44,921 research outputs found

    Laser-induced fluorescence studies of HfF+ produced by autoionization

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    Autoionization of Rydberg states of HfF, prepared using the optical-optical double resonance (OODR) technique, holds promise to create HfF+ in a particular Zeeman level of a rovibronic state for an electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) search. We characterize a vibronic band of Rydberg HfF at 54 cm-1 above the lowest ionization threshold and directly probe the state of the ions formed from this vibronic band by performing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on the ions. The Rydberg HfF molecules show a propensity to decay into only a few ion rotational states of a given parity and are found to preserve their orientation qualitatively upon autoionization. We show empirically that we can create 30% of the total ion yield in a particular |J+,M+> state and present a simplified model describing autoionization from a given Rydberg state that assumes no angular dynamics.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figure

    The determinants of pricing in pharmaceuticals : are U.S. prices really higher than those of Canada?

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    This paper studies price determination in pharmaceutical markets using data for 25 countries, six years and a comprehensive list of products from the MIDAS IMS database. We show that market power and the quality of the product has a significantly positive impact of prices. The nationality of the producer appears to have a small and often insignificant impact on prices, which suggests that countries which regulates prices have relatively little power to do it in a way that advances narrow national interest. We produce a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon based on the fact that low negotiated prices in a country would have a knock-on effect in other markets, and is thus strongly resisted by producers. Another key finding is that the U.S. has prices that are not significantly higher than those of countries with similar income levels. This, together with the former observation on the effect of the nationality of producers casts doubt on the ability of countries to pursue “free-riding" regulation

    Electron-hole pairs during the adsorption dynamics of O2 on Pd(100) - Exciting or not?

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    During the exothermic adsorption of molecules at solid surfaces dissipation of the released energy occurs via the excitation of electronic and phononic degrees of freedom. For metallic substrates the role of the nonadiabatic electronic excitation channel has been controversially discussed, as the absence of a band gap could favour an easy coupling to a manifold of electronhole pairs of arbitrarily low energies. We analyse this situation for the highly exothermic showcase system of molecular oxygen dissociating at Pd(100), using time-dependent perturbation theory applied to first-principles electronic-structure calculations. For a range of different trajectories of impinging O2 molecules we compute largely varying electron-hole pair spectra, which underlines the necessity to consider the high-dimensionality of the surface dynamical process when assessing the total energy loss into this dissipation channel. Despite the high Pd density of states at the Fermi level, the concomitant non-adiabatic energy losses nevertheless never exceed about 5% of the available chemisorption energy. While this supports an electronically adiabatic description of the predominant heat dissipation into the phononic system, we critically discuss the non-adiabatic excitations in the context of the O2 spin transition during the dissociation process.Comment: 20 pages including 7 figures; related publications can be found at http://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/th/th.html [added two references, changed V_{fsa} to V_{6D}, modified a few formulations in interpretation of spin asymmetry of eh-spectra, added missing equals sign in Eg.(2.10)

    Optical Resonators and Fiber Tapers as Transducers for Detection of Nanoparticles and Bio-Molecules

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    In recent years, detection of biological interactions on single molecule level has aspired many researchers to investigate several optical, chemical, electrical and mechanical sensing tools. Among these tools, toroidal optical resonators lead the way in detection of the smallest particle/molecule with the real time measurements. In this work, bio-sensing capabilities of toroidal optical resonators are investigated. Bio-sensing is realized via measuring the analyte-antigen interaction while the antigen is immobilized through a novel functionalization method. Not long ago, detection of single nanoparticles using optical resonators has been accomplished however the need for cost-effective and practical transducers demands simpler tools. A tapered optical fiber is a suitable and efficient candidate as a practical tool. In this work, single nanoparticle detection measurements are performed in aqueous solutions and detection limit of fiber taper is investigated

    GOLLUM: a next-generation simulation tool for electron, thermal and spin transport

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    We have developed an efficient simulation tool 'GOLLUM' for the computation of electrical, spin and thermal transport characteristics of complex nanostructures. The new multi-scale, multi-terminal tool addresses a number of new challenges and functionalities that have emerged in nanoscale-scale transport over the past few years. To illustrate the flexibility and functionality of GOLLUM, we present a range of demonstrator calculations encompassing charge, spin and thermal transport, corrections to density functional theory such as LDA+U and spectral adjustments, transport in the presence of non-collinear magnetism, the quantum-Hall effect, Kondo and Coulomb blockade effects, finite-voltage transport, multi-terminal transport, quantum pumps, superconducting nanostructures, environmental effects and pulling curves and conductance histograms for mechanically-controlled-break-junction experiments.Comment: 66 journal pages, 57 figure

    ExoMol: molecular line lists for exoplanet and other atmospheres

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    The discovery of extrasolar planets is one of the major scientific advances of the last two decades. Hundreds of planets have now been detected and astronomers are beginning to characterise their composition and physical characteristics. To do this requires a huge quantity of spectroscopic data most of which is not available from laboratory studies. The ExoMol project will offer a comprehensive solution to this problem by providing spectroscopic data on all the molecular transitions of importance in the atmospheres of exoplanets. These data will be widely applicable to other problems and will be used for studies on cool stars, brown dwarfs and circumstellar environments. This paper lays out the scientific foundations of this project and reviews previous work in this area. A mixture of first principles and empirically-tuned quantum mechanical methods will be used to compute comprehensive and very large rotation-vibration and rotation-vibration-electronic (rovibronic) line lists. Methodologies will be developed for treating larger molecules such as methane and nitric acid. ExoMol will rely on these developments and the use of state-of-the-art computing.Comment: MNRAS (in press
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