390,008 research outputs found

    Neighbourhood choice and neighbourhood reproduction

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    Although we know a lot about why households choose certain dwellings, we know relatively little about the mechanisms behind their choice of neighbourhood. Most studies of neighbourhood choice focus only on one or two dimensions of neighbourhoods: typically poverty and ethnicity. In this paper we argue that neighbourhoods have multiple dimensions and that models of neighbourhood choice should take these dimensions into account. We propose the use of a conditional logit model. From this approach we can gain insight into the interaction between individual and neighbourhood characteristics which lead to the choice of a particular neighbourhood over alternative destinations. We use Swedish register data to model neighbourhood choice for all households which moved in the city of Uppsala between 1997 and 2006. Our results show that neighbourhood sorting is a highly structured process where households are very likely to choose neighbourhoods where the neighbourhood population matches their own characteristics. We find that income is the most important driver of the sorting process, although ethnicity and other demographic and socioeconomic characteristics play important roles as well.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Determinants of neighbourhood satisfaction and perception of neighbourhood reputation

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    It has been suggested that the residential mobility behaviour and general well-being of residents of urban neighbourhoods are not only influenced by how residents themselves assess their neighbourhood, but also by how they think other city residents see their neighbourhood: the perceived reputation of the neighbourhood. There is a large body of literature on residents' satisfaction with their neighbourhood, but much less is known about how residents perceive the reputation of their own neighbourhood. Such knowledge might give important clues on how to improve the well-being of residents in deprived neighbourhoods, not only by directly improving the factors that affect their own level of satisfaction, but also by improving the factors that residents think have a negative effect on the reputation of their neighbourhood. This paper examines whether there are differences in the determinants of neighbourhood satisfaction and the perceived reputation of the neighbourhood. Using data from a purpose-designed survey to study neighbourhood reputations in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands, it is found that subjective assessment of the dwelling and neighbourhood attributes are more important in explaining neighbourhood satisfaction than in explaining perception of reputation. Objective neighbourhood variables are more important in explaining perception of reputation than in explaining neighbourhood satisfaction.PostprintPeer reviewe

    The decline and rise of neighbourhoods: the importance of neighbourhood governance

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    There is a substantial literature on the explanation of neighbourhood change. Most of this literature concentrates on identifying factors and developments behind processes of decline. This paper reviews the literature, focusing on the identification of patterns of neighbourhood change, and argues that the concept of neighbourhood governance is a missing link in attempts to explain these patterns. Including neighbourhood governance in the explanations of neighbourhood change and decline will produce better explanatory models and, finally, a better view about what is actually steering neighbourhood change

    Neighbourhood detection and indentification of spatio-temporal dynamical systems using a coarse-to-fine approach

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    A novel approach to the determination of the neighbourhood and the identification of spatio-temporal dynamical systems is investigated. It is shown that thresholding to convert the pattern to a binary pattern and then applying cellular automata (CA) neighbourhood detection methods can provide an initial estimate of the neighbourhood. A coupled map lattice model can then be identified using the CA detected neighbourhood as the initial conditions. This provides a coarse-to-fine approach for neighbourhood detection and identification of coupled map lattice models. Three examples are used to demonstrate the application of the new approach

    Neighbourhood Choice and Neighbourhood Reproduction

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    Although we know a lot about why households choose certain dwellings, we know relatively little about the mechanisms behind neighbourhood choice. Most studies of neighbourhood choice only focus on one or two dimensions of neighbourhoods: typically poverty and ethnicity. This paper argues that neighbourhoods have multiple dimensions and that models of neighbourhood choice should take these dimensions into account. We propose the use of a conditional logit model. From this approach we can gain insight into the interaction between individual and neighbourhood characteristics which lead to the choice of a particular neighbourhood over alternative destinations. We use Swedish register data to model neighbourhood choice for all households which moved to a neighbourhood in the city of Uppsala between 1997 and 2006. Our results show that neighbourhood sorting is a highly structured process where households are very likely to choose neighbourhoods where the neighbourhood population matches their own characteristics.neighbourhood, housing choice, sorting, residential mobility, conditional logit, Sweden

    A Constraint-directed Local Search Approach to Nurse Rostering Problems

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    In this paper, we investigate the hybridization of constraint programming and local search techniques within a large neighbourhood search scheme for solving highly constrained nurse rostering problems. As identified by the research, a crucial part of the large neighbourhood search is the selection of the fragment (neighbourhood, i.e. the set of variables), to be relaxed and re-optimized iteratively. The success of the large neighbourhood search depends on the adequacy of this identified neighbourhood with regard to the problematic part of the solution assignment and the choice of the neighbourhood size. We investigate three strategies to choose the fragment of different sizes within the large neighbourhood search scheme. The first two strategies are tailored concerning the problem properties. The third strategy is more general, using the information of the cost from the soft constraint violations and their propagation as the indicator to choose the variables added into the fragment. The three strategies are analyzed and compared upon a benchmark nurse rostering problem. Promising results demonstrate the possibility of future work in the hybrid approach

    Neighbourhood effects research at a crossroads. Ten challenges for future research

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    The authors acknowledge financial support from the Marie Curie programme under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / Career Integration Grant n. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighbourhood choice, neighbourhood sorting, and neighbourhood effects).Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Understanding Neighbourhood Effects: Selection Bias and Residential Mobility

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    The number of studies investigating neighbourhood effects has increased rapidly over the last two decades. Although many of these studies claim to have found evidence for neighbourhood effects, most 'evidence' is likely the result of reversed causality. The main challenge in modelling neighbourhood effects is the (econometric) identification of causal effects. The most severe problem is selection bias as a result of selective sorting into neighbourhoods. This paper argues that in order to further our understanding of neighbourhood effects we should explicitly incorporate neighbourhood sorting into our models. Neighbourhood effect studies are in the situation where the processes behind one of its key methodological problems (selection bias) are also critical to fully understand the neighbourhood context itself. It is thus remarkable that residential mobility and neighbourhood sorting has been almost completely ignored in the neighbourhood effects literature.neighbourhoods, selective mobility, neighbourhood effects, selection bias, migration, residential mobility
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