46,072 research outputs found

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and the sirtuins caution: Pro-cancer functions

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    This scoping review aims to perform a brief but comprehensive assessment of existing peer-reviewed literature and determine whether raising nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide can prevent or promote tumorigenesis. The examination of extensive peer-reviewed data regarding the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has been performed with a focus on nuclear dynamics and the deoxyribose nucleic acid repair pathway. Various enzymatic protective functions have been identified from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels, as well as the threat role that is also explored. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide precursors and sirtuin-activating compounds are becoming ubiquitous in the commercial market. Further research into whether elevating levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or overexpression of sirtuins can increase the potential for neoplasm or other age-related pathophysiology is warranted due to the high energy requirements of certain diseases such as cancer

    Role of APD-ribosylation in bone health and disease

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    The transfer of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose unit(s) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NA

    SIRT1 selectively exerts the metabolic protective effects of hepatocyte nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase

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    Calorie restriction abates aging and cardiometabolic disease by activating metabolic signaling pathways, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NA

    Dysregulation of NAD+ metabolism induces a Schwann cell dedifferentiation program

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    The Schwann cell (SC) is the major component of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that provides metabolic and functional support for peripheral axons. The emerging roles of SC mitochondrial function for PNS development and axonal stability indicate the importance of SC metabolism in nerve function and in peripheral neuropathies associated with metabolic disorders. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NA

    Rossmann-toolbox : a deep learning-based protocol for the prediction and design of cofactor specificity in Rossmann fold proteins

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    The Rossmann fold enzymes are involved in essential biochemical pathways such as nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Their functioning relies on interaction with cofactors, small nucleoside-based compounds specifically recognized by a conserved βαβ motif shared by all Rossmann fold proteins. While Rossmann methyltransferases recognize only a single cofactor type, the S-adenosylmethionine, the oxidoreductases, depending on the family, bind nicotinamide (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) or flavin-based (flavin adenine dinucleotide) cofactors. In this study, we showed that despite its short length, the βαβ motif unambiguously defines the specificity towards the cofactor. Following this observation, we trained two complementary deep learning models for the prediction of the cofactor specificity based on the sequence and structural features of the βαβ motif. A benchmark on two independent test sets, one containing βαβ motifs bearing no resemblance to those of the training set, and the other comprising 38 experimentally confirmed cases of rational design of the cofactor specificity, revealed the nearly perfect performance of the two methods. The Rossmann-toolbox protocols can be accessed via the webserver at https://lbs.cent.uw.edu.pl/rossmann-toolbox and are available as a Python package at https://github.com/labstructbioinf/rossmann-toolbox

    Structural basis of SARM1 activation, substrate recognition, and inhibition by small molecules

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    The NADase SARM1 (sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1) is a key executioner of axon degeneration and a therapeutic target for several neurodegenerative conditions. We show that a potent SARM1 inhibitor undergoes base exchange with the nicotinamide moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NA

    Degradation of reactive red 195 by selected bacteria from textile wastewater

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    Four selected bacterial strains coded R1, R2, Rc and Rd were successfully isolated from raw textile wastewater. They were screened for their ability to degrade an azo dye of Reactive Red 195 on solid and in liquid dye-containing media. Screening showed that decolourization was best performed under anaerobic condition with the highest colour removal (˜70%) showed by bacterium R2. The partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) sequence of bacterium R2 shared 98% sequence similarity to Paenibacillus sp.. Decolourization by this bacterium in a chemically defined medium containing (gL-1) of glucose (1), NH4Cl (0.5), K2HPO4 (7), KH2PO4 (2), MgSO4.7H2O (0.1), CaCl2 (0.02), and Reactive red 195 (0.1), adjusted to pH7 and with (10% v/v) inoculum occurred under partial anaerobic condition at temperature of 37°C. Under optimized condition, bacterium R2 successfully removed more than 95% colour and up to 50% of total organic carbon. No significant change in pH was observed (pH from 7.21 to 7.25) though the anaerobiosis was found to be developed throughout the experiment (redox potential reduced from 2.5 to 0.5 mV). This bacterium produced intracellular (0.033 U/mL) and extracellular (0.026 U/mL) azoreductase enzymes which were found to be stable at pH from 6 to 8 and temperature ranging from 30 ºC to 40ºC. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that biodegradation of Reactive Red 195 under partial anaerobic condition produced at least three types of sulfonated amines which were 4-aminobenzenesulphonic acid (sulphanilic acid), 4-amino-3- hydronapthalenesulphonic acid and 4-amino-5-hydronapthalene-2,7disulphonic acid. The sulphanilic acid can be further degraded to a-ketoglutaric acid, a common Krebs cycle’s intermediate in most aerobic microorganism. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Paenibacillus sp. is of good potential use for the treatment of azo dye-containing wastewater based on its ability to remove colour

    Tissue-specific regulation of sirtuin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathways identified in C57Bl/6 mice in response to high-fat feeding

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    Funding: The Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division.Peer reviewedPostprin
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