88,300 research outputs found

    Validation of methods for converting the original Disease Activity Score (DAS) to the DAS28

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    © The Author(s) 2018.The Disease Activity Score (DAS) is integral in tailoring the clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and is an important measure in clinical research. Different versions have been developed over the years to improve reliability and ease of use. Combining the original DAS and the newer DAS28 data in both contemporary and historical studies is important for both primary and secondary data analyses. As such, a methodologically robust means of converting the old DAS to the new DAS28 measure would be invaluable. Using data from The Early RA Study (ERAS), a sub-sample of patients with both DAS and DAS28 data were used to develop new regression imputation formulas using the total DAS score (univariate), and using the separate components of the DAS score (multivariate). DAS were transformed to DAS28 using an existing formula quoted in the literature, and the newly developed formulas. Bland and Altman plots were used to compare the transformed DAS with the recorded DAS28 to ascertain levels of agreement. The current transformation formula tended to overestimate the true DAS28 score, particularly at the higher end of the scale. A formula which uses all separate components of the DAS was found to estimate the scores with a higher level of precision. A new formula is proposed that can be used by other early RA cohorts to convert the original DAS to DAS28.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Exploring the role of pain as an early predictor of category 2 pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study

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    Objective To explore pressure area related pain as a predictor of category ≥2 pressure ulcer (PU) development. Design Multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting UK hospital and community settings. Participants inclusion Consenting acutely ill patients aged ≥18 years, defined as high risk (Braden bedfast/chairfast AND completely immobile/very limited mobility; pressure area related pain or; category 1 PU). Exclusion Patients too unwell, unable to report pain, 2 or more category ≥2 PUs. Follow-up Twice weekly for 30 days. Primary and secondary outcome measures Development and time to development of one or more category ≥2 PUs. Results Of 3819 screened, 1266 were eligible, 634 patients were recruited, 32 lost to follow-up, providing a 602 analysis population. 152 (25.2%) developed one or more category ≥2 PUs. 464 (77.1%) patients reported pressure area related pain on a healthy, altered or category 1 skin site of whom 130 (28.0%) developed a category ≥2 PU compared with 22 (15.9%) of those without pain. Full stepwise variable selection was used throughout the analyses. (1) Multivariable logistic regression model to assess 9 a priori factors: presence of category 1 PU (OR=3.25, 95% CI (2.17 to 4.86), p<0.0001), alterations to intact skin (OR=1.98, 95% CI (1.30 to 3.00), p=0.0014), pressure area related pain (OR=1.56, 95% CI (0.93 to 2.63), p=0.0931). (2) Multivariable logistic regression model to account for overdispersion: presence of category 1 PU (OR=3.20, 95% CI (2.11 to 4.85), p<0.0001), alterations to intact skin (OR=1.90, 95% CI (1.24 to 2.91), p=0.0032), pressure area related pain (OR=1.85, 95% CI (1.07 to 3.20), p=0.0271), pre-existing category 2 PU (OR=2.09, 95% CI (1.35 to 3.23), p=0.0009), presence of chronic wound (OR=1.66, 95% CI (1.06 to 2.62), p=0.0277), Braden activity (p=0.0476). (3) Accelerated failure time model: presence of category 1 PU (AF=2.32, 95% CI (1.73 to 3.12), p<0.0001), pressure area related pain (AF=2.28, 95% CI (1.59 to 3.27), p<0.0001). (4) 2-level random-intercept logistic regression model: skin status which comprised 2 levels (versus healthy skin); alterations to intact skin (OR=4.65, 95% CI (3.01 to 7.18), p<0.0001), presence of category 1 PU (OR=17.30, 95% CI (11.09 to 27.00), p<0.0001) and pressure area related pain (OR=2.25, 95% CI (1.53 to 3.29), p<0.0001). Conclusions This is the first study to assess pain as a predictor of category ≥2 PU development. In all 4 models, pain emerged as a risk factor associated with an increased probability of category ≥2 PU development

    Multivariable analysis of outcome predictors and adjustment of main outcome results to baseline data profile in randomized controlled trials: Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy (SITS-MOST)

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    &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Background and Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; The Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy (SITS-MOST) unadjusted results demonstrated that intravenous alteplase is well tolerated and that the effects were comparable with those seen in randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) when used in routine clinical practice within 3 hours of ischemic stroke onset. We aimed to identify outcome predictors and adjust the outcomes of the SITS-MOST to the baseline characteristics of RCTs.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; The study population was SITS-MOST (n=6483) and pooled RCTs (n=464) patients treated with intravenous alteplase within 3 hours of stroke onset. Multivariable, backward stepwise regression analyses (until P&#8804;0.10) were performed to identify the outcome predictors for SITS-MOST. Variables appearing either in the final multivariable model or differing (P&#60;0.10) between SITS-MOST and RCTs were included in the prediction model for the adjustment of outcomes. Main outcome measures were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale deterioration &#8805;1 within 7 days with any hemorrhage (RCT definition), mortality, and independency as defined by modified Rankin Score of 0 to 2 at 3 months.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The adjusted proportion of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage for SITS-MOST was 8.5% (95% CI, 7.9 to 9.0) versus 8.6% (6.3 to 11.6) for pooled RCTs; mortality was 15.5% (14.7 to 16.2) versus 17.3% (14.1 to 21.1); and independency was 50.4% (49.6 to 51.2) versus 50.1% (44.5 to 54.7), respectively. In the multivariable analysis, older age, high blood glucose, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and current infarction on imaging scans were related to poor outcome in all parameters. Systolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and weight were additional predictors of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Current smokers had a lower rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Disability before current stroke (modified Rankin Score 2 to 5), diastolic blood pressure, antiplatelet other than aspirin, congestive heart failure, patients treated in new centers, and male sex were related to high mortality at 3 months.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Conclusions:&lt;/b&gt; The adjusted outcomes from SITS-MOST were almost identical to those in relevant RCTs and reinforce the conclusion drawn previously in the unadjusted analysis. We identified several important outcome predictors to better identify patients suitable for thrombolysis.&lt;/p&gt

    Adiposity, Cardiometabolic Risk, and Vitamin D Status: The Framingham Heart Study

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    OBJECTIVE: Because vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, understanding the characteristics that promote vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy adults could have important clinical implications. Few studies relating vitamin D deficiency to obesity have included direct measures of adiposity. Furthermore, the degree to which vitamin D is associated with metabolic traits after adjusting for adiposity measures is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the relations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations with indexes of cardiometabolic risk in 3,890 nondiabetic individuals; 1,882 had subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes measured by multidetector computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted regression models, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with winter season, waist circumference, and serum insulin (P < 0.005 for all). In models further adjusted for CT measures, 25(OH)D was inversely related to SAT (−1.1 ng/ml per SD increment in SAT, P = 0.016) and VAT (−2.3 ng/ml per SD, P < 0.0001). The association of 25(OH)D with insulin resistance measures became nonsignificant after adjustment for VAT. Higher adiposity volumes were correlated with lower 25(OH)D across different categories of BMI, including in lean individuals (BMI <25 kg/m2). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D <20 ng/ml) was threefold higher in those with high SAT and high VAT than in those with low SAT and low VAT (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status is strongly associated with variation in subcutaneous and especially visceral adiposity. The mechanisms by which adiposity promotes vitamin D deficiency warrant further study.National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (N01-HC-25195, R01-DK-80739): American Heart Associatio

    Five-minute Apgar score and educational outcomes: retrospective cohort study of 751 369 children

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    Background: The Apgar score is used worldwide for assessing the clinical condition and short-term prognosis of newborn infants. Evidence for a relationship with long-term educational outcomes is conflicting. We investigated whether Apgar score at 5 min after birth was associated with additional support needs (ASN) and educational attainment. Methods: Data on pregnancy, delivery and later educational outcomes for children attending Scottish schools between 2006 and 2011 were collated by linking individual-level data from national educational and maternity databases. The relationship between Apgar score and overall ASN, type-specific ASN and educational attainment was assessed using binary, multinomial and generalised ordinal logistic regression models, respectively. Missing covariate data were imputed. Results: Of the 751 369 children eligible, 9741 (1.3%) had a low or intermediate Apgar score and 49 962 (6.6%) had ASN. Low Apgar score was independently associated with overall ASN status (adjusted OR for Apgar ≤3, OR 1.52 95% CI 1.35 to 1.70), as well as ASN due to cognitive (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.47), sensory (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.66 to 3.73) and motor (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.86 to 4.47) impairments. There was a dose-response relationship between Apgar score and overall ASN status: of those scoring 0–3, 10.1% had ASN, compared with 9.1% of those scoring 4–7 and 6.6% of those scoring 7–10. A low Apgar score was associated with lower educational attainment, but this was not robust to adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Apgar scores are associated with long-term as well as short-term prognoses, and with educational as well as clinical outcomes at the population level

    Hookworm Infection and Environmental Factors in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A Cross-sectional, Population-based study.

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    Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control. Cross-sectional interview data and stool samples from 6,375 participants from nine different sites in Mbeya region, south-western Tanzania, were collected as part of a cohort study. Hookworm infection was assessed by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample from each participant. A geographic information system was used to obtain remotely sensed environmental data such as land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover, rainfall, and elevation, and combine them with hookworm infection data and with socio-demographic and behavioral data. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed on sites separately and on the pooled dataset. Univariable analyses yielded significant associations for all ecological variables. Five ecological variables stayed significant in the final multivariable model: population density (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.73), mean annual vegetation density (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06-0.18), mean annual LST during the day (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75-0.88), mean annual LST during the night (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.44-1.64), and latrine coverage in household surroundings (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04). Interaction terms revealed substantial differences in associations of hookworm infection with population density, mean annual enhanced vegetation index, and latrine coverage between the two sites with the highest prevalence of infection. This study supports previous findings that remotely sensed data such as vegetation indices, LST, and elevation are strongly associated with hookworm prevalence. However, the results indicate that the influence of environmental conditions can differ substantially within a relatively small geographic area. The use of large-scale associations as a predictive tool on smaller scales is therefore problematic and should be handled with care

    Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

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    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of cats and use of proton pump inhibitors. Consumption of chicken was a predominant risk factor for C. jejuni enteritis, but many additional risk factors were identified. Unique risk factors for C. coli infections were consumption of game and tripe, and swimming. Contact with farm animals and persons with gastroenteritis were predominant risk factors for C. jejuni enteritis in young children (0-4 years). Important risk factors for the elderly (>= 60 years) were eating in a restaurant, use of proton pump inhibitors and having a chronic intestinal illness. Consumption of chicken in spring, steak tartare in autumn and winter and barbecued meat in rural areas showed strong associations with C. jejuni infections. This study illustrates that important differences in risk factors exist for different Campylobacter spp. and these may differ dependent on age, season or degree of urbanization

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by post-operative trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer

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    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab (NCT) increases the rate of pathological complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) compared to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) alone in women with HER2 positive breast cancer (BC). pCR in this setting is associated with improved EFS. Whether NCT preferentially improves EFS in comparison to NC followed by adjuvant trastuzumab initiated postoperatively (NCAT) has not been addressed. Using clinical data from women with HER2 positive BC treated at 7 European institutions between 2007 and 2010 we sought to investigate the impact on breast cancer outcomes of concomitant (NCT) versus sequential (NCAT) treatment in HER2 positive early BC. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for event free survival with NCT compared with NCAT was 0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.08; p = 0.091). Multivariable analysis revealed that treatment group, tumour size and ER status were significantly associated with EFS from diagnosis. In the whole group NCT was associated with a reduced risk of an event relative to NCAT, an effect that was confined to ER negative (HR: 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10–0.62; p = 0.003) as opposed to ER positive tumours (HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 0.46–2.52; p = 0.869). HER2 positive/ER negative BC treated with NC gain greatest survival benefit when trastuzumab is administered in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant period rather than in the adjuvant period alone. These data support the early introduction of targeted combination therapy in HER2 positive/ER negative BC
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