152,896 research outputs found

    Parental Education Sets the Expectation

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    First-generation students are worse than their non-first generation peers in their ability to recognize and respond to faculty members’ expectations (Collier & Morgan, 2008). Further, first-generation students have a lower sense of self-efficacy (Hellman, 1996) and lower self esteem(McGregor, Mayleben, Buzzanga, Davis, & Becker, 1991) than other students. I expected first generation students to more inaccurately predict how they will perform on their first introduction to psychology exam compared to their non-first generation student peers. I also expected first generation students to place a higher value of importance on their exam and experience higher levels of depression than their non-first generation student peers after the exam. We use a framework that investigates the relationship between parent’s educational attainment and college student’s educational expectations. We further this investigation by exploring how first generation status influences exam importance prior to a midterm and levels of depression experienced after the midterm. College students (N = 1435) reported their expectations and reactions before and shortly after, their midterm exam in an introductory course. They reported their expectations about how they would perform on the exam, the importance of the exam, and their depression. We examined how first generation status influenced each of these three variables. We expected first generation students to report more inaccurate expectations on exam performance, higher levels of exam importance, and higher levels of depression. Our hypothesis attempted to bridge the limited research on first generation expectations to the literature on first generation student’s well-being. First generation students and their non-first generation peers differed in their expectations and actual exam performance. First generation students reported lower expectations and performed worse than their non-first generation peers. Whether or not students were the first in their family to attend college did not affect the accuracy of their expectations for their midterm grade. First generation students and their non-first generation peers were similarly inaccurate in predicting their exam performance. Students who were first generation did differ from other students in the importance placed on the exam, and they experienced higher levels of depression after the exam

    Does Expectation Influence Relationship? A Mixed Methods Investigation of Parental Expectation and Parent-Child Relationship Among Chinese Family Groups 期望是否會影響關係?華裔家庭中父母的期望對親子關係的影響之研究

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    Abstract Parental expectation, particularly among Chinese family groups, is understood to be formative upon their children’s identity, behavior in family relationships, educational success and decisions in career choices. China\u27s long history of traditionalism in its social values, heavily based on Confucian philosophy of the family, bears this out. Significant social changes have happened in recent years due to political shifts, modernization, capitalization, immigration, and government population control policies. However, expectation is an element on which both academic study and educational research are rather limited. Current study has touched on the topic of parental expectation and raised some awareness, but the need for further empirical study would serve not only to clarify the changing state of parental expectation regarding the development of children, but also its critical impact on the much weakened family relationships among contemporary Chinese families. The purpose of this study is to investigate parental expectation and its influence upon the parent-child relationship in family relationships through mixed methods due to the complexity of a very reserved nature culturally rooted among Chinese groups. The qualitative research methods involved both interviews and focus group studies, while the quantitative research explored the influence of parental expectation on parent-child relationship through a questionnaire survey with 41 items in Likert scale via Exploratory Factor Analysis on SPSS. Keywords: expectation, relationship, parental expectation, parent-child relationship, family relationship, Chinese cultural groups. 關鍵詞:期望、關係、父母期望、親子關係、家庭關係、華裔文化群

    Social Capital, Parental Expectation, and Postsecondary Education Enrolment

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    In this research paper, I attempt to investigate the correlation between parental expectation and postsecondary education enrolment in Indonesia. Not only parental expectation, I also aim to shed a light in higher educational attainment topic by examine the correlation between social capital and the enrolment decision because the studies that connecting parental expectation and social capital to postsecondary education enrolment were not many, especially in Indonesia. Using fourth and fifth wave of IFLS (Indonesia Family Life Survey) in 2007/2008 and 2014/2015, I find that parental expectation has a positive connection with the postsecondary education enrolment. In addition to that, two community participation variables from the dataset that I use to measure social capital also shows a significant relationship. Furthermore, the logistic regression also shows that age, marriage status, gender, ethnicity, religion, student\u27s academic capacity, parent\u27s education, wealth, and location are significant determinants. I also find interesting results that in Indonesia, girls are more likely to participate in postsecondary education compared to boys, and early marriage is the biggest obstacle to the higher education enrollment

    Futures planning, parental expectations and sibling concern for people who have a learning disability

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    The aim of this questionnaire was to explore the existence of future plans, parental expectation and sibling concern regarding people who have a learning disability. A questionnaire was sent via email to siblings of people who have a learning disability. 21 completed questionnaires were returned and responses were anaylsed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. A full discussion regarding sibling support was reported to have taken place by 12 (57%) of respondents, 7 (33%) stated this discussion had not taken place and 2 (9%) were unsure. 12 (57%) of participants reported no clear future plan however where a plan did exist, 7 (33%) of respondents claimed it was fully agreeable to both them and their parents. 11 (52%) of respondents reported no difference between their wishes regarding their future role and parental wishes. Key themes generated were; satisfaction with services, parental influence, sibling concern about the future, futures planning, the impact of the disabled person upon sibling lives and siblings needs. Further qualitative exploration into the personal wishes, reality and parental expectations for future support of siblings of adults who have a learning disability is required. Keywords: adult siblings, futures planning, learning disability, parental expectatio

    Extreme offspring ornamentation in American coots is favored by selection within families, not benefits to conspecific brood parasites

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    Offspring ornamentation typically occurs in taxa with parental care, suggesting that selection arising from social interactions between parents and offspring may underlie signal evolution. American coot babies are among the most ornamented offspring found in nature, sporting vividly orange-red natal plumage, a bright red beak, and other red parts around the face and pate. Previous plumage manipulation experiments showed that ornamented plumage is favored by strong parental choice for chicks with more extreme ornamentation but left unresolved the question as to why parents show the preference. Here we explore natural patterns of variation in coot chick plumage color, both within and between families, to understand the context of parental preference and to determine whose fitness interests are served by the ornamentation. Conspecific brood parasitism is common in coots and brood parasitic chicks could manipulate hosts by tapping into parental choice for ornamented chicks. However, counter to expectation, parasitic chicks were duller (less red) than nonparasitic chicks. This pattern is explained by color variation within families: Chick coloration increases with position in the egg-laying order, but parasitic eggs are usually the first eggs a female lays. Maternal effects influence chick coloration, but coot females do not use this mechanism to benefit the chicks they lay as parasites. However, within families, chick coloration predicts whether chicks become “favorites” when parents begin control over food distribution, implicating a role for the chick ornamentation in the parental life-history strategy, perhaps as a reliable signal of a chick’s size or age. (Includes Supporting information.

    Parent Perceptions of Parental Involvement Contracts

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    The purpose of this qualitative, multisite case study was to explore the parent perspective associated with charter school’s use of parent contract as a tool for parental involvement. The Overlapping Spheres of Influence and Six Types of Parental Involvement described by Epstein 1995 served as the conceptual framework. The sample consisted of seventeen parent interviews, across three charter schools serving grades six through eight. Two charter schools were located within the southeastern region and one charter school was located in the northeastern region of the nation. Parent participants were interviewed, five parental involvement activities observed, and parent contract artifacts collected.Qualitative data was examined through the lens of the two research questions and Epstein’s Overlapping Sphere of Influence and Framework for Involvement (1995). Findings indicated parent contracts as a tool for establishing shared expectations and collaborative parent-teacher relationships. Through the lens of Epstein’s Framework for Involvement, four of the six parent involvement types were identified: Learning at Home, Parenting, Communicating, and Volunteering. Across all three sites, the expectation for parents to be actively involved in the school community was a common expectation outlined in the parent contracts. The expectation for active involvement did not indicate the opportunity for parental involvement in Decision Making. Furthermore, parents desired to be involved in decision making opportunities, which would allow the inclusion and consideration of the parental voice

    Extreme offspring ornamentation in American coots is favored by selection within families, not benefits to conspecific brood parasites

    Get PDF
    Offspring ornamentation typically occurs in taxa with parental care, suggesting that selection arising from social interactions between parents and offspring may underlie signal evolution. American coot babies are among the most ornamented offspring found in nature, sporting vividly orange-red natal plumage, a bright red beak, and other red parts around the face and pate. Previous plumage manipulation experiments showed that ornamented plumage is favored by strong parental choice for chicks with more extreme ornamentation but left unresolved the question as to why parents show the preference. Here we explore natural patterns of variation in coot chick plumage color, both within and between families, to understand the context of parental preference and to determine whose fitness interests are served by the ornamentation. Conspecific brood parasitism is common in coots and brood parasitic chicks could manipulate hosts by tapping into parental choice for ornamented chicks. However, counter to expectation, parasitic chicks were duller (less red) than nonparasitic chicks. This pattern is explained by color variation within families: Chick coloration increases with position in the egg-laying order, but parasitic eggs are usually the first eggs a female lays. Maternal effects influence chick coloration, but coot females do not use this mechanism to benefit the chicks they lay as parasites. However, within families, chick coloration predicts whether chicks become “favorites” when parents begin control over food distribution, implicating a role for the chick ornamentation in the parental life-history strategy, perhaps as a reliable signal of a chick’s size or age. (Includes Supporting information.

    “If only I get enough money for a bicycle!” A study of childhoods, migration and adolescent aspirations against a backdrop of exploitation and trafficking in Burkina Faso

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    This paper focuses on adolescent children’s independent migration to rural towns and urban areas in search of work. International and national agencies tend to see this migration through the lens of crisis, whether as a result of parental ignorance or youngsters’ unruliness. Here, the author explores, on the one hand, how these perceptions correspond with the common perceptions of childhood and youth in rural areas, and on the other, how rural adolescents describe their mobility. In the intersection between different notions of childhood and youth that give rise to conflicting ideas about adolescents’ work and migration, the author draws attention to the adolescents’ own rationales, choices and strategies to pursue their quest for money and meet intergenerational expectation

    Parental engagement on student academic self-efficacy and educational attainment expectation for immigrant youth.

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    With the increase of immigration to the United States, immigrant children have a unique position in the education system. Immigrant parents influence their children through different academic engagement practices. It is important to understand how parents impact students\u27 academic experiences. Employing the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, statistical analyses evaluated a sample of 2,514 high school sophomore immigrant students. The impact of parental engagement on the dependent variables were also compared between native language groups to learn whether or not specific cultural engagement practices impact student self-efficacy and attainment expectation differently. Findings revealed that parental engagement impacts academic self-efficacy and educational attainment expectation. Native language group differences indicated that the impact of parental engagement on the dependent variables was often greater for the Asian groups than Spanish and English speaking immigrants. Educators can use the information gained from this study to help immigrant parents improve their children\u27s academic experiences

    Breaking the Pattern: Alan Garner\u27s \u3ci\u3eThe Owl Service\u3c/i\u3e and the \u3ci\u3eMabinogion\u3c/i\u3e

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    Examines how Garner’s The Owl Service reflects events of the Mabinogion in modern terms. Pays particular attention to issues of parental possessiveness, control and expectation, and the need to break “deterministic patterns.
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