29,396 research outputs found

    Revisão taxonómica do género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) na Península Ibérica e Marrocos

    Get PDF
    The genus Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) includes, depending on the author, 10 to 25 species, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean basin. The taxonomy of this genus is considered to be extremely difficult, due to a great morphological variability, doubtfull relevance of some of the characters used to distinguish its species (e.g. the life form: annual or perennial; the habit: erect or diffuse, shape of the leaves, indumentum, relative size of the capitula and colour of disc or ray florets, achene morphology), but also due to the hybridization and polyploidization. Despite the numerous studies that have been published, no agreement on the classification and characters used to discriminate between taxa has been reached. A taxonomic study of the genus Calendula was conducted for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, aiming at (1) access the morphological variability between and within taxa, (2) confirm the chromosome numbers, (3) increase the nuclear DNA content estimations, (4) re-evaluate taxa delimitations and circumscription, and (5) reassess, and redefine, the descriptions and characters useful to distinguish taxa. In order to achieve a satisfying taxonomic core, extensive fieldwork, detailed morphometric analysis, chorological, karyological and genome size studies were conducted. For the Iberian Peninsula, four species were recognized, including nine subspecies (between these two new subspecies were described). For Morocco, including some taxa from Algeria and Tunisia 13 species were recognized (two new species and a nomenclatural change), including 15 subspecies (among these eight new subspecies were described). To corroborate the results obtained and to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among taxa, phylogenetic studies using molecular methods, such as ITS, microsatellites or other molecular markers, should be used.O g√©nero Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) inclui, dependendo do autor, 10 a 25 esp√©cies, distribu√≠das essencialmente na bacia do Mediterr√Ęneo. A taxonomia deste g√©nero √© considerada extremamente dif√≠cil, devido √† grande variabilidade morfol√≥gica, discutivel relev√Ęncia de alguns dos caracteres utilizados para distinguir suas esp√©cies (por exemplo, a forma de vida: anual ou perene, o h√°bito: erecto ou difuso, a forma das folhas, o indumento, o tamanho e a cor dos cap√≠tulos e a morfologia dos aqu√©nios), mas tamb√©m devido √† hibridiza√ß√£o e poliploidiza√ß√£o. Apesar dos in√ļmeros estudos que foram publicados, n√£o foi alcan√ßado um acordo sobre a classifica√ß√£o e os caracteres utilizados para discriminar as suas esp√©cies. Um estudo taxon√≥mico do g√©nero Calendula foi realizado para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica e Marrocos, com o objectivo de (1) verificar a variabilidade morfol√≥gica, (2) confirmar o n√ļmero de cromossomas, (3) aumentar as estimativas de conte√ļdo em ADN, (4) reavaliar a delimita√ß√£o e a circunscri√ß√£o dos taxa, e (5) reavaliar e redefinir as descri√ß√Ķes e caracteres √ļteis para os distinguir. Para alcan√ßar uma robust√™s taxon√≥mica satisfat√≥ria, foram realizados extensos trabalhos de campo, an√°lise morfom√©trica detalhada, abordagens corol√≥gicas, cariol√≥gicas e quanto ao conte√ļdo em ADN. Para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica, quatro esp√©cies foram reconhecidas, incluindo nove subesp√©cies (entre essas duas novas subesp√©cies foram descritas). Para Marrocos, incluindo alguns taxa da Argelia e Tunisia, foram reconhecidas 13 esp√©cies (duas novas e uma mudan√ßa nomenclatural), incluindo 15 subesp√©cies (entre essas oito novas subesp√©cies foram descritas). Para corroborar os resultados obtidos e avaliar as rela√ß√Ķes evolutivas e filogen√©ticas entre os taxa, estudos que utilizem diferentes m√©todos moleculares, tais como ITS, microsat√©lites ou outros marcadores moleculares, devem ser utilizados.Apoio financeiro do Laborat√≥rio Associado CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (AMB/50017) financiado por fundos nacionais atrav√©s da FCT/MCTES e cofinanciado pelo FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), no √Ęmbito do Acordo de Parceria PT2020, e Compete 2020Programa Doutoral em Biologi

    Metabolomic evaluation of PGPR defence priming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust)

    Get PDF
    Plant-microbe interactions are a phenomenal display of symbiotic/parasitic relationships between living organisms. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are some of the most widely investigated plant-beneficial microbes due to their capabilities in stimulating plant growth and development and conferring protection to plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. As such, PGPR-mediated plant priming/induced systemic resistance (ISR) has become a hot topic among researchers, particularly with prospects of applications in sustainable agriculture. The current study applies untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) to investigate PGPR-based metabolic reconfigurations in the metabolome of primed wheat plants against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tricti (Pst). A seed bio-priming approach was adopted, where seeds were coated with two PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus alvei (T22) and grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse. The plants were infected with Pst one-week post-germination, followed by weekly harvesting of leaf material. Subsequent metabolite extraction was carried out for analysis on a UHPLC-HDMS system for data acquisition. The data was chemometrically processed to reveal the underlying trends and data structures as well as potential signatory biomarkers for priming against Pst. Results showed notable metabolic reprogramming in primary and secondary metabolism, where the amino acid and organic acid content of primed-control, primed-challenged and non-primed-challenged plants were differentially reprogrammed. Similar trends were observed from the secondary metabolism, in which primed plants (particularly primed-challenged) showed an up-regulation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids-HCAs- and HCA amides) compared to the non-primed plants. The metabolomics-based semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of the plant metabolomes revealed a time-dependent metabolic reprogramming in primed-challenged and primed-unchallenged plants, indicating the metabolic adaptations of the plants to stripe rust infection over time

    Genetic variability and character association studies among seed yield and yield component traitsin safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes

    Get PDF
    A study was carried out to assess the genetic variability and association among yield attributing traits in 60 different safflower genotypes over six environments. The pooled analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that all attributes had a considerable degree of variation.The pooled analysis of variability parameters revealed that the phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) was higher than the genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV)for all of the characteristics evaluated, indicating that experimental variance contributed to total variation.Petal yield/plant and seed yield/plant had the highest PCV and GCV followed by number of capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitula, height of insertion of first branch, hundred seed weight, number of primary branches/plant, length of longest primary branches, number of secondary branches and height up to main capitula.Number of capitula/plant, seed yield/plant, petal yield/plant, height of insertion of first branch, number of seeds per capitula, hundred seed weight, number of primary branches/plant, length of the longest primary branches, number of secondary branches, height upto main capitula, capitulum diameter and plant height all had high heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean. Seedyield/plant showed positive, significant and directcorrelation with number of capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitulum, height up to the main capitulum, plant height, number of primary branches/plant, capitulum diameter, and hundred seed weight.Number of capitula/planthad the maximum direct effect on grain yield/plant followed by number of seeds/capitulum, hundred seed weight and petal yield/plant. Hence selection of these traits would improve seed and petal yield in safflower breeding program

    Differential responses in some quinoa genotypes of a consortium of beneficial endophytic bacteria against bacterial leaf spot disease

    Get PDF
    Many effective plant-microbe interactions lead to biological changes that can stimulate plant growth and production. This study evaluated the effect of the interaction between quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and endophytic bacterial strains on differential responses under biotic stress. Four strains of endophytic bacteria were used to inoculate three quinoa genotypes. Endophytic bacteria, isolated from the endosphere of healthy genotypes of quinoa plants, were used to evaluate their biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae on quinoa plants, which causes leaf spot disease, depending on some different parameters. Quinoa genotype plants were treated with four treatments: pathogenic bacteria only (T1), internal bacteria only (T2), pathogenic bacteria + endogenous bacteria (T3), and untreated as the control (T4). The results indicated that there was a significant difference between chlorophyll content index of infected plants without bioagent (untreated) compared to plants bio-inoculated with endophytic bacteria. The highest mean disease incidence was on the plants without bacterial inoculum (90, 80, and 100%) for quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences in the weight of grains/plant, as the value ranged from 8.1 to 13.3‚ÄČg when treated with pathogens (T1) compared to the treatment with pathogens and endogenous bacteria (T3), which ranged from 11.7 to 18.6‚ÄČg/plant. Decreases in total aromatic amino acids appeared due to the pathogen infection, by 6.3, 22.8, and 24.1% (compared to the control) in G1, G2, and G3, respectively. On the other hand, genotype G3 showed the highest response in the levels of total aromatic and total neutral amino acids. The endophytic strains promoted quinoa seedling growth mainly by improving nutrient efficiency. This improvement could not be explained by their ability to induce the production of amino acids, showing that complex interactions might be associated with enhancement of quinoa seedling performance by endophytic bacteria. The endophytic bacterial strains were able to reduce the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease by 30, 40, and 50% in quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively, recording significant differences compared to the negative control. The results indicated that, G1 genotype was superior in different performance indicators (pathogen tolerance index, yield injury %, superiority measure and relative performance) for grain weight/plant under pathogen infection condition when treated with endophyte bacteria. Based on this study, these bacterial strains can be used as a biotechnology tool in quinoa seedling production and biocontrol to diminish the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease

    Eco-physiological and morphological traits explain alpine plant species' response to warming

    No full text
    Understanding the traits mediating species' responses to climate change is a cornerstone for predicting future community composition and ecosystem function. Although species' eco-physiological properties determine their response to environmental change, most trait-based studies focus on a small subset of easily measured morphological traits as proxies for physiology. This choice may limit our ability to predict the impacts of climate change on species' demography, and obscure the underlying mechanisms. We conducted a transplantation experiment along a 1000-m elevation gradient in the Alps to quantify the degree to which changes in plant abundance due to climate warming were predicted by eco-physiological performance versus common morphological traits. Physiological measurements revealed that warming favoured species with a conservative leaf-level water use strategy whereas species whose leaf-level water use was more ‚Äėwasteful‚Äô were more likely to suffer from the warmer and drier climate. Nevertheless, the predictive power of physiological traits did not exceed that of morphological traits. Our results, therefore, show that while easily measured morphological traits can successfully predict plant abundance responses to climate, eco-physiological approaches are needed to understand the underlying mechanism.ISSN:0269-8463ISSN:1365-243

    Genetic population structure of the precious coral Corallium japonicum in the Northwest Pacific

    Get PDF
    Population sizes of the Japanese red coral Corallium japonicum have been severely affected by poaching and overfishing. Although genetic structure and connectivity patterns are considered important parameters for conservation strategies, there are few studies focusing on the population genetics of C. japonicum in the Northwest Pacific. We examined the genetic population structure of C. japonicum, in the Northwest Pacific. We used restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), which can be used to identify genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), to reveal detailed within-species genetic variations. Using the variable SNP loci identified from this analysis, we successfully evaluated the population-level genetic diversity and patterns of gene flow among multiple populations of C. japonicum around Japan. The results of genetic analysis basically showed that gene flow is widely maintained in the geographic range examined in this study, but the analysis in combination with larval dispersal simulations revealed several populations that were genetically distinct from the other populations, suggesting geographically limited gene flows. The information obtained from this study will be useful for the design of effective management schemes for C. japonicum, which is under threat from overfishing

    Transcriptome sequencing reveals the effects of circRNA on testicular development and spermatogenesis in Qianbei Ma goats

    Get PDF
    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play an important role in regulating the mammalian reproductive system, especially testicular development and spermatogenesis. However, their functions in testicular development and spermatogenesis in the Qianbei Ma goat, the Guizhou endemic breed are still unclear. In this study, tissue sectioning and circRNAs transcriptome analysis were conducted to compare the changes of morphology and circular RNAs gene expression profile at four different developmental stages (0Y, 0-month-old; 6Y, 6-month-old; 12Y, 12-month-old; 18Y, 18-month-old). The results showed that the circumferences and area of the seminiferous tubule gradually increased with age, and the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in the testis differentiated significantly. 12,784 circRNAs were detected from testicular tissues at four different developmental stages by RNA sequencing, and 8,140 DEcircRNAs (differentially expressed circRNAs) were found in 0Y vs. 6Y, 6Y vs. 12Y, 12Y vs. 18Y and 0Y vs. 18Y, 0Y vs. 12Y, 6Y vs. 18Y Functional enrichment analysis of the source genes showed that they were mainly enriched in testicular development and spermatogenesis. In addition, the miRNAs and mRNAs associated with DECircRNAs in 6 control groups were predicted by bioinformatics, and 81 highly expressed DECircRNAs and their associated miRNAs and mRNAs were selected to construct the ceRNA network. Through functional enrichment analysis of the target genes of circRNAs in the network, some candidate circRNAs related to testicular development and spermatogenesis were obtained. Such as circRNA_07172, circRNA_04859, circRNA_07832, circRNA_00032 and circRNA_07510. These results will help to reveal the mechanism of circRNAs in testicular development and spermatogenesis, and also provide some guidance for goat reproduction

    Combination of Morphometric and Morphological Analyses: An Effective Approach for the Study of <i>Platynus</i> from the Italian W Alps (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini)

    No full text
    In the W Italian Alps, an area characterized by considerable environmental complexity, the widespread Platynus were studied by focusing on their species composition. The ecological niche realized by the genus in this area encompasses a preference for humid and cold environments, sometimes associated with altitude. Several specimens from private and public collections were investigated by geometric morphometrics, a powerful technique capable of detecting even minor morphological variation. The quantitative analysis was paired to a qualitative survey of anatomical traits. To classify and discriminate species, external traits (head, pronotum, right elytron) and internal structures (male and female genitalia, mouthparts) were evaluated by direct examination and dissection. The results supported the presence of the five species already known from the study area and also helped to identify four new cryptic taxa to which the specific rank was assigned. They are herein described as Platynus maritimus n. sp., Platynus occitanus n. sp., Platynus simonisi n. sp., and Platynus vignai n. sp.</b

    Food biodiversity: Quantifying the unquantifiable in human diets

    Get PDF
    Dietary diversity is an established public health principle, and its measurement is essential for studies of diet quality and food security. However, conventional between food group scores fail to capture the nutritional variability and ecosystem services delivered by dietary richness and dissimilarity within food groups, or the relative distribution (i.e., evenness or moderation) of e.g., species or varieties across whole diets. Summarizing food biodiversity in an all-encompassing index is problematic. Therefore, various diversity indices have been proposed in ecology, yet these require methodological adaption for integration in dietary assessments. In this narrative review, we summarize the key conceptual issues underlying the measurement of food biodiversity at an edible species level, assess the ecological diversity indices previously applied to food consumption and food supply data, discuss their relative suitability, and potential amendments for use in (quantitative) dietary intake studies. Ecological diversity indices are often used without justification through the lens of nutrition. To illustrate: (i) dietary species richness fails to account for the distribution of foods across the diet or their functional traits; (ii) evenness indices, such as the Gini-Simpson index, require widely accepted relative abundance units (e.g., kcal, g, cups) and evidence-based moderation weighting factors; and (iii) functional dissimilarity indices are constructed based on an arbitrary selection of distance measures, cutoff criteria, and number of phylogenetic, nutritional, and morphological traits. Disregard for these limitations can lead to counterintuitive results and ambiguous or incorrect conclusions about the food biodiversity within diets or food systems. To ensure comparability and robustness of future research, we advocate food biodiversity indices that: (i) satisfy key axioms; (ii) can be extended to account for disparity between edible species; and (iii) are used in combination, rather than in isolation

    Soil fungal community characteristics vary with bamboo varieties and soil compartments

    Get PDF
    Soil fungi play an important role in nutrient cycling, mycorrhizal symbiosis, antagonism against pathogens, and organic matter decomposition. However, our knowledge about the community characteristics of soil fungi in relation to bamboo varieties is still limited. Here, we compared the fungal communities in different soil compartments (rhizosphere vs. bulk soil) of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and its four varieties using ITS high-throughput sequencing technology. The fungal őĪ diversity (Shannon index) in bulk soil was significantly higher than that in rhizosphere soil, but it was not affected by bamboo variety or interactions between the soil compartment and bamboo variety. Soil compartment and bamboo variety together explained 31.74% of the variation in fungal community diversity. Soil compartment and bamboo variety were the key factors affecting the relative abundance of the major fungal taxa at the phylum and genus levels. Soil compartment mainly affected the relative abundance of the dominant fungal phylum, while bamboo variety primarily influenced the dominant fungal genus. Network analysis showed that the fungal network in rhizosphere soil was more complex, stable, and connected than that in bulk soil. A FUNGuild database analysis indicated that both soil compartment and bamboo variety affect fungal functions. Our findings provide new insights into the roles of both soil compartments and plant species (including variety) in shaping soil fungal communities
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore