binding protein that controls integrin activity, platelet adhesion and aggregation. Rap1GAP2 is required to turn over Rap1-GTP to Rap1-GDP resulting in the inactivation of integrins and reduced cellular adhesion. Using phospho-specific antibodies we demonstrate phosphorylation of endogenous Rap1GAP2 on serine 7 by cGK and cAK in intact platelets. Yeast-two-hybrid screening revealed an interaction of the phosphoserine/-threonine binding adapter protein 14-3-3 with Rap1GAP2, and we mapped the 14-3-3 binding site to the N-terminus of Rap1GAP2 close to the cGK/cAK phosphorylation site. We could show that 14-3-3 binding to Rap1GAP2 requires phosphorylation of serine 9. Platelet activation by ADP and thrombin treatment induces Rap1GAP2 serine 9 phosphorylation and enhances the attachment of 14-3-3 to Rap1GAP2. In contrast, phosphorylation of serine 7 by cGK/cAK leads to the detachment of 14-3-3. Furthermore, Rap1GAP2 serine 7 phosphorylation correlates with the inhibition of Rap1-GTP formation by cGMP and cAMP in platelets. Cell adhesion experiments provide additional evidence that Rap1GAP2 is activated by the detachment of 14-3-3. Point mutants of Rap1GAP2 deficient in 14-3-3 binding inhibit Rap1-mediated cell adhesion significantly stronger than a Rap1GAP2 mutant that binds 14-3-3 constitutively. Our findings define a novel regulatory mechanism that might contribute to both platelet activation and endothelial inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation

    Early recovery of microvascular perfusion induced by t-PA in combination with abciximab or eptifibatide during postischemic reperfusion

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    BACKGROUND: GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors abciximab and eptifibatide have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation in ischemic heart disease. Our aim was to test the efficacy of abiciximab (Reo Pro) or eptifibatide (Integrilin) alone or in combination with plasminogen activator (t-PA) in an experimental model of ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Hamsters were treated with saline, or abiciximab or eptifibatide or these drugs combined with t-PA infused intravenously 10 minutes before ischemia and through reperfusion. We measured the microvessel diameter changes, the arteriolar red blood cell (RBC) velocity, the increase in permeability, the perfused capillary length (PCL), and the platelet and leukocyte adhesion on microvessels. RESULTS: I/R elicited large increases in the platelet and leukocyte adhesion and a decrease in microvascular perfusion. These responses were significantly attenuated by abiciximab or eptifibatide (PCL:70 and 65% at 5–10 mins of reperfusion and 85 and 87% at 30 mins of reperfusion, respectively, p < 0.001) while t-PA combined with abiciximab or eptifibatide, was more effective and microvascular perfusion recovered immediately after postischemic reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Platelets are crucial in I/R injury, as shown by the treatment with abicixmab or eptifibatide, which decreased platelet aggregation in microvessels, and also decreased leukocyte adhesion in venules. Arterial vasoconstriction, decreased arterial RBC velocity and alterations in the endothelial barrier with increased permeability delayed the complete restoration of blood flow, while t-PA combined with inhibition of platelet aggregation speeded up the capillary perfusion after reperfusion

    Enhanced platelet adhesion in essential thrombocythemia after in vitro activation

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    Objective: Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by elevated platelet counts and increased risk of thrombosis. Ex vivo data suggest increased platelet reactivity in agreement with the increased thrombosis risk, while in vitro tests often detect decreased platelet activity. The present study aimed to investigate adhesion of ET-platelets in vitro, which is an aspect of platelet function that has been addressed in only a few studies on ET patients. Material and Methods: The study included 30 ET patients and 14 healthy controls. Platelet adhesion was measured with a static platelet adhesion assay. Results: The main finding was that ET-platelets were more readily activated by adhesion-inducing stimuli in vitro than control platelets. This was particularly evident in elderly patients and when using multiple stimuli, such as surfaces of collagen or fibrinogen combined with addition of adenosine 5’-diphosphate or ristocetin. Such multiple stimuli resulted in adhesion above the control mean +2 standard deviations for approximately 50% of the patients.Conclusion: The results are in accordance with the concept of increased platelet activity in ET, but opposite to most other in vitro studies. We suggest that the conditions in the adhesion assay might mimic the in vivo situation regarding the presence of chronic platelet activation

    PROBING THE MECHANISMS OF PLATELET ADHESION TO ADSORBED PLASMA PROTEINS

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    Despite over three decades of research in blood-material interactions, the biomaterials field has been unsuccessful in developing a truly non-thrombogenic biomaterial. This is due to an incomplete understanding of the factors underlying biomaterial-associated thrombosis, especially the mechanisms mediating the interactions of platelets with the adsorbed plasma protein layer(s) on the implant surface. The work presented here is motivated by the primary goal of delineating these mechanisms, and understanding the platelet receptors involved, as well as the domains/amino acid sequences they bind to in the protein molecules. It is critical to differentiate between the amount and the conformation of the adsorbed protein, both of which are potential mediators of platelet adhesion, while designing hemocompatible biomaterials. We accomplished this by independently varying the surface chemistry and protein solution concentration, and illustrated that the platelet adhesion correlated strongly with the degree of adsorption-induced fibrinogen (Fg) unfolding, as measure by the loss in alpha-helix measured via circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry. Additionally, platelet adhesion to adsorbed albumin (Alb), which is conventionally thought to be unable to bind platelets, strongly correlated with Alb unfolding beyond a critical level of unfolding (~34% alpha-helix loss). A variety of blocking strategies were employed in order to identify the platelet receptors involved in the adhesion process, including soluble peptides, monoclonal antibodies, as well as a platelet antagonist drug. Our preliminary results suggested that two platelet receptor sets were potentially mediating the adhesion, as a peptide containing the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD) sequence, which is a well known cell-binding sequence, was found to be a partial inhibitor of platelet adhesion to both adsorbed Fg and Alb. We therefore hypothesized that one set was specific to the RGD amino acid sequence, and mediated both platelet adhesion and activation. The other set was likely non-RGD-specific and mediated adhesion with little/no activation. Targeting the GPIb-IX-V complex as the non-RGD-specific receptor set using monoclonal antibodies against GPIb, did not inhibit platelet adhesion to adsorbed Fg and Alb. However, the use of Aggrastat, a platelet antagonist drug against the RGD-specific GPIIb/IIIa platelet receptor, led to a near complete inhibition of platelet adhesion to both adsorbed Fg and Alb, clearly illustrating the critical role played by this receptor in platelet adhesion. Chemical modification of the arginine residues in adsorbed Alb led to a significant decrease in platelet adhesion to Alb, thereby provided deeper insight into their role in mediating platelet-Alb interactions, while the modification of lysine residues did not affect platelet adhesion. Thus, we hypothesize that beyond a critical degree of adsorption-induced conformational changes in Alb, the arginine and aspartic/glutamic acid residues may become spatially oriented such that they form RGD-like motifs which are recognized by the GPIIb/IIIa platelet receptors. Additionally, we also showed that an irreversibly adsorbed, tightly packed Alb layer undergoes increased unfolding with increasing residence times of up to 6 months, thereby enabling and enhancing platelet adhesion. Overall, these studies present deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating platelet interactions with adsorbed plasma proteins, and how these interactions can be controlled to improve the hemocompatibility of cardiovascular biomaterials

    Static platelet adhesion, flow cytometry and serum TXB2 levels for monitoring platelet inhibiting treatment with ASA and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease: a randomised cross-over study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Despite the use of anti-platelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel in coronary heart disease, some patients continue to suffer from atherothrombosis. This has stimulated development of platelet function assays to monitor treatment effects. However, it is still not recommended to change treatment based on results from platelet function assays. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a static platelet adhesion assay to detect platelet inhibiting effects of ASA and clopidogrel. The adhesion assay measures several aspects of platelet adhesion simultaneously, which increases the probability of finding conditions sensitive for anti-platelet treatment.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>With a randomised cross-over design we evaluated the anti-platelet effects of ASA combined with clopidogrel as well as monotherapy with either drug alone in 29 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Also, 29 matched healthy controls were included to evaluate intra-individual variability over time. Platelet function was measured by flow cytometry, serum thromboxane B<sub>2 </sub>(TXB<sub>2</sub>)-levels and by static platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces. The results were subjected to Principal Component Analysis followed by ANOVA, t-tests and linear regression analysis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The majority of platelet adhesion measures were reproducible in controls over time denoting that the assay can monitor platelet activity. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet adhesion decreased significantly upon treatment with clopidogrel compared to ASA. Flow cytometric measurements showed the same pattern (r<sup>2 </sup>= 0.49). In opposite, TXB<sub>2</sub>-levels decreased with ASA compared to clopidogrel. Serum TXB<sub>2 </sub>and ADP-induced platelet activation could both be regarded as direct measures of the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA and clopidogrel respectively. Indirect pharmacodynamic measures such as adhesion to albumin induced by various soluble activators as well as SFLLRN-induced activation measured by flow cytometry were lower for clopidogrel compared to ASA. Furthermore, adhesion to collagen was lower for ASA and clopidogrel combined compared with either drug alone.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The indirect pharmacodynamic measures of the effects of ASA and clopidogrel might be used together with ADP-induced activation and serum TXB<sub>2 </sub>for evaluation of anti-platelet treatment. This should be further evaluated in future clinical studies where screening opportunities with the adhesion assay will be optimised towards increased sensitivity to anti-platelet treatment.</p

    Effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein, lipid mediators and statins on vascular cell interactions

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    The integrin heterodimer CD11b/CD18 (alpha M beta 2, Mac-1, CR3) expressed on monocytes or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is a receptor for iC3b, fibrinogen, heparin, and for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on endothelium, crucially contributing to vascular cell interactions in inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this report, we summarize our findings on the effects of lipid mediators and lipid-lowering drugs. Exposure of endothelial cells to oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces upregulation of ICAM-1 and increases adhesion of monocytic cells expressing Mac-1. Inhibition experiments show that monocytes use distinct ligands, i.e. ICAM-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans for adhesion to oxLDL-treated endothelium. An albumin-transferable oxLDL activity is inhibited by the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), while 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2 alpha) or lysophosphatidylcholine had no effect, implicating yet unidentified radicals. Sequential adhesive! and signaling events lead to the firm adhesion of rolling PMN on activated and adherent platelets, which may occupy areas of endothelial denudation. Shear resistant arrest of PMN on thrombin-stimulated platelets in flow conditions requires distinct regions of Mac-1, involving its interactions with fibrinogen bound to platelet alpha llb beta 3, and with other platelet ligands. Both arrest and adhesion strengthening under flow are stimulated by platelet-activating factor and leukotriene B4, but not by the chemokine receptor CXCR2. We tested whether Mac-1-dependent monocyte adhesiveness is affected by inhibitors of hydroxy-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (statins) which improve morbidity and survival of patients with coronary heart disease. As compared to controls, adhesion of isolated monocytes to endothelium ex vivo was increased in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Treatment with statins decreased total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plasma levels, surface expression of Mac-1, and resulted in a dramatic reduction of Mac,mediated monocyte adhesion to endothelium. The inhibition of monocyte adhesion was reversed by mevalonate but not LDL in vitro,indicating that isoprenoid precursors are crucial for adhesiveness of Mac-1. Such effects may crucially contribute to the clinical benefit of statins, independent of cholesterol-lowering, and may represent a paradigm for novel, anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action by this class of drugs
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