93,541 research outputs found

    Evolutionary Approaches to Minimizing Network Coding Resources

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    We wish to minimize the resources used for network coding while achieving the desired throughput in a multicast scenario. We employ evolutionary approaches, based on a genetic algorithm, that avoid the computational complexity that makes the problem NP-hard. Our experiments show great improvements over the sub-optimal solutions of prior methods. Our new algorithms improve over our previously proposed algorithm in three ways. First, whereas the previous algorithm can be applied only to acyclic networks, our new method works also with networks with cycles. Second, we enrich the set of components used in the genetic algorithm, which improves the performance. Third, we develop a novel distributed framework. Combining distributed random network coding with our distributed optimization yields a network coding protocol where the resources used for coding are optimized in the setup phase by running our evolutionary algorithm at each node of the network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by carrying out simulations on a number of different sets of network topologies.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, accepted to the 26th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2007

    Sequence Expression of Supernumerary B Chromosomes: Function or Fluff?

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    B chromosomes are enigmatic heritable elements found in the genomes of numerous plant and animal species. Contrary to their broad distribution, most B chromosomes are non-essential. For this reason, they are regarded as genome parasites. In order to be stably transmitted through generations, many B chromosomes exhibit the ability to "drive", i.e., they transmit themselves at super-Mendelian frequencies to progeny through directed interactions with the cell division apparatus. To date, very little is understood mechanistically about how B chromosomes drive, although a likely scenario is that expression of B chromosome sequences plays a role. Here, we highlight a handful of previously identified B chromosome sequences, many of which are repetitive and non-coding in nature, that have been shown to be expressed at the transcriptional level. We speculate on how each type of expressed sequence could participate in B chromosome drive based on known functions of RNA in general chromatin- and chromosome-related processes. We also raise some challenges to functionally testing these possible roles, a goal that will be required to more fully understand whether and how B chromosomes interact with components of the cell for drive and transmission

    Laser Microirradiation of Chinese Hamster Cells at Wavelength 365 nm

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    Cells of a V79 subline of the Chinese hamster were microirradiated at wavelength 365 nm in the presence of the psoralen derivative, trioxsalen. Microirradiation was accomplished by a pulsed argon laser microbeam either in anaphase or in interphase 3 hr after mitosis. Inhibition of clonal growth and formation of micronuclei at the first postirradiation mitosis were observed after microirradiation of anaphase chromosomes and of small parts of the interphase nucleus. Microirradiation of the cytoplasm beside the interphase nucleus or between the sets of chromosomes moving apart from each other in anaphase did not produce these effects. Anaphase experiments showed that only the daughter cell which received microirradiated chromatin exhibited an abnormal growth pattern. Most interestingly, shattering of the whole chromosome complement could be induced by microirradiation of small parts of the interphase nucleus and post-treatment with caffeine. Since microirradiation of chromatin in the absence of psoralen was not effective, we consider formation of psoralen photoadducts to nucleic acids in microirradiated chromatin to be the specific cause of the effects. We suggest that DNA photolesions in chromosome segments present in the microirradiated part of the nucleus can induce shattering of all the chromosomes in the microirradiated nucleus. Several possibilities are discussed to explain this unexpected finding

    High-density SNP association study of the 17q21 chromosomal region linked to autism identifies CACNA1G as a novel candidate gene.

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    Chromosome 17q11-q21 is a region of the genome likely to harbor susceptibility to autism (MIM(209850)) based on earlier evidence of linkage to the disorder. This linkage is specific to multiplex pedigrees containing only male probands (MO) within the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). Earlier, Stone et al.(1) completed a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism association study of 13.7 Mb within this interval, but common variant association was not sufficient to account for the linkage signal. Here, we extend this single nucleotide polymorphism-based association study to complete the coverage of the two-LOD support interval around the chromosome 17q linkage peak by testing the majority of common alleles in 284 MO trios. Markers within an interval containing the gene, CACNA1G, were found to be associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder at a locally significant level (P=1.9 × 10(-5)). While establishing CACNA1G as a novel candidate gene for autism, these alleles do not contribute a sufficient genetic effect to explain the observed linkage, indicating that there is substantial genetic heterogeneity despite the clear linkage signal. The region thus likely harbors a combination of multiple common and rare alleles contributing to the genetic risk. These data, along with earlier studies of chromosomes 5 and 7q3, suggest few if any major common risk alleles account for Autism Spectrum Disorder risk under major linkage peaks in the AGRE sample. This provides important evidence for strategies to identify Autism Spectrum Disorder genes, suggesting that they should focus on identifying rare variants and common variants of small effect

    Efficient allelic-drive in Drosophila.

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    Gene-drive systems developed in several organisms result in super-Mendelian inheritance of transgenic insertions. Here, we generalize this "active genetic" approach to preferentially transmit allelic variants (allelic-drive) resulting from only a single or a few nucleotide alterations. We test two configurations for allelic-drive: one, copy-cutting, in which a non-preferred allele is selectively targeted for Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) cleavage, and a more general approach, copy-grafting, that permits selective inheritance of a desired allele located in close proximity to the gRNA cut site. We also characterize a phenomenon we refer to as lethal-mosaicism that dominantly eliminates NHEJ-induced mutations and favors inheritance of functional cleavage-resistant alleles. These two efficient allelic-drive methods, enhanced by lethal mosaicism and a trans-generational drive process we refer to as "shadow-drive", have broad practical applications in improving health and agriculture and greatly extend the active genetics toolbox

    A genetic basis for a postmeiotic X versus Y chromosome intragenomic conflict in the mouse.

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    Intragenomic conflicts arise when a genetic element favours its own transmission to the detriment of others. Conflicts over sex chromosome transmission are expected to have influenced genome structure, gene regulation, and speciation. In the mouse, the existence of an intragenomic conflict between X- and Y-linked multicopy genes has long been suggested but never demonstrated. The Y-encoded multicopy gene Sly has been shown to have a predominant role in the epigenetic repression of post meiotic sex chromatin (PMSC) and, as such, represses X and Y genes, among which are its X-linked homologs Slx and Slxl1. Here, we produced mice that are deficient for both Sly and Slx/Slxl1 and observed that Slx/Slxl1 has an opposite role to that of Sly, in that it stimulates XY gene expression in spermatids. Slx/Slxl1 deficiency rescues the sperm differentiation defects and near sterility caused by Sly deficiency and vice versa. Slx/Slxl1 deficiency also causes a sex ratio distortion towards the production of male offspring that is corrected by Sly deficiency. All in all, our data show that Slx/Slxl1 and Sly have antagonistic effects during sperm differentiation and are involved in a postmeiotic intragenomic conflict that causes segregation distortion and male sterility. This is undoubtedly what drove the massive gene amplification on the mouse X and Y chromosomes. It may also be at the basis of cases of F1 male hybrid sterility where the balance between Slx/Slxl1 and Sly copy number, and therefore expression, is disrupted. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a competition occurring between X and Y related genes in mammals. It also provides a biological basis for the concept that intragenomic conflict is an important evolutionary force which impacts on gene expression, genome structure, and speciation