19,057 research outputs found

    Performance of Roasted Cocoa Bean Winnower for Small Holder Chocolate Producers

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    Cocoa bean winnowing has a function to separate cocoa nibs from shell after roasting process of dry bean. Nibs are further processed into fine cocoa liquor by refining process. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate working performance of a home-scale winnower to separate shell from nibs with minimum shell parchment content in cocoa nibs. This experiment was conducted in Postharvest Laboratory at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using roasted cocoa bean grade A according to standard of SNI 2323:2008/ Amd1:2010 with shell content of 15% originated from Forastero cocoa. Working performance of the home-scale winnower was evaluated based on shell parchment content in the output, its capacity, energy consumption and power transfer efficiency value by several air suction rates as variable. Data were analyzed using regression and variance analysis to evaluate the influence of the rate and to determine the optimum machine operation. Results of regression and variance analysis from winnowing experiment with air suction rate of 0.54 m/s; 0.63 m/s; 0.72 m/s and 0.90 m/s indicated that shell parchment content in cocoa nibs and power transfer efficiency value were affected by the rate. The optimum machine performance was obtained on 0.72 m/s of air suction rate with total winnowing capacity was 2.615 kg/hour, energy consumption of 132 Watt, power transfer efficiency value of 61.01% and shell parchment content was 1.06%. Shell parchment content in cocoa nibs was appropriate regarding to the SNI standard with maximum content of 1.75%

    Closing the Representational Gap: An Embodied-Enactive View of Narcissistic Representational Systems

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    According to tracking theories of mental content, the world we conceive is determined by the world we perceive, and the world we perceive is determined by the mind-independent world as it is. This view is challenged by Kathleen Akins on the grounds that our sensory systems are narcissistic, i.e., they have narrow operational interests and are largely unconcerned with representing objective reality. Yet, if what we conceive is not a veridical representation of the world, how is object-guided action in the world possible? This disconnect is the “representational gap”. This paper will close this gap by arguing that Akins’ concept of narcissism can be extended to describe all non-sensory mental objects: what we conceive is a product of what we perceive, but what we perceive is constrained and determined by what we are (i.e., our morphology) and what we can do (i.e., our potential for action in the world)

    Nurse Managers, Work Environment Factors and Workplace Bullying

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    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore relationships between authentic leadership style, global social power, job demand, job control, and workplace bullying of nurse managers in acute care settings across the United States. Over 30 years of workplace bullying research exists. Consequences are linked to intent to leave, turnover, and harmful emotional and physical effects. Published studies identifying nurse managers as targets of workplace bullying and work environment factors that contribute to nurse managers being recipients of workplace bullying either, downward from their leaders, horizontally from their nurse manager peers, and upwards from their clinical nurses were not identified. A descriptive, cross-sectional design using an online survey was utilized. Descriptive, inferential, and multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships and the likelihood of workplace bullying occurring. Thirty-five percent (n = 80) of nurse managers reported being a target of workplace bullying. Managers sustained occasional (56%, n = 45) and severe (44%, n = 35) levels of workplace bullying, 65% (n = 43) identified their executive nurse leader as the predominate perpetrator. Authentic leadership, job demand, job control correlated significantly (p = \u3c .01) with workplace bullying and job demand demonstrated the strongest likelihood (OR = 3.9) for predicting workplace bullying. Nurse Managers are four times more likely to be a recipient of workplace bullying when their job responsibilities are classified as demanding. This study expanded the science and demonstrated that nurse managers, the backbone of organizations, are recipients of workplace bullying emanating predominately from executive nurse leaders, but also from clinical nurses and their nurse manager peers. Given the harmful consequences of workplace bullying, as \u27guardians\u27 of and \u27advocates\u27 for their teams, executive nursing leaders, have an ethical and operational responsibility to ensure nurse managers are able to practice in a safe environment

    Colour analysis of degraded parchment

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    Multispectral imaging was employed to collect data on the degradation of an 18th century parchment by a series of physical and chemical treatments. Each sample was photographed before and after treatment by a monochrome digital camera with 21 narrow-band filters. A template-matching technique was used to detect the circular holes in each sample and a four-point projective transform to register the 21 images. Colour accuracy was verified by comparison of reconstructed spectra with measurements by spectrophotometer

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    Influence of Storage of Wet Arabica Parchment Prior to Wet Hulling on Moulds Development, OchratoxinA Contamination, and Cup Quality of Mandheling Coffee

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    Mandheling coffee has been a well known specialty coffees for decades and the demand for this coffee is currently increasing. This coffee is characterised by low acidity, heavy-complex body, spicy-little earthy and fruity flavor. Mandheling coffee is produced by smallholder farmers in the highland surrounding Lake TobaNorth Sumatra in an unique way i.e. following de-pulping and 1–2 days sundrying, wet parchment is stored for varying periods up to a few weeks, the parchments are then de-hulled when still wet (40–45% moisture content) then the beans sundried. The handling procedure presumably contributes to the unique cup character of Mandheling coffee. On the other hand the storage of wet pachments may cause mould growth and mycotoxin contamination. This trial was designed to study the influence of storage of wet parchments prior to wet hulling on mould development, OTA contamination and cup Mandheling characteristic of the coffee product. The normal wet process, drying of parchment thoroughly to 12% moisture content was used as the control. Parchment coffees (6 lots) used for this trial were drawn from farmers and collectors in the region. The wet parchments (41.74–53.96% moisture content) were stored for 1 (D1), 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) days in PE sacks in a warehouse in the region. During the storage period, when there was visible mould growth, the parchments were spread on a plastic sheet inside the warehouse, as per common practice to suppress the mould growth. Following storage, the wet parchment was de-hulled and then sun-dried to a moisture content of 12% (MC12%) or dried to a moisture content of 17%, and held in storage for 3 weeks prior to final drying to 12% mc. The ‘normal wet process\u27 i.e. fresh-non stored parchments dried thoroughly to 12%, were used as the control. Parameters measured were visual evaluation, mould infestation, a w, moisture content (MC) on the stored parchment; while for dried beans mould infestation, OTA content and the Mandheling cup character evaluation (done by 4 panelists who were familiar to the coffee) were determined. Some mould species grew during the storage course, with black Aspergillus was the dominant species found in the beans, while A. ochraceusan OTA producer, was found in some samples with low infection rate (0–15.3%). Spreading of coffee inside the warehouse during the day could suppress moulds growth. OTA was found in only 5 samples out of 42 samples with range of 0.17–2.24 ppb, very less than European Union limit. There was no clear trend of storage period on the mould infection rates, OTA content, and the Mandheling cup characters. The high variability of the outcome was likely due to the inhomogenity of parchments used for this trial. The best Mandheling was found in the sample of D1-MC12%-coffee source of lot 1

    Characterization and digital restauration of XIV-XV centuries written parchments by means of non-destructive techniques. Three case studies

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    Parchment is the primary writing medium of the majority of documents with cultural importance. Unfortunately, this material suffers of several mechanisms of degradation that affect its chemical-physical structure and the readability of text. Due to the unique and delicate character of these objects, the use of nondestructive techniques is mandatory. In this work, three partially degraded handwritten parchments dating back to the XIV-XV centuries were analyzed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, ”-ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and reflectance and UV-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. 'e elemental and molecular results provided the identification of the inks, pigments, and superficial treatments. In particular, all manuscripts have been written with iron gall inks, while the capital letters have been realized with cinnabar and azurite. Furthermore, multispectral UV fluorescence imaging and multispectral VIS-NIR imaging proved to be a good approach for the digital restoration of manuscripts that suffer from the loss of inked areas or from the presence of brown spotting. Indeed, using ultraviolet radiation and collecting the images at different spectral ranges is possible to enhance the readability of the text, while by illuminating with visible light and by collecting the images at longer wavelengths, the hiding effect of brown spots can be attenuated
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