403,528 research outputs found

    Children hold owners responsible when property causes harm

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    Since ancient times, legal systems have held owners responsible for harm caused by their property. Across 4 experiments, we show that children aged 3–7 also hold owners responsible for such harm. Older children judge that owners should repair harm caused by property, and younger children may do this as well. Younger and older children judge that owners should apologize for harm, even when children do not believe the owners allowed the harm to occur. Children are also as likely to hold owners responsible for harm caused by property as for harm caused by the owners themselves. The present findings contribute to psychological accounts of ownership by showing that ownership not only confers rights to control property, but also responsibility for harm caused by property. The findings also contribute to our understanding of the attribution of responsibility, and challenge accounts claiming that directly causing harm, or allowing it to happen, is a prerequisite for responsibility. The findings provide support for an account claiming that property is an extension of its owner, and likewise reveal that responsibility for harm caused by property is an early developing aspect of the psychology of ownership. 2018 APA, all rights reserved

    The impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets

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    This paper focuses on issues of interaction with a particular type of mobile information system – virtual pets. It examines the impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets, and tests the hypothesis that younger virtual pet owners will experience closer companionship with their virtual pet than older owners. This is in response to the marketing stance adopted by virtual pet manufacturers who clearly target younger people as the main consumers of their products. The hypothesis was tested using survey data and companionship was measured using the Comfort from Companion Animals Scale. Support was found for the hypothesis at all definitions of young: there is a highly significant difference between the companionship offered by a virtual pet to young people than that offered to older people. Although this finding generally indicates that virtual pets offer more, in terms of emotional-engagement, to younger people than older people we suggest that much more research in this area is needed in order to better understand the phenomenal commercial success of virtual pets. In addition, there is an abundance of literature examining the benefits of owning real pets. It is possible that a virtual pet might be able to deliver some of these, and given our result, it is likely that virtual pets will be more likely to bring these benefits to young people rather than to old peopl

    The Kauffman Index: Main Street Entrepreneurship National Trends

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    This report provides a broad index measure of small local business activity in the United States. It presents an equally weighted index of two normalized measures of small and local business activity:The Rate of Business Owners in the economy, calculated as the percentage of adults who own a business on average, per year.The Established Small Business Density of a region, measured as the number of established (older than five years) small employer businesses (with less than fifty employees) normalized by population

    Territory Holders Are More Aggressive towards Older, More Dangerous Floaters

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    Animals that show aggression often risk injury and incur steep energetic costs. Thus, aggression should occur at such times and towards such opponents as to maximize fitness. We tested hypotheses predicting adaptive territorial aggression in the common loon, a species in which ease of observation of territory owners and floaters (prebreeders) seeking to evict them provide a rare window onto owner-floater competition. As predicted, older, more competitive floaters (4-year-olds and upwards) tended to intrude into territories that had produced chicks the previous year (and, hence, were of high quality). Older floaters also showed predicted increases in aggression and territorial yodeling, and a lower rate of submissive behaviors than younger floaters. Floaters of all ages intruded more often than neighboring territory owners, as predicted, but tended to avoid territories with chicks. For their part, owners yodeled more often and behaved more aggressively during chick-rearing, although yodels peaked in frequency 2 weeks before aggression, suggesting that males with young chicks yodel to discourage intrusions, but employ aggression to protect older chicks. Territory owners showed the predicted higher rates of aggression and yodeling towards older, more dangerous floaters than towards young, submissive ones. However, territorial pairs did not treat floaters more aggressively than neighbors, overall. Moreover, owners showed no spike in aggression nor yodeling following a year with chicks, perhaps to avoid providing social information to floaters that use chicks as social information to target territories for eviction

    The legacy of the Right to Buy and the differentiation of older home owners

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    This paper explores older owner occupiers in lower value properties who, having acquired their home through the Right to Buy (RTB) in the 1980s, are now experiencing housing-related challenges in older age. This paper outlines the views and perceptions of older owner occupiers, social landlords, voluntary groups and housing organisations to explore the legacy of the RTB. Current and future policy challenges in the area include the differentiation of home owners, difficulties of selling property with low equity in older age and the relationship between health and housing. This paper calls to widen the analysis of the long-term impact of the RTB to owner occupiers in lower value properties and notes that ‘ageing in place’ goes beyond looking at people’s current house to the linked housing choices available to them. We recommend that policy support be extended to older home owners to increase housing choice in older age

    e-Learning for older workers in SMEs? : the perceptions of owners and workers in Maltese microenterprises

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    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative investigation of the perceptions about online training programmes of owners and older employees in Maltese microenterprises. The main data-gathering tool was the semi-structured interview. The analysis of the empirical data was achieved through grounded theory approaches, including constant comparison, coding and memoing. The findings indicate that owner-managers and older employees have a negative attitude towards training in general, and company-related e-learning efforts in particular. Various factors were identified. However, the data suggests that, if the online courses are designed to meet the demands of both owners and employees, and if they have a non-formal, non-directive form, like workbased learning, they can encourage the participation of older employees in training.peer-reviewe

    The Relationship Between Companion Animals and Health Status Among Older Adults Living in the Community

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    A study was conducted on 18 older adult pet owners and non-pet owners residing in a mobile home park to determine self-perception of health status and the level of attachment to pets. Self-reported health status was high and equal for both pet owners and non-pet owners. The level of attachment to the pets was also high. Studies have demonstrated human-animal interactions being beneficial to both individuals and families; but for many residents of mobile home parks and common interest developments, such as condominiums and townhouses, rules prevent companion animal ownership. Family Nurse Practitioners (FNPs) aware of the benefits of animal companionship, are in a position to advocate for older patients, especially when owning a companion animal would be therapeutic. FNPs can be instrumental in helping to change state legislation by educating and influencing lawmakers about the benefits of pet ownership in the communit

    Developing a framework of training for the older small business owner : final report

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    This study was conducted as a result of the critical issue of the ageing population and the implications this will have on the workforce. An employment option for older workers is to become self-employed and to start their own small businesses, rather than to continue working in mainstream employment, which becomes increasing difficult as employees age. The option of self-employment may be a viable option for older people as uncertainty of employment tenure in mainstream employment continues to increases over time and is a way to utilise work skills and competencies that have been acquired over years of work experience. The results show that self-employment is not necessarily a first choice for many older people, as the perceived high level of risk associated with starting a business is a significant barrier. For those that do start their own business, which is an increasing trend, the age of the new business owner has an influence on the type of business information and related training they require in order to operate their businesses successfully. The study was conducted in the first quarter of 2005 and employed both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. 270 small business owners participated in quantitative part of the study and an addition 15 older small business owners were interviewed in order to gain more in-depth insights into the issues facing older small business owners

    Disentangling the Importance of the Precautionary Saving Motive

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    We evaluate the importance of the precautionary saving motive by relying on a direct question about precautionary wealth from the 1995 and 1998 waves of the Survey of Consumer Finances. In this survey, a new question has been designed to elicit the amount of desired precautionary wealth. This allows us to assess the amount of precautionary accumulation and to overcome many of the problems of previous works on this topic. We find that a precautionary saving motive exists and affects virtually every type of household. However, precautionary savings account for only 8 percent of total wealth holdings. Even though this motive does not give rise to large amounts of wealth, particularly for young and middle-age households, it is particularly important for two groups: older households and business owners. Overall, we provide strong evidence that we need to take the precautionary saving motive into account when modeling saving behavior.Risk, Buffer-stock Models of Saving, Old Cohorts Wealth, Business Owners Wealth
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