1,434,769 research outputs found

    The metabolic inter-relationships between changes in waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles with acute weight loss in clinically obese children and adolescents.

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    OBJECTIVE: Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are highly atherogenic and strongly associated with obesity-related dyslipidemia. The metabolic inter-relationships between weight loss induced changes in waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and small-dense LDL particles in clinically obese children and adolescents have not been studied. METHODS: Seventy-five clinically obese boys and girls (standardized body mass index 3.07 ± 0.59, aged 8-18 years) were recruited. Anthropometric, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured pre- and post-weight loss. RESULTS: There were highly significant reductions in anthropometric, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Triglyceride change was positively correlated with LDL peak particle density and percentage LDL pattern B changes (relative abundance of small, dense LDL particles). Multiple regression analyses showed that changes in triglyceride concentration accounted for between 24 and 18% of the variance in LDL peak particle density and percentage LDL pattern B change, respectively. Changes in waist circumference and insulin sensitivity did not predict these changes in LDL characteristics. CONCLUSION: Acute and highly significant weight loss significantly decreased LDL peak particle density and percentage LDL pattern B. The change in triglycerides was a strong predictor of LDL peak particle density and percentage LDL pattern B change

    Does Raising the Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

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    This paper studies how an increase in the minimum retirement age affects the labor market behavior of older workers. Between 2000 and 2006 the Austrian government gradually increased the early retirement age from 60 to 62.2 for men and from 55 to 57.2 for women. Using administrative data on the universe of Austrian private-sector employees, the results from the empirical analysis suggest that this policy change reduced retirement by 19 percentage points among affected men and by 25 percentage points among affected women. The decline in retirement was accompanied by a sizeable increase in employment of 7 percentage points among men and 10 percentage points among women, but had also a important spillover effects into the unemployment insurance program. Specifically, the unemployment rate increased by 10 percentage points among men and 11 percentage points among women. In contrast, the policy change had only a small impact on the share of individuals claiming disability or partial retirement benefits.Early retirement, retirement age, labor supply, policy reform

    Does Raising the Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Get PDF
    This paper studies how an increase in the minimum retirement age affects the labor market behavior of older workers. Between 2000 and 2006 the Austrian government gradually increased the early retirement age from 60 to 62.2 for men and from 55 to 57.2 for women. Using administrative data on the universe of Austrian private-sector employees, the results from the empirical analysis suggest that this policy change reduced retirement by 19 percentage points among affected men and by 25 percentage points among affected women. The decline in retirement was accompanied by a sizeable increase in employment of 7 percentage points among men and 10 percentage points among women, but had also important spillover effects into the unemployment insurance program. Specifically, the unemployment rate increased by 10 percentage points among men and 11 percentage points among women. In contrast, the policy change had only a small impact on the share of individuals claiming disability or partial retirement benefits.early retirement, retirement age, labor supply, policy reform

    HPA axis related genes and response to psychological therapies: genetics and epigenetics

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    Background Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning has been implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric diagnoses and response to adverse life experiences. This study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and epigenetics in HPA axis and response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Methods Children with anxiety disorders were recruited into the Genes for Treatment project (GxT, N = 1,152). Polymorphisms of FKBP5 and GR were analyzed for association with response to CBT. Percentage DNA methylation at the FKBP5 and GR promoter regions was measured before and after CBT in a subset (n = 98). Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate the relationship between genotype, DNA methylation, and change in primary anxiety disorder severity (treatment response). Results Treatment response was not associated with FKBP5 and GR polymorphisms, or pretreatment percentage DNA methylation. However, change in FKBP5 DNA methylation was nominally significantly associated with treatment response. Participants who demonstrated the greatest reduction in severity decreased in percentage DNA methylation during treatment, whereas those with little/no reduction in severity increased in percentage DNA methylation. This effect was driven by those with one or more FKBP5 risk alleles, with no association seen in those with no FKBP5 risk alleles. No significant association was found between GR methylation and response. Conclusions Allele-specific change in FKBP5 methylation was associated with treatment response. This is the largest study to date investigating the role of HPA axis related genes in response to a psychological therapy. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate that DNA methylation changes may be associated with response to psychological therapies in a genotype-dependent manner

    Technological sources of productivity growth in Japan, the Us and Germany: What makes the difference?

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    This paper studies the contribution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on economic growth and labor productivity across the three leading economies in the world: Japan, Germany and the US. We use a dynamic general equilibrium growth model with investment-specific technological change to quantify the contribution to productivity growth in the three countries from different technological progress. We find that contribution to productivity growth due to ICT capital assets is about 0.40 percentage points for Japan and Germany, whereas it is about 0.65 percentage points in the case of the US. Neutral technological change is the main source of productivity growth in Japan and Germany. For the US, the main source of productivity growth derives from investment-specific technological change, mainly associated to ICT.Productivity growth; Investment-specific technological change; Neutral technological change; Information and communication technology.
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