404 research outputs found

    Conservation characteristics of grass and dry sugar beet pulp co-ensiled after different degrees of mixing

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    peer-reviewedThe objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of the degree of mixing of dry molassed sugar beet pulp (BP) with grass on silage conservation characteristics. Herbage from a timothy (Phleum pratense) sward was precision chopped and treated with a formic acid based additive (3 l/t grass). Units of 50 kg grass, without or with 2.5kg BP were randomly allocated among four replicates on each of seven treatments. The treatments were (1) no BP (NONE), (2) BP evenly mixed through the grass (EVEN), (3) BP evenly mixed through the lower 25 kg grass (LOWH), (4) BP evenly mixed through the lower 12.5 kg grass (LOWQ), (5) 0.625 kg BP mixed through the top 25 kg grass and 1.875 kg SBP mixed through the lower 25 kg grass (25/75), (6) BP placed in 0.5 kg layers beneath each 10 kg grass (LAYR), and (7) BP placed in a single layer under all of the grass (BOTM). Laboratory silos were filled and sealed, and stored at 15 °C for 163 days. Effluent was collected and weighed from each silo throughout the ensilage period. At opening, silage composition and aerobic stability measurements were made. Total outflow of effluent was reduced (P<0.001) by the addition of BP; LAYR had a greater effect (P<0.001) than any of the other treatments. Effluent dry matter (DM) concentration was highest (P<0.05) for BOTM and lowest (P<0.01) for NONE. All treatments underwent similar lactic-acid dominant fermentations. Incorporation of BP with grass increased silage DM concentration (P<0.001), in vitro DM digestibility (P<0.05) and water soluble carbohydrate (P<0.001) concentration and reduced acid detergent fibre (P<0.001) concentration. Aerobic stability was similar across treatments and aerobic deterioration at 192 h was higher (P<0.05) for LOWQ, 25/75, LAYR and BOTM than for NONE. In conclusion, the incorporation of BP increased silage DM digestibility but had relatively little effect on fermentation or aerobic stability. Placing BP in layers gave the largest and most sustained restriction in effluent output.B. Cummins acknowledges receipt of a Walsh Fellowship provided by Teagasc

    A Study Investigating the Nutritional Effects of Feeding Byproducts to Ruminant Species during Periods of Production Stress

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    The studies undertaken for this thesis concerned the use of by-products as feeds for farm animals. Sheep and cattle were the species studied under different production systems. The most important aspects of the studies were to determine the nutritive value of the by-products and to describe their relative values when used as feeds in a particular production system. The General Introduction presents the reasons for this study. The continually increasing world population and concerns about the environment and efficiency of production have encouraged reduced wastage and recycling of products. Also the implications for human health are affected by the agricultural products available to the consumer. The methods of feed evaluation and the role of animal nutrition in the maintenance of health and prevention of disease are discussed. Section I reviews the use of sugar beet by-products as animal feeds and describes the origins of the novel by-products under test. The experimental work, using sheep described the nutritive value of the by-products and the use of a limed molassed sugar beet pulp by-product as a feed for lactating ewes rearing twin lambs. The nutritive value of the by-products was determined from digestibility studies. A pelleted, dried by-product containing molassed sugar beet pulp and brewers grains was shown to be a high protein (96.5g DCP/kg DM and high energy 11.6 MJ ME/kg DM feed. A limed molassed sugar beet pulp by-product, when fed to sheep, was shown to contain 60g DCP/kg DM, 11.1 MJ ME/kg DM and a high mineral content including calcium, 13.5, and phosphorus 1.1 (g/kg DM). The final byproduct was the residual extract from sugar beet processing and was a highly digestible, medium energy (10.3 MJ ME) by-product. Limed molassed sugar beet pulp provided an adequate supply of nutrients to ewes during lactation to achieve a mean lamb growth rate of 0.23 kg/day during the first six weeks, for twin lambs. Section II described the origins of the novel by-product, under study, available to farmers within the whisky distilling regions of Scotland. Digestibility and degradability studies described wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS to be a high energy (13.6 MJ ME/kg DM feed with 142g RDP and 249g DCP/kg DM. A production trial using beef suckler cows identified the production benefits of feeding wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS as the sole protein source in comparison with a mixture of two proprietary compound feeds. The nutritional implications of feeding wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS over a long period (4 to 5 months) were exhibited by a loss of appetite and clinical and subclinical symptoms of hypomagnesaemia (mean blood magnesium concentration, 0.32 mmol l-1). A production trial using dairy cows identified the production benefits of feeding wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS as the concentrate source of a basal ration of silage (7 kg DM/day) in contrast to barley malt distillers grains over the total 24 weeks trial period the mean daily milk yield for all cows was 21.3 kg, 3. 63% butterfat and 3.63% milk protein when wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS was the concentrate source. Over the same period, for the same cows the daily milk yield was 21.5 kg, 3.65% butterfat and 3.27% milk protein when malt distillers grains was the concentrate source. No adverse health problems were encountered and the use of fresh wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS as a feed for dairy cows was satisfactory. Section III is concerned with the health of neonatal calves and lambs. The transfer of immunoglobulins was measured using serum immunoglobulin techniques. The calf study involved cows which had been fed different amounts of protein during pregnancy. The results indicated that for higher levels of dietary protein there was an increased colostral whey protein content and increased circulating calf immunoglobulins. This increase was shown to occur for total serum immunoglobulin and for the individual immunoglobulins. The lamb study investigated the use of a proprietary ewe colostrum supplement (Imulam). From the results obtained, using a limited number of twin or triplet lambs, this supplementary product did not appear to provide any additional benefits to feeding either colostrum or milk substitute alone. The experimental work conducted for this thesis aimed to be a direct reflection of intensive farming systems practised in Scotland under normal commercial constraints

    Studies of the nutritive value of fresh and conserved grass with special reference to silage

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    1. Three different experiments in order to compare the nutritive value of 'good' and 'aid' silages made from the same material have been described. In the first experiment a comparison between top and bottom samples taken from a large farm silo showed that considerable variation in chemical composition can occur throughout the mass. In two experiments carried out using small experimental silos, silages with pH differences of 0.5 and 0.6 respectively were produced from similar grass material. There was little difference in nutritive value between the high and low pH products in either case.2. Two experiments were carried out in order to compare wilted grass silage and ordinary grass silage. The wilted grass silages contained slightly more sugars than the ordinary materials and were of slightly higher pH. In the first experiment the digestibilities of the various constituents were similar in the wilted and non wilted silages but in the second experiment the wilted grass silage showed significantly higher digestibility values for all constituents. The dry matter losses which occurred during ensilage were of a similar order for both materials in spite of the absence of effluent from the wilted grass silo.3. Results for the composition and digestibility of the constituents of a medium -protein grass- clover mixture and of molassed and unrnolassed silages derived from it indicated that there was little difference in nutritive value and both types compared favourably with the original grass when cut in both spring and autumn.The losses occurring in the silages made from spring grass were of a very low order whilst those obtained in the silages made from autumn grass showed losses of a greater magnitude; the unmolassed material showing the highest loss. The addition of molasses to the ordinary silage at the time of feeding did not markedly affect the digestibilities of the various constituents.The losses encountered during haymaking from the spring grass by two different methods illustrated the advantage that silage making had over haymaking in the efficiency of the conservation process. Tripoding had a distinct advantage over field curing in that a product of higher nutritive value was obtained.4. In a comparison of the nutritive value of spring and autumn grass cut at a similar C.P. level, little difference could be detected in composition or digestibility although considerable variation occurred in the utilization of the total digestible nitrogen. The nitrogen in the spring grass was more efficiently utilized by growing sheep than that in the autumn grass.5. An experiment designed to compare the digestibility and nitrogen utilization of dried grass when fed at two different seasons of the year to growing sheep showed that neither season nor age of the animal had much effect upon these values. The results showed there was a tendency for young lambs (aged 9 months) to digest slightly less crude fibre than adult animals although no significant difference in nitrogen utilization was detected.6. A study of the results of 22 digestibility experiments on grass silages ranging in C.P. content from 9.9 to 23.1 have been made and two different methods of calculating the feed intake of animals on the 'self feed' system have been compared. The value of C calculated by Lancaster's method for animals consuming fresh pasture grass compared favourably with a similar value calculated for sheep on a silage diet. Equations have been derived for calculating dry matter intakes by Lancaster's method and by a method involving the use of the C.P. content of silage

    Influence of Supplemental Feed Choice for Pasture-Based Cows on the Fatty Acid and Volatile Profile of Milk

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    peer-reviewedThe purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a variety of supplemental feeds on the composition and quality of milk in a pasture-based dairy system. Four pasture-supplemented feeding systems were compared: Group 1 supplementation with 16% crude protein parlour concentrate (CONC); Group 2 supplementation with palm kernel expeller plus parlour concentrate (PKE); Group 3 supplemented with soya hulls plus parlour concentrate (SOYA); Group 4 was supplemented with molassed beet pulp plus parlour concentrate (BEET). Supplemental feeding system was demonstrated to have a significant effect on the size of native casein micelles and the gelation properties of milks. While CONC feeding produced significantly higher casein micelle size, gel strength (Young’s Modulus) was significantly negatively correlated with casein micelle size. Supplemental feeding system had a significant effect on a number of fatty acids (FA) and indices derived therefrom, including total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, de novo produced FA, omega 3, and omega 6 FA. The volatile profile of milks was also affected by supplemental feed choice, whereby multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CONC diet was distinctly different to that of the PALM, SOYA, and BEET milks. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish milks from different pasture-supplemented feeding systems by their FA profile

    Nutritional management in a horse after caecocolic intussusception with almost total typhlectomy : a case report

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    A 17-year-old Haflinger gelding was referred to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation and treatment of acute colic. Clinical examination resulted in a presumptive diagnosis of caecocolic intussusception, which was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy. Due to severe compromise of the caecal apex wall, a partial typhlectomy was performed. Information about optimal nutritional management of typhlectomised horses is unfortunately rather limited. While immediate postsurgical support focuses on maintaining current bodyweight, the long-term goal is to obtain and maintain an optimal body condition score. In this case, postoperative nutritional support focused initially on a low-bulk diet that would be primarily digested in the small intestine, while providing sufficient fibre to provide colonocytes with an energy source. One month after surgery, a slow transition towards a more traditional diet containing long-stem roughage was made. This is the first case report describing a detailed successful nutritional approach up until six months postoperatively

    Biochemical aspects of energy utilisation in ruminants

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    The activities of acetyl-CoA hydrolase and acetyl-CoA synthetase and the influence of diet and feeding level on them were investigated in various ovine tissues and used to determine both the potential rate of substrate cycling between acetate and acetyl-CoA and the contribution of this cycle to energy expenditure in the ruminant. Two experiments, using lambs, were conducted in an attempt to further understand biochemical pathways which may influence the efficiency of utilisation of ME and explain why this is lower for fibre (sugarbeet pulp) when compared to starch (barley) based diets. The influence of carbohydrate source, feeding level and protein level on plasma concentrations of acetate, glucose and insulin and the rates of acetate incorporation into CC>2 and lipid were studied.ATP-stimulated acetyl-CoA hydrolase is present in rumen epithelium, muscle and the cytoplasm of ovine liver but not in perirenal adipose tissue, and it is not inactivated by cold. "Mitochondrial" acetyl-CoA hydrolase was detected in all tissues investigated. The activities of acetyl-CoA hydrolase and acetyl-CoA synthetase tended to be higher in perirenal adipose tissue of lambs fed on sugarbeet diets and their activities decreased with increasing level of feeding (P2 and lipid were influenced by acetate (P2 (P<0.05).A technique involving open column ion exchange chromatography, freeze drying and HPLC was developed for the concentration and separation of plasma organic acids. Organic acid recoveries were 43-69%.An experiment was conducted to investigate the activity of the substrate cycle between acetate and acetyl-CoA in calf liver in vivo. Several problems were encountered, notably huge variation in blood flows (including negative rates). This introduced large variation into the calculated fluxes and no meaningful conclusions were made.It was calculated from enzyme measurements made in vitro, that the substrate cycle in ovine liver may potentially account for 2.5% of basal heat production. It is suggested that the efficiency of utilisation of ME is related to glucose homeostasis, involving VFA and protein metabolism

    Comparison of microalgae and rapeseed meal as supplementary protein in the grass silage based nutrition of dairy cows

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    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate microalgae as a protein supplement in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows in relation to unsupplemented and rapeseed meal supplemented diets. In both experiments multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows were fed separately fixed amount of cereal-sugar beet pulp based concentrate (11 kg/d in Exp. 1 and 12 kg/d in Exp. 2), and grass silage ad libitum. In Exp. 1, six cows (212 days in milk; DIM) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal (pelleted rapeseed supplement, RSS), mixture of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; ALG) or a mixture of RSS and ALG (1:1 on crude protein (CP) basis; RSS-ALG). In Exp. 2, four intact cows and four rumen cannulated cows (190 DIM) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments consisted of basal diet without protein supplement (NEG) or supplemented similarly as in Exp. 1 with the exception of RSS-ALG and ALG containing only S. platensis. Protein supplementation increased fibre and N digestibility but did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or milk yield. The substitution of rapeseed by microalgae did not affect total DMI or milk yield in neither of the experiments, but changed the quality of DMI in Exp.2 by linearly decreasing concentrate:forage ratio of the diet due to poorer palatability of microalgae. The efficiency of N utilisation (NUE) in milk production varied from moderate (Exp. 1) to high (Exp. 2), and in Exp. 2 was decreased by both protein supplementation and microalgae inclusion in the diet. Protein supplementation or microalgae inclusion in the diet did not affect ruminal pH or major volatile fatty acids in Exp. 2, but both increased ruminal NH3-N concentration. There was likely a shortage of N for rumen microbes on NEG in Exp. 2 as indicated by low milk urea N and increased microbial N flow on protein supplemented diets. In both experiments, only minor differences were observed in plasma metabolites when microalgae substituted rapeseed. Even though arterial histidine concentrations were high, arterial histidine and carnosine concentrations (Exp. 1 and 2) and milk protein yields (Exp. 2) decreased by microalgae inclusion suggesting that histidine supply may become suboptimal on microalgae supplemented diets. Experiments demonstrated the suitability of microalgae as protein supplement for dairy cows, however, the protein value of microalgae is likely slightly lower than that of rapeseed meal.Two experiments were conducted to evaluate microalgae as a protein supplement in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows in relation to unsupplemented and rapeseed meal supplemented diets. In both experiments multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows were fed separately fixed amount of cereal-sugar beet pulp based concentrate (11 kg/d in Exp. 1 and 12 kg/d in Exp. 2), and grass silage ad libitum. In Exp. 1, six cows (212 days in milk; DIM) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal (pelleted rapeseed supplement, RSS), mixture of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; ALG) or a mixture of RSS and ALG (1:1 on crude protein (CP) basis; RSS-ALG). In Exp. 2, four intact cows and four rumen cannulated cows (190 DIM) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments consisted of basal diet without protein supplement (NEG) or supplemented similarly as in Exp. 1 with the exception of RSS-ALG and ALG containing only S. platensis. Protein supplementation increased fibre and N digestibility but did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or milk yield. The substitution of rapeseed by microalgae did not affect total DMI or milk yield in neither of the experiments, but changed the quality of DMI in Exp.2 by linearly decreasing concentrate:forage ratio of the diet due to poorer palatability of microalgae. The efficiency of N utilisation (NUE) in milk production varied from moderate (Exp. 1) to high (Exp. 2), and in Exp. 2 was decreased by both protein supplementation and microalgae inclusion in the diet. Protein supplementation or microalgae inclusion in the diet did not affect ruminal pH or major volatile fatty acids in Exp. 2, but both increased ruminal NH3-N concentration. There was likely a shortage of N for rumen microbes on NEG in Exp. 2 as indicated by low milk urea N and increased microbial N flow on protein supplemented diets. In both experiments, only minor differences were observed in plasma metabolites when microalgae substituted rapeseed. Even though arterial histidine concentrations were high, arterial histidine and carnosine concentrations (Exp. 1 and 2) and milk protein yields (Exp. 2) decreased by microalgae inclusion suggesting that histidine supply may become suboptimal on microalgae supplemented diets. Experiments demonstrated the suitability of microalgae as protein supplement for dairy cows, however, the protein value of microalgae is likely slightly lower than that of rapeseed meal.Peer reviewe

    Studies in Ruminant Nutrition

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    The work in this thesis investigates the use of a novel dried sugar beet pulp product manufactured by adding lime before compression to remove water before drying for use as a feed supplement for ruminant livestock. It also investigates the practical use of wheat dark distillers grains arising from fermentation of wheat. In Section 1, the nutrient content of the novel sugar beet pulp was evaluated. In experiment 1, the metabolisable energy was 11 MJ/Kg. DM and about 1 MJ less than for the other normal sugar beet pulp products. The digestible crude protein was determined to be 47g/kg DM, which was lower by about 10g/kg than for the other normal sugar beet products. The limed sugar beet pulp also contained higher levels of calcium and phospohorus than the normal sugar beet pulps. In experiment 2, the crude protein degradability in the rumen was found to be very similar to those of the other normal sugar beet pulp products, i.e. about 25% for the unmolassed and 60% for the molassed products. In experiment 3, the acceptability and palatability of the novel sugar beet product was assessed in trials involving ruminant livestock in different physiological states and ages. It was observed that intermixing of this product with other readily acceptable and palatable feed supplements could in general enhance palatability and hence intake. In Section 2, the nutritive value of the limed sugar beet product was assessed in production trials involving pregnant and lactating ewes and beef cows. In experiment 1, with lactating ewes given about 1 kg DM each of hay and concentrate supplement made up of about 60% sugar beet products and 40% wheat dark distillers grain and soya, the mean daily liveweight loss was about 0.26 kg over a three week trial period. The daily mean liveweight gain of their lambs over the same period was about 0.25 kg. In a comparative trial involving sets of twin and triplet lambs, individual twin lamb outgrew individual triplet lamb very significantly but the total daily liveweight gain of the triplets (570g) was greater than that for the twins (504g). In experiment 2 in which the variations in the probable colostrum intake on the growth performance of twin lambs was studied, the daily mean liveweight gain of males (0.27 kg) rather than females (0.25 kg) and for Texel was (0.28 kg) rather than Suffolk cross (0.26 kg) . In experiment 3, the daily mean liveweight loss to suckler cows given about 6 kg fresh hay and 3 kg fresh concentrate based on limed sugar beet pulp and wheat dark distillers grains daily was 0.19 kg and the daily mean liveweight gain of the suckler calves was 1.1 kg over the first six weeks of lactation. In section 3, the feeding of a novel wheat dark distillers grains as concentrate feed supplement to lactating dairy cows was compared with a high nutritional quality dairy concentrate compound feed devoid of distillers grain with respect to milk yield and milk fat and protein constituents. The wheat dark distillers grains compared favourably with the compound feed and it could replace the compound feed as a source of concentrate supplement to lactating dairy cows when substituted for 4 kg/day (fresh matter) at mean milk yield of about 9 l/day. It is concluded that limed sugar beet pulp could be fed as a concentrate feed supplement to productive ruminant livestock especially when incorporated with readily acceptable and palatable feeds with high crude-protein and phosphorus contents without any detrimental effect on the animals or their products. Similarly, supplementing the diet of lactating dairy cows with wheat dark distillers grains could economically replace a more expensive compound feed without loss of milk yield or reduction in quality

    Aerobic Stability of Grass Silage Mixed with a Range of Concentrate Feedstuffs at Feed-Out

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    Mixing supplementary concentrates with silage at feed-out could shorten aerobic stability or increase the rate or extent of aerobic deterioration of silage. This experiment quantified such possible effects by twelve contrasting feedstuffs. Four samples (each 6 kg) of unwilted, precision-chop, well preserved grass silage (216 g dry matter (DM) kg-1 and pH 4.0) were incubated at 20oC for 6 days in polystyrene containers alone or with the addition of 400 g (solid ingredients were milled) of wheat grain, barley grain, maize grain, molasses beet pulp, citrus pulp, molasses, soybean meal, maize gluten, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, dry distillers grains or sunflower oil. Daily temperature profiles were recorded. Silage alone was unstable under aerobic conditions, with an accumulated daily temperature rise during 5 days aerobiosis of 57oC. None of the added ingredients altered (P\u3e 0.05) any of the indices of aerobic deterioration. For the treatments as listed above, the interval until temperature rise commenced was 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.3, 2.0, 2.0, 2.3, 2.0, 2.3, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0 and 2.0 (s.e.m. 0.11) days, the interval until the maximum temperature was reached was 3.8, 3.5, 4.5, 3.5, 4.0, 3.3, 3.5, 3.8, 4.3, 4.0, 3.8, 3.8 and 3.5 (s.e.m, 0.44) days and the accumulated temperature rise to day 5 was 57, 58, 57, 54, 58, 59, 50, 57, 53, 61, 52, 51 and 58 (s.e.m. 3.1)oC. It is concluded that mixing the above feedstuffs with grass silage did not alter the aerobic deterioration of grass silage
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