63,235 research outputs found

    Effects of Tree Forest Plantations on Soil Physicochemical Properties in the Arboretumof Ruhande,Southern Province of Rwanda

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    Different tree speciesare blamed to have negative effects on soil ecosystems by changing soil physicochemical properties, and hence soil quality. However, few researches to verify this statement were done in Rwanda. This study provides prior information on the effects of planted forest tree species on soil physicochemical properties. It was conducted in the Arboretum of Ruhande, in southern Rwanda. Soil cores were collected in plots of exotic, native and agroforestry tree species. Collected soils were analysed for soil pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, available phosphorus,  aggregate stability, bulk density, soil humidity, cation exchange capacity, and soil texture. Soils sampled under exotic tree species were acidic, richin soil organic carbon, and in soil available phosphorus. Native and agroforestry tree species offer better conditions in soil pH, soil water content, cation exchange capacity, clay and silt. Less variations in soil total nitrogen and soil bulk density were found in soils sampled under all studied forest types. Research concluded that studiedtree species have different effects on soil physicochemical parameters. It recommended further studies to generalize these findings. Key words: soil, exotic, native, agroforestry, soil propertie

    Determination of the effect of changes in climatic factors on the variations in soil physicochemical properties of farm settlements located in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    The study of the response of soil to climate change is of fundamental importance for sustainability of life through agriculture. This paper  determines variations in physicochemical properties of farm settlements soils, assesses the effect of changes in climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rain-fall) on these soil physicochemical properties and its implication on plant growth. Soil samples were collected from two farm settlements in the major geological zones in Ogun State Southwest, Nigeria. Physicochemical properties of the collected soil samples were determined using standard methods and metrological data were collected from metrological offices in the state. The result of the soil  physicochemical properties ranges between; 5.84-6.39 (pH), 14.6-24.9 g/kg (organic carbon (O.C)), 15.9-19.9 mg/kg (phosphorus), 0.99-1.90 g/kg (nitrogen), 2.95-10.3 cmol/kg (cation exchange capacity (CEC)), 0.21-0.33 (exchangeable acidity), 78.1-89.2 (% sand), 5.70-10.2 (% clay) and 4.18-11.8 (% silt). Significant seasonal variations were found in the results obtained from the two farm settlements in properties like: pH, organic carbon and N at 0.05%. Higher C/N ratio recorded in some of the analysed soils may lead to the release of CO2 which is a greenhouse gas. Variations observed in all the climatic factors considered in this study with O.C, CEC, % clay and % silt at p<0.01 can be used to assess the effect of climate change on soil health and assist in devising climate adaptive strategies. In other to reduce the negative implication of these variations on plant growth, irrigation facilities must be provided in the studied farms.Keywords: Physicochemical properties; farm settlements; arable cropping; permanent croppin

    Enteropathogen survival in soil from different land-uses is predominantly regulated by microbial community composition

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    peer-reviewedMicrobial enteropathogens can enter the environment via landspreading of animal slurries and manures. Biotic interactions with the soil microbial community can contribute to their subsequent decay. This study aimed to determine the relative impact of biotic, specifically microbial community structure, and physico-chemical properties associated with soils derived from 12 contrasting land-uses on enteropathogen survival. Phenotypic profiles of microbial communities (via phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling), and total biomass (by fumigation-extraction), in the soils were determined, as well as a range of physicochemical properties. The persistence of Salmonella Dublin, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli was measured over 110 days within soil microcosms. Physicochemical and biotic data were used in stepwise regression analysis to determine the predominant factor related to pathogen-specific death rates. Phenotypic structure, associated with a diverse range of constituent PLFAs, was identified as the most significant factor in pathogen decay for S. Dublin, L. monocytogenes, non-toxigenic E. coli O157 but not for environmentally-persistent E. coli. This demonstrates the importance of entire community-scale interactions in pathogen suppression, and that such interactions are context-specific

    Effect of Sugar Factory Effluent on Physico-Chemical Properties and Cellulase Activity of Soil - A Case Study

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    An assessment was done on the effect of sugar factory effluent on physicochemical properties and cellulase activity of soil near sugar factory at Chahardi in Chopda tahsil of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra, India. Soil samples were collected from 7 sampling sites near the sugar factory during 2011-2012. The experimental results indicated that most of the physicochemical properties of soil including pH, electrical conductivity and some nutrients, viz. N, P, K, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Fe as well as soil cellulase activities shown statistically significant fluctuations (p<0.05)

    Effect of biochar on soil properties and lead (Pb) availability in a military camp in South West Ethiopia

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    Application of biochar to soil can improve numerous physicochemical and biological properties of the soil. The method for lead metal (Pb) remediation in soil is a challenge worldwide. The excessive Pb accumulation in the soil can radically reduce the soil quality and fertility. This study was conducted to find out the efficiency of biochar in improving the physicochemical properties of soil and to evaluate its effect on Pb availability in a military camp soil. Soil sample was collected from military camp of Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia and was incubated for 90 days with different application rates (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 t/ha) of biochar. The results showed that the addition of biochar improved, pH, electric conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), exchangeable cations and available phosphorous of the soil and had no significant effect on soil texture. Sequential extraction of Pb showed that at 15 t/ha (4.2 g/kg) application of biochar, the exchangeable form of Pb significantly transformed the carbonate bound, Fe/Mn oxide bound, organic bound and residual fractions to 66.79, 100.5, 112.7 and 112.1 mg/kg, which is reduced by 88.6, 88.9, 88.5 and 88.3%, respectively as compared to the control. It is concluded that the application of biochar could not only improve physicochemical properties of the soil but also stabilize Pb in a military camp soil.Keywords: Lead metal, biochar, soil properties, military cam

    The Missing Metric: An Evaluation of Fungal Importance in Wetland Assessments

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    To preserve wetland ecosystem function, federal and state agencies have developed assessment procedures to better manage remaining wetland areas. Currently, wetland assessments do not consider microorganisms when determining wetland quality. This is notable, because fungi are often the primary decomposers of organic material and thus important players in nutrient cycling. The objective of this study is to quantify how wetland quality, as measured using the Ohio Rapid Assessment Method (ORAM), relates to fungal community composition. We sampled soils from six depressional emergent marshes in Ohio belonging to each of the three ORAM quality categories, assessed soil physicochemical properties, and recovered fungal DNA. We then determined if wetland quality as expressed by the ORAM reflects soil health. Our results indicate that ORAM scoring methodology significantly explains differences in fungal community composition between wetlands. We also found that soil physicochemical properties not currently included in the ORAM are strong drivers of fungal community composition, particularly bulk density, pH, soil organic matter, and soil moisture. Overall, our results suggest fungal community composition reflects wetland quality as assessed by the ORAM, and that the ORAM and potentially other wetland assessments could better capture the soil environment by including easily measured soil physicochemical properties

    Evaluation of Some Soil Properties on Dehydrogenase Activity in River Getsi Kano State, Nigeria

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    AbstractThe study aimed at evaluating some soil physicochemical properties of soil on dehydrogenase activity in the soil of the area which was achieved by assessing some selected physicochemical properties of soil and dehydrogenase activities, and determine the relationship between some selected physicochemical properties of soil and dehydrogenase activities of soil in the area. One square kilometer of irrigated land was selected randomly and then divided in to 10 grids square and samples were collected in each grid using composite method and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The results shows that, clay recorded mean values of 3.8 cmol/kg ±0.84, EC 1385 dSm-1 ±760, pH 7.66±0.46, OC 1.37%±125, total nitrogen 0.15%±0.04, CEC 2.8 cmol/kg±0.06 and DHA 0.005±0.06.  The findings shows that, there is no significant relationship between clay, EC, pH, Oc, nitrogen and dehydrogenase activities using correlation analyses at p ˂0.05 probability level, while the regression analyses show that the coefficient of determination (r2) values obtained are 0.05, 0.44, 0.001, 0.03, 0.006 and 0.09 for clay, EC, pH, Oc, TN and CEC respectively. From the findings it was concluded that Ec, pH, OC, N and CEC have no significant effect on DHA of the soil in the area. It is therefore recommended that appropriate soil management practice should be encourage more to enhance microbial activity in the soil of the area.Keywords: Soil, Enzymes, Dehydrogenase, Soil properties, River Gets

    Differential influence of four invasive plant species on soil physicochemical properties in a pot experiment

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    Purpose This study compared the effects of four invasive plants, namely Impatiens glandulifera, Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata, and Solidago gigantea, as well as two native species-Artemisia vulgaris, Phalaris arundinacea, and their mixture on soil physicochemical properties in a pot experiment. Materials and methods Plants were planted in pots in two loamy sand soils. The soils were collected from fallows located outside (fallow soil) and within river valley (valley soil) under native plant communities. Aboveground plant biomass, cover, and soil physicochemical properties such as nutrient concentrations, pH, and water holding capacity (WHC) were measured after two growing seasons. Discriminant analysis (DA) was used to identify soil variables responsible for the discrimination between plant treatments. Identified variables were further compared between treatments using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD test. Results and discussion Plant biomass, cover, and soil parameters depended on species and soil type. DA effectively separated soils under different plant species. DA on fallow soil data separated R. laciniata from all other treatments, especially I. glandulifera, native species and bare soil, along axis 1 (related mainly to exchangeable K, N-NH_{4}, total P, N-NO_{3}, and WHC). Large differences were found between R. laciniata and S. gigantea as indicated by axis 2 (S-SO_{4}, exchangeable Mg, total P, exchangeable Ca, and total Mg). DA on valley soil data separated R. japonica from all other treatments, particularly S. gigantea, R. laciniata, and native mixture, along axis 1 (N-NO_{3}, total N, S-SO_{4}, total P, pH). Along axis 2 (N-NO_{3}, N-NH_{4}, Olsen P, exchangeable K, WHC), large differences were observed between I. glandulifera and all other invaders. Conclusions Plant influence on soil differed both among invasive species and between invasive and native species. Impatiens glandulifera had a relatively weak effect and its soil was similar to both native and bare soils. Multidirectional effects of different invaders resulted in a considerable divergence in soil characteristics. Invasion-driven changes in the soil environment may trigger feedbacks that stabilize or accelerate invasion and hinder re-colonization by native vegetation, which has implications for the restoration of invaded habitats

    Assessment of Selected Physico Chemical Properties of Soil for Site Suitability for Waste Disposal in Abakaliki, Southeast, Nigeria

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    An assessment of the physicochemical properties of soil for site waste disposal was carried out in Abakaliki urban, southeastern Nigeria. Three sites namely: Waterworks road (WR), Hill top (HT) and Azuiyiokwu (AZ) were randomly selected. Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths from the sites. The soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The results showed variations in soil properties of the three sites which indicate suitability of the different sites or otherwise for waste disposal. The relationship between  percent sand  moisture content on dry mass basis and total porosity was generally highly significant (P>0.01). Similarly, the relationship between percent sand and saturated hydraulic conductivity was also highly significant. Available P highly correlated with total porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The sites with high sand percentage are good for refuse disposal while the ones with high clay percentage have problems of water logging and  build up of pollution for ground water. Dumpsites Water works road (WR) and Hilltop (HT) are better for waste disposal than dumpsite Azuiyiokwu (AZ). Keywords: Dumpsites, physicochemical, refuse, soil
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