5,581 research outputs found

    Current status of the cryopreservation of embryogenic material of woody species

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    Cryopreservation, or the storage at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196°C), of embryogenic cells or somatic embryos allows their long-term conservation without loss of their embryogenic capacity. During the last decade, protocols for cryopreservation of embryogenic material of woody species have been increasing in number and importance. However, despite the large experimental evidence proved in thousands of embryogenic lines, the application for the large-scale conservation of embryogenic material in cryobanks is still limited. Cryopreservation facilitates the management of embryogenic lines, reducing costs and time spent on their maintenance, thus limiting the risk of the appearance of somaclonal variation or contamination. Somatic embryogenesis in combination with cryopreservation is especially useful to preserve the juvenility of lines while the corresponding clones are being field-tested. Hence, when tree performance has been evaluated, selected varieties can be propagated from the cryostock. The traditional method of slow cooling or techniques based on vitrification are mostly applied procedures. For example, slow cooling methods are widely applied to conserve embryogenic lines of conifers. Desiccation based procedures, although simpler, have been applied in a smaller number of species. Genetic stability of the cryopreserved material is supported by multiloci PCR-derived markers in most of the assayed species, whereas DNA methylation status assays showed that cryopreservation might induce some changes that were also observed after prolonged subculture of the embryogenic lines. This article reviews the cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures in conifers, fruit species, deciduous forest species and palms, including a description of the different cryopreservation procedures and the analysis of their genetic stability after storage in liquid nitrogen

    An Insight into the Traditional Uses, Phytoconstituents and Pharmacological Activities of the Genus Tylophora

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    Traditional plants have huge demand as medicines to treat a wide range of illnesses. Tylophora is an important genus of medicinal plant in India, used to treat asthma and other ailments. The plants of this genus have been studied in vivo and in vitro for various pharmacological properties. In this article, we have given information regarding ethnomedicinal importance, phytochemistry and pharmacological uses of 18 species of Tylophora. Comprehensive information regarding different species of Tylophora were collected using different keywords in various electronic databases such as ACS, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, Springer Link, library search, J gate, Wiley, Semantic Scholar and ResearchGate since 1960 to 2023. Additionally, data was collected from some textbooks and chapters like Flora of India and Indian medicinal plants. This article highlights the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the few studied taxa of Tylophora that would serve as a reference for pharmaceutical research. More than 100 compounds have been isolated from selected species of the genus Tylophora. Among them, phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids have received the most attention and are the most abundant active constituents of the plant. Other types of active components of genus Tylophora include C21 glycosides, secoiridoids, triterpenes, and furano alkaloids. These compounds have shown a variety of therapeutic activities like antiasthmatic, antitumour, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and antiallergic properties. This review can be an important scientific resource for further research

    Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the people of Mosop, Nandi County in Kenya

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    Background: Throughout the history, nature has provided mankind with most of their basic needs, which include food, shelter, medicine, clothes, flavours, scents as well as raw materials. Given that they are an integral part of cultural heritage, medicinal plants have played a significant role in human healthcare systems around the world. Investigating various biological resources for use as medicines requires ethnomedicinal studies.Methods: Data on utilization of ethnomedicinal plants from local healers in Kenya’s Mosop Sub-County in Nandi County was documented through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. A number of quantitative indices, such as the Use Citation (UC), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FoC) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) were used to convey the potential medical benefits, vitality and variety of the ethnomedicine.Results: 102 informants provided information on 253 ethnomedicinal plant species, classified into 74 families. There were 249 native plant species identified, along with few exotic species: Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Persea americana Mill, Carica papaya L. and Solanum betaceum Cav. Of all recorded species, 32% and 27% were herbs and trees, respectively. Among plant parts, leaves were most frequently utilized (27%) and roots (26%), while decoctions (21%) were the most widely used formulations. The dominant family was Asteraceae, with 28 species, followed by Lamiaceae, with 19 species. The highest ICF value was 0.778 for a number of parasitic and infectious illnesses, including ringworms, athlete’s foot rot, tetanus, typhoid, intestinal parasites, abscesses, malaria, and amoebiasis. The study’s data validates the region’s widespread use of traditional medicinal plant remedies.Conclusion: The current study will lay a foundation of knowledge for future research investigations. The abundance of knowledge regarding ethnomedicinal species and their medicinal applications will stimulate further phytochemical and pharmacological research, which could lead to the discovery of potentially significant pharmaceuticals

    Effect of Spirulina platensis extract on growth potential of in vitro culture pear

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    Pears are among the most economically important fruits in the world that are grown in all temperate zones. ‘Le-Cont’ rootstock pear is one of the gene sources used to improve fruit productivity, rootstock resistance, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Traditional propagation of pear. Pear is time-consuming and limited by a short growing season and hard winter conditions. Therefore, in vitro propagation is a suitable alternative method. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) and spirulina platensis extract at 5,10 and 20 % supplemented with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l) of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and kinetin (Kin), individually or in combination with them. Treatments were used for in vitro shoot proliferation. Nodal segments were used as explants. MS medium augmented was 3mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) plus 20 % Spirulina platensis extraction then used for shootlets proliferation of micro-shoots. A combination of 3 mg/l BA and 20 % Spirulina platensis as a growth media resulted in a significant improvement in shoot proliferation. This combination produced the highest number of shoots (2.8 per explant) and leaves (6.3 per explant) similar with those containing MS media plus 20% extraction (2.9 per explant) and leaves (6.8 per explant). The longest shoots (2.97 cm) were obtained in each previous treatment. However, these shoots were similar with those produced from classical multiplication by MS according to ISSR analysis which scored 89.1 % of mono morphism percentage and 10.1 % polymorphism. The ISSR analysis shows the highest similarity index percentage for P5-P9 0.986301

    Spice plants as a biology learning resource based-education for sustainable development

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    Studying biology has research topics that are closely related to all the living things around the student and important for them to understand thoroughly. One of the local potentials in the environment around students that can be used as a source of learning biology is spice plants. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. The research aims to describe the spice plants in the Botanical Smartpark, which can be used as learning resources. The result of this research shows that there are 57 species and 27 families of spice plants found at the Botanical Smartpark, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Spice plant biology objects can be used in biology learning by using project-based learning and socio-scientific issues-based learning models. In addition, this local potential can support education for sustainable development (ESD), through environmental conservation

    Effect of augmented nutrient composition and fertigation system on biomass yield and cannabinoid content of medicinal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation

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    Growing evidence underscores the role of nutrients and fertigation systems in soilless production, influencing medicinal cannabis biomass and secondary metabolite content. This study delves into the impact of enhanced nutrient regimes on the ‘ionome’ and its ramifications for biomass and cannabinoid production in medicinal cannabis, comparing two distinct fertigation systems: recirculation and drain-to-waste. Notably, we assess the optimal harvest time for maximizing profitability. In comparing the experimental variant with elevated levels of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and iron (Fe) in the nutrient solution to the control variant, we observe distinct patterns in element composition across stems, leaves, and flowers, with significant differences between fertigation systems. Total nitrogen content was determined through the Kjeldahl method. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were employed for elemental analysis. Cannabinoid identification and quantification used high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC/DAD). Followed statistical analyses included ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. Although the augmented nutrient regimen does not substantially increase plant biomass, interesting differences emerge between the two fertigation systems. The recirculation fertigation system proves more profitable during the recommended harvest period. Nonetheless, the altered nutrient regime does not yield statistically significant differences in final inflorescence harvest mass or cannabinoid concentrations in medicinal cannabis. The choice of fertigation system influences the quantity and quality of harvested inflorescence. To optimize the balance between the dry biomass yield of flowers and cannabinoid concentration, primarily total THC yield (sum of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol), we propose the 11th week of cultivation as the suitable harvest time for the recirculation system. Importantly, the recirculation system consistently outperformed the drain-to-waste system, especially after the ninth week, resulting in significantly higher total THC yields. Enriched nutrition, when compared with control, increased THC yield up to 50.7%, with a remarkable 182% surge in the recirculation system when compared with the drain-to-waste system

    A bio-sustainable approach for reducing Eucalyptus tree-caused agricultural ecosystem hazards employing Trichoderma bio-sustained spores and mycorrhizal networks

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    The presence of the exotic Eucalyptus tree in crop-growing soil and the accumulation of its undecomposed leaves is a significant ecological hazard. The waxy coating on the leaves and the phenolic compounds takes a long time to break down under normal conditions. It is necessary to explore various fungi that can degrade these leaves for an eco-friendly solution to this problem. In this study, spores of nine native Trichoderma strains were produced on wheat agar using a lactic acid-induced sporulation strategy (LAISS). Trichoderma biosustained spores and Serendipita indica (SI) spores were applied to a rice field with accumulated Eucalyptus leaves under continuous ponding (CP) and alternate flooding and wetting conditions (AFW). Among the strains, TI04 (Trichoderma viride) and TI15 (Trichoderma citrinoviride) showed faster (5 days) and massive sporulation (1.06–1.38 × 1011 CFU/g) in LAISS. In vitro, TI04 and TI15 biosustained on Eucalyptus leaves and improved rice seedling growth and SI infection under greenhouse conditions. In the rice-field experiment, Trichoderma-treatment had a threefold yield (percentage) increase from control, with TI04 (CP) increasing the yield by 30.79, TI04 (AFW) by 29.45, TI15 (CP) by 32.72, and TI15 (AFW) rising by 31.91. Remarkably, unfilled grain yield significantly decreased in all the Trichoderma treatments. Under AFW conditions, TI04 and TI15 showed a higher pH increase. Furthermore, TI04 and TI15 under AFW had higher water productivity (t ha−1 cm−1) of 0.0763 and 0.0791, respectively, and the highest rates (percentage) of SI colonization of 86.36 and 83.16, respectively. According to the findings, LAISS-produced Trichoderma spores can be applied to break down persistent wastes and restore agricultural ecosystems through increased mycorrhizae networking

    Identification of a major QTL-controlling resistance to the subtropical race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis

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    Open Access Journal; Published online: 09 Feb 2023Vascular wilt caused by the ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major constraint of banana production around the world. The virulent race, namely Tropical Race 4, can infect all Cavendish-type banana plants and is now widespread across the globe, causing devastating losses to global banana production. In this study, we characterized Foc Subtropical Race 4 (STR4) resistance in a wild banana relative which, through estimated genome size and ancestry analysis, was confirmed to be Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis. Using a self-derived F2 population segregating for STR4 resistance, quantitative trait loci sequencing (QTL-seq) was performed on bulks consisting of resistant and susceptible individuals. Changes in SNP index between the bulks revealed a major QTL located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 3. Multiple resistance genes are present in this region. Identification of chromosome regions conferring resistance to Foc can facilitate marker assisted selection in breeding programs and paves the way towards identifying genes underpinning resistance

    The effect of the drug Zircon on the decorative qualities of large-flowered eustoma plants in pot

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    The article presents the results of the study of the growth stimulator Zircon concentreation influence on the decorative qualities of large-flowered eustoma of White Kyoto F1 and Flamenco pink F1 hybrids. In the experiment, the drug concentration was studied from 0.25 to 5.0%. The drug foliar application affected the height of the plant, the number of leaves and their size, the passage of phenological phases by plants and the duration of flowering. The most effective was the use of Zircon with a solution concentration of 2.5%

    Effect of light spectra on in vitro multiplication, elongation and adventitious rooting stages of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J. C. Wendl.

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    Bamboos occur throughout much of the temperate and tropical world, have rapid growth, and have various commercial and environmental applications. Clonal production of selected plants on a industrial scale is an important strategy for the bamboo sector. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the light spectrum on in vitro multiplication, elongation, adventitious rooting, and anatomical features of the leaf surface of Bambusa vulgaris. In the multiplication and elongation stages, in vitro–established explants were transferred to a culture medium supplemented with 8.88 µmol of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2.69 µmol of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and subjected to four light spectra (i.e., white, blue, green, and red). At the adventitious rooting stage, the culture medium was supplemented with 9.84 µmol of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 5.37 µmol NAA, and 2.22 µmol BAP under identical light spectra. Explant survival was not influenced by light spectra in the multiplication and elongation stages. White (2.2 shoots) and blue (1.8 shoots) light spectra were the most suitable for the number of shoots per explant. The white spectrum was associated with the highest average length of shoots (7.4 cm) and number of leaves per explant (3.0 leaves). The white light spectrum resulted in the highest average chlorophyll a contents (12.60 µg mg−1), total chlorophyll (16.60 µg mg−1), and carotenoids (10.10 µg mg−1). White and blue light spectra resulted in the best responses for vigor, and least senescence and tissue oxidation. White and blue light spectra favored the chlorophyll b content, resulting in 4.60 and 3.60 µg mg−1, respectively. Survival (80.0 %), adventitious rooting (50.0 %), vigor, senescence, and tissue oxidation were favored in the white light spectrum in the adventitious rooting stage. Scanning electron microscopy of leaves exposed to the white light spectrum revealed microtrichomes and spines on the adaxial surface of the leaf blade, papillae and stomata; on the abaxial surface, there were many unicellular trichomes arranged in rows, denoting normal growth and development. These results may help the production of micropropagated plants of Bambusa vulgaris on an industrial scale