19,338 research outputs found

    Long-term efficacy and safety of eculizumab in Japanese patients with generalized myasthenia gravis : a subgroup analysis of the REGAIN open-label extension study

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    The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab was shown to improve myasthenia gravis-related symptoms in the 26-week, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled REGAIN study (NCT01997229). In this 52-week sub-analysis of the open-label extension of REGAIN (NCT02301624), eculizumab's efficacy and safety were assessed in 11 Japanese and 88 Caucasian patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalized myasthenia gravis. For patients who had received placebo during REGAIN, treatment with open-label eculizumab resulted in generally similar outcomes in the Japanese and Caucasian populations. Rapid improvements were maintained for 52 weeks, assessed by change in score from open-label extension baseline to week 52 (mean [standard error]) using the following scales (in Japanese and Caucasian patients, respectively): Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living (-2.4 [1.34] and - 3.3 [0.651); Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (-2.9 [1.98] and - 4.3 [0.79]); Myasthenia Gravis Composite (-4.5 [2.63] and - 4.9 [1.19]); and Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life 15-item questionnaire (-8.6 [5.68) and - 6.5 [1.93]). Overall, the safety of eculizumab was consistent with its known safety profile. In this interim sub-analysis, the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in Japanese and Caucasian patients were generally similar, and consistent with the overall REGAIN population

    Determinants of quality of life in Brazilian patients with myasthenia gravis

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    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale and 2) to investigate the quality of life of Brazilian patients with myasthenia gravis and its determinants. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 69 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent neurological evaluation and completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (the 36-item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study and the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale), anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale showed high internal consistency and good concurrent validity with the 36-item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study and its subscales. Determinants of quality of life in Brazilian patients with myasthenia gravis included the current status of myasthenia gravis as assessed by the Myasthenia Gravis Composite, the current prednisone dose and the levels of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale is a valid instrument. Symptom severity, prednisone dosage and anxiety and depression levels impact the quality of life of patients with myasthenia gravis

    Epidemiological evidence for a hereditary contribution to myasthenia gravis: A retrospective cohort study of patients from North America

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    OBJECTIVES: To approximate the rate of familial myasthenia gravis and the coexistence of other autoimmune disorders in the patients and their families. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinics across North America. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1032 patients diagnosed with acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR)-positive myasthenia gravis. METHODS: Phenotype information of 1032 patients diagnosed with AChR-positive myasthenia gravis was obtained from clinics at 14 centres across North America between January 2010 and January 2011. A critical review of the epidemiological literature on the familial rate of myasthenia gravis was also performed. RESULTS: Among 1032 patients, 58 (5.6%) reported a family history of myasthenia gravis. A history of autoimmune diseases was present in 26.6% of patients and in 28.4% of their family members. DISCUSSION: The familial rate of myasthenia gravis was higher than would be expected for a sporadic disease. Furthermore, a high proportion of patients had a personal or family history of autoimmune disease. Taken together, these findings suggest a genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis

    Consistent improvement with eculizumab across muscle groups in myasthenia gravis

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    Objective: To assess whether eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, improves patient- and physician-reported outcomes (evaluated using the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale, respectively) in patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis across four domains, representing ocular, bulbar, respiratory, and limb/gross motor muscle groups. Methods: Patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis were randomized 1:1 to receive either placebo or eculizumab during the REGAIN study (NCT01997229). Patients who completed REGAIN were eligible to continue into the open-label extension trial (NCT02301624) for up to 4 years. The four domain scores of each of the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale recorded throughout REGAIN and through 130 weeks of the open-label extension were analyzed. Results: Of the 125 patients who participated in REGAIN, 117 enrolled in the open-label extension; 61 had received placebo and 56 had received eculizumab during REGAIN. Patients experienced rapid improvements in total scores and all four domain scores of both the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale with eculizumab treatment. These improvements were sustained through 130 weeks of the open-label extension. Interpretation: Eculizumab treatment elicits rapid and sustained improvements in muscle strength across ocular, bulbar, respiratory, and limb/gross motor muscle groups and in associated daily activities in patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis

    Psychopharmacology in myasthenia gravis patients with focus on depression

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    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease with a potential to disrupt brain function and cause depression as a result of the disease itself or treatment side effect. Some biological and psychological mechanisms have been proposed for the correlations between myasthenia gravis and depression. Depression might present in patients myasthenia gravis, and it might complicate the course of the disease. Adequate treatment might not only improve the depression but might also impact the myasthenia gravis in general

    Consistent improvement with eculizumab across muscle groups in myasthenia gravis

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    Objective: To assess whether eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, improves patient- and physician-reported outcomes (evaluated using the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale, respectively) in patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis across four domains, representing ocular, bulbar, respiratory, and limb/gross motor muscle groups. Methods: Patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis were randomized 1:1 to receive either placebo or eculizumab during the REGAIN study (NCT01997229). Patients who completed REGAIN were eligible to continue into the open-label extension trial (NCT02301624) for up to 4 years. The four domain scores of each of the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale recorded throughout REGAIN and through 130 weeks of the open-label extension were analyzed. Results: Of the 125 patients who participated in REGAIN, 117 enrolled in the open-label extension; 61 had received placebo and 56 had received eculizumab during REGAIN. Patients experienced rapid improvements in total scores and all four domain scores of both the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale with eculizumab treatment. These improvements were sustained through 130 weeks of the open-label extension. Interpretation: Eculizumab treatment elicits rapid and sustained improvements in muscle strength across ocular, bulbar, respiratory, and limb/gross motor muscle groups and in associated daily activities in patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis

    Unraveling the role of ectopic thymic tissue in patients undergoing thymectomy for myasthenia gravis

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    Extended thymectomy has been considered the goal of surgery for myasthenia gravis (MG) mainly due to the existence of ectopic thymic tissue. Recently, ectopic thymic tissue has attracted increasing attention in patients with MG following thymectomy. However, the specific role of ectopic thymic tissue in patients with MG is still under debate. A systematic search of the literature was performed on PubMed and Medline according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISM) statement. Studies evaluating the rate of ectopic thymic tissue in patients with MG with or without thymoma were included. Extraction was performed for all eligible studies and the rate of ectopic thymic tissue at common locations was calculated. Eighteen out of fifty-nine studies were eligible for inclusion, of which ten studies reported the common locations of ectopic thymic tissue in mediastinal fat. Of these ten studies, the presence of ectopic thymic tissue was investigated in different anatomical locations in 882 patients, of whom, 509 patients (58%) have at least one positive location with the most common ones being anterior mediastinal fat, pericardiophrenic angles, aortopulmonary window, cervical region (pretracheal fat) and lateral to phrenic nerves. On the other hand, nine studies analyzed the influence of the presence of ectopic thymic tissue on the clinical outcomes of MG patients. Of these, six found that the presence of ectopic thymic tissue in MG patients is a significant predictor of poor outcome after thymectomy, however, the other three did not find a significance. Altogether, ectopic thymic tissue is likely to present in more than a half of patients undergoing thymectomy for MG. Besides, MG patients who have ectopic thymic tissue after thymectomy do not seem to have as good outcome as those who have not

    A phase 3 multicenter, prospective, open-label efficacy and safety study of immune globulin (human) 10% caprylate/chromatography purified in patients with myasthenia gravis exacerbations

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    Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular transmission. Exacerbations may involve increasing bulbar weakness and/or sudden respiratory failure, both of which can be critically disabling. Management of MG exacerbations includes plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG); they are equally effective, but patients experience fewer side effects with IVIG. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of immune globulin caprylate/chromatography purified (IGIV-C) in subjects with MG exacerbations. Methods: This prospective, open-label, non-controlled 28-day clinical trial was conducted in adults with MG Foundation of America class IVb or V status. Subjects received IGIV-C 2 g/kg over 2 consecutive days (1 g/kg/day) and were assessed for efficacy/safety on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from Baseline in quantitative MG (QMG) score to Day 14. Secondary endpoints of clinical response, Baseline to Day 14, included at least a 3-point decrease in QMG and MG Composite and a 2-point decrease in MG-activities of daily living (MG-ADL). Results: Forty-nine subjects enrolled. The change in QMG score at Day 14 was significant (p < 0.001) in the Evaluable (-6.4, n = 43) and Safety (-6.7, n = 49) populations. Among evaluable subjects, Day 14 response rates were 77, 86, and 88% for QMG, MG Composite, and MG-ADL, respectively. IGIV-C showed good tolerability with no serious adverse events. Conclusions: The results of this study show that IGIV-C was effective, safe, and well tolerated in the treatment of MG exacerbations

    Relationship between hearing function and myasthenia gravis: a contemporary review

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    There is increasing evidence of a connection between hearing function and myasthenia gravis (MG). Studies of the pathophysiological basis of this relationship suggest that acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on outer hair cells (OHCs) play a central role. In patients with MG, autoantibodies against AChRs induce a progressive loss of AChRs on OHCs, decreasing their electromotility. The stapedial reflex decay test can be altered in MG patients, and can be used as an additional tool for diagnosis and monitoring. Transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions are the main diagnostic tool for monitoring OHC functionality in MG patients, and can be used to record subclinical hearing alterations before the onset of clinically evident hearing loss. Understanding the association between MG and hearing dysfunction requires a multidisciplinary approach. Otolaryngologists should take this relationship into account when approaching patients with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and "in patients with MG" with ण128;\u9cin MG patients, and the progress of hearing alterations should always be monitored in patients with MG

    T-lymphocyte-rich thymoma and myasthenia gravis in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

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    A 10-year-old captive male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with acute onset collapse, vomiting and dyspnoea, preceded by a 6-month period of progressive muscle wasting. Following humane destruction, post-mortem examination revealed a large multilobulated mass in the cranial mediastinum, which was diagnosed as a T-lymphocyte-rich thymoma with the aid of immunohistochemistry. Retrospective serology for acetylcholine receptor antibodies (titre 3.90 nmol/l) confirmed a diagnosis of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis. Thymomas are reported rarely in wild carnivores, but when detected they appear to be similar in morphology to those seen in domestic carnivores and may also be accompanied by paraneoplastic syndromes. The clinical signs of myasthenia gravis in the tiger were consistent with those reported in cats and dogs and the condition is proposed as an important differential diagnosis for generalized weakness in captive Felidae
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