27,171 research outputs found

    The foodomics approach to investigate the impact of the matrix structure on food quality: applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, relaxometry and imaging

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    The aim of this thesis is to explore the possible influence of the food matrix on food quality attributes. Using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the matrix-dependent properties of different foods were studied and some useful indices were defined to classify food products based on the matrix behaviour when responding to processing phenomena. Correlations were found between fish freshness indices, assessed by certain geometric parameters linked to the morphology of the animal, i.e. a macroscopic structure, and the degradation of the product structure. The same foodomics approach was also applied to explore the protective effect of modified atmospheres on the stability of fish fillets, which are typically susceptible to oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporated in the meat matrix. Here, freshness is assessed by evaluating the time-dependent change in the fish metabolome, providing an established freshness index, and its relationship to lipid oxidation. In vitro digestion studies, focusing on food products with different matrixes, alone and in combination with other meal components (e.g. seasoning), were conducted to investigate possible interactions between enzymes and food, modulated by matrix structure, which influence digestibility. The interaction between water and the gelatinous matrix of the food, consisting of a network of protein gels incorporating fat droplets, was also studied by means of nuclear magnetic relaxometry, in order to create a prediction tool for the correct classification of authentic and counterfeit food products protected by a quality label. This is one of the first applications of an NMR method focusing on the supramolecular structure of the matrix, rather than the chemical composition, to assess food authenticity. The effect of innovative processing technologies, such as PEF applied to fruit products, has been assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, exploiting information associated with the rehydration kinetics exerted by a modified food structure

    Unravelling the Environmental Variance of Litter Size Through the Genome and Gut Microbiome

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    [ES] En esta tesis, se realizaron an谩lisis gen贸micos, metagen贸micos y metabol贸micos en l铆neas de conejo seleccionadas de forma divergente para alta y baja VE del tama帽o de la camada (TC). Estos animales mostraron diferencias en su potencial de resiliencia. Por ello, estas poblaciones divergentes son un excelente material biol贸gico para estudiar la resiliencia animal a trav茅s de la VE. Se realizaron estudios de asociaci贸n del genoma (GWAS) utilizando la regresi贸n de un solo marcador y la regresi贸n bayesiana de m煤ltiples marcadores. Cuatro regiones gen贸micas se asociaron con la VE en el cromosoma 3 de Oryctolagus cuniculus (OCU), OCU7, OCU10 y OCU14, explicando el 8,6% de la varianza gen茅tica total para la VE. Adem谩s, el estudio de huellas de selecci贸n (SS) identific贸 134 regiones gen贸micas que podr铆an estar bajo selecci贸n para la VE. El solapamiento entre ambos estudios se identific贸 en el OCU3, donde tambi茅n se encontraron mutaciones funcionales para los genes DOCK2, INSYN2B y FOXI1. Los genes candidatos de GWAS y SS fueron aquellos con mutaciones funcionales identificadas mediante el an谩lisis de secuenciaci贸n del genoma completo (WGS) con pools de ADN. Los genes candidatos destacados mostraron funciones biol贸gicas relacionadas con el desarrollo de estructuras sensoriales, la respuesta inmunitaria, la respuesta al estr茅s y el sistema nervioso. Todas ellas son funciones relevantes para modular la resiliencia de los animales. Por otra parte, los estudios metagen贸micos y metabol贸micos mostraron que la selecci贸n para la VE modific贸 el microbioma intestinal y la composici贸n de su metaboloma. Las especies microbianas beneficiosas como Alistipes prutedinis, Alistipes shahii, Odoribacter splanchnicus y Limosilactobacillus fermentum eran m谩s abundantes en la poblaci贸n resiliente. En cambio, las especies microbianas nocivas, como Acetatifactor muris y Eggerthella sp, fueron m谩s abundantes en los animales no resistentes. Los genes relacionados con la formaci贸n de biofilms, el metabolismo de amino谩cidos arom谩ticos (fenilalanina, tript贸fano y tirosina) y el metabolismo del glutamato tambi茅n se expresaron de forma diferencial entre las poblaciones de conejos. Adem谩s, se identificaron 15 metabolitos intestinales como potenciales biomarcadores para discriminar y predecir adecuadamente entre las poblaciones de conejos resistentes y no resistentes. Cinco de ellos, el equol, el 3-(4-hidroxifenil)lactato, el 5-aminovalerato, la N6-acetilisina y la serina son metabolitos de origen microbiano. Este es el primer estudio que desvela importantes mecanismos biol贸gicos de la resiliencia animal generada por la selecci贸n de la VE de TC. El genoma y el microbioma intestinal y la composici贸n del metaboloma se modificaron a lo largo del proceso de selecci贸n, afectando a la respuesta inmunitaria y al estr茅s. Se encontraron resultados coincidentes entre los estudios metagen贸micos y del metaboloma. Por otro lado, en esta tesis desarrollamos por primera vez una herramienta flexible para simular la coevoluci贸n del genoma y el microbioma a trav茅s de un proceso de selecci贸n. La clave de esta herramienta fue la implementaci贸n de la herencia del microbioma. Est谩 construida en R y basada en AlphaSimR para que el usuario pueda modificar el c贸digo e implementar diferentes escenarios. Esta tesis es el primer paso para desarrollar futuras estrategias y nuevas investigaciones para mejorar la resiliencia de los animales. Una selecci贸n que combine informaci贸n gen贸mica y metagen贸mica puede mejorar la respuesta de selecci贸n. Adem谩s, los metabolitos derivados del intestino con evidencia de crosstalk pueden utilizarse como biomarcadores para identificar animales resilientes por plasma, evitando la extracci贸n de muestras fecales para determinar la composici贸n del microbioma. Si estos estudios tienen 茅xito, estas estrategias podr铆an mejorar la resiliencia de los animales con el objetivo de buscar un sistema ganadero m谩s sostenible.[CA] En aquesta tesi, es van realitzar an脿lisis gen貌miques, metagen貌miques i metabol貌miques en l铆nies de conill seleccionades de manera divergent per a alta i baixa VE de la grand脿ria de la ventrada (GV). Aquests animals van mostrar difer猫ncies en el seu potencial de resili猫ncia. Per aix貌, aquestes poblacions divergents s贸n un excel路lent material biol貌gic per a estudiar la resili猫ncia animal a trav茅s de la VE. Es van realitzar estudis d'associaci贸 del genoma (GWAS) utilitzant la regressi贸 d'un solo marcador i la regressi贸 bayesiana de m煤ltiples marcadors. Quatre regions gen貌miques es van associar amb la VE en el cromosoma 3 de Oryctolagus cuniculus (OCU), OCU7, OCU10 i OCU14, explicant el 8,6% de la vari脿ncia gen猫tica total per a la VE. A m茅s, l'estudi de petjades de selecci贸 (SS) va identificar 134 regions gen貌miques que podrien estar sota selecci贸 per a la VE. El solapament entre tots dos estudis es va identificar en l'OCU3, on tamb茅 es van trobar mutacions funcionals per als gens DOCK2, INSYN2B i FOXI1. Els gens candidats de GWAS i SS van ser aquells amb mutacions funcionals identificades mitjan莽ant l'an脿lisi de seq眉enciaci贸 del genoma complet (WGS) amb pools d'ADN. Els gens candidats destacats van mostrar funcions biol貌giques relacionades amb el desenvolupament d'estructures sensorials, la resposta immunit脿ria, la resposta a l'estr茅s i el sistema nervi贸s. Totes elles s贸n funcions rellevants per a modular la resili猫ncia dels animals. D'altra banda, els estudis metagen貌miques i *metabol貌miques van mostrar que la selecci贸 per a la VE va modificar el microbioma intestinal i la composici贸 de la seua metaboloma. Les esp猫cies microbianes beneficioses com Alistipes prutedinis, Alistipes shahii, Odoribacter splanchnicus i Limosilactobacillus fermentum eren m茅s abundants en la poblaci贸 resilient. En canvi, les esp猫cies microbianes nocives, com Acetatifactor muris i Eggerthella sp, van ser m茅s abundants en els animals no resistents. Els gens relacionats amb la formaci贸 de biofilms, el metabolisme d'amino脿cids arom脿tics (fenilalanina, tript貌fan i tirosina) i el metabolisme del glutamat tamb茅 es van expressar de manera diferencial entre les poblacions de conills. A m茅s, es van identificar 15 metab貌lits intestinals com a potencials biomarcadores per a discriminar i predir adequadament entre les poblacions de conills resistents i no resistents. Cinc d'ells, el equol, el 3-(4-hidroxifenil)lactat, el 5-aminovalerato, la N6-acetilisina i la serina s贸n metab貌lits d'origen microbi脿. Aquest 茅s el primer estudi que revela importants mecanismes biol貌gics de la resili猫ncia animal generada per la selecci贸 de la VE de GC. El genoma i el microbioma intestinal i la composici贸 del metaboloma es van modificar al llarg del proc茅s de selecci贸, afectant la resposta immunit脿ria i a l'estr茅s. Es van trobar resultats coincidents entre els estudis metagen貌miques i del metaboloma. D'altra banda, en aquesta tesi desenvolupem per primera vegada una eina flexible per a simular la coevoluci贸 del genoma i el microbioma a trav茅s d'un proc茅s de selecci贸. La clau d'aquesta eina va ser la implementaci贸 de l'her猫ncia del microbioma. Est脿 constru茂da en R i basada en AlphaSimR perqu猫 l'usuari puga modificar el codi i implementar diferents escenaris. Aquesta tesi 茅s el primer pas per a desenvolupar futures estrat猫gies i noves investigacions per a millorar la resili猫ncia dels animals. Una selecci贸 que combine informaci贸 gen貌mica i metagen貌mique pot millorar la resposta de selecci贸. A m茅s, els metab貌lits derivats de l'intest铆 amb evid猫ncia de crosstalk poden utilitzar-se com biomarcadores per a identificar animals resilients per plasma, evitant l'extracci贸 de mostres fecals per a determinar la composici贸 del microbioma. Si aquests estudis tenen 猫xit, aquestes estrat猫gies podrien millorar la resili猫ncia dels animals amb l'objectiu de buscar un sistema ramader m茅s sostenible.[EN] Disclosing the biological mechanisms of the VE can help to gain some insight into the biological basics of animal resilience. In this thesis, genomic, metagenomic, and metabolomic analyses were performed on rabbit lines divergently selected for high and low VE of litter size (LS). These animals showed differences in their resilience potential. Thus, these divergent populations are an excellent biological material for studying animal resilience through the VE. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using single marker regression, and Bayesian multiple marker regression approaches. Four genomic regions were associated with the VE in the Oryctolagus cuniculus chromosome (OCU) 3, OCU7, OCU10, and OCU14, explaining 8.6% of the total genetic variance for the VE. In addition, the signature of selection (SS) study identified 134 genomic regions which could be under selection for VE. Overlapping between both studies was placed in the OCU3, where functional mutations for the DOCK2, INSYN2B and FOXI1 genes were also found. Candidate genes from GWAS and SS were those with functional mutations identified using whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis with pools of DNA. Highlighted candidate genes showed biological functions related to the development of sensory structures, the immune response, the stress response, and the nervous system. All of them are relevant functions to modulate animal resilience. On the other hand, metagenomic and metabolomic studies showed that the selection for VE modified the gut microbiome and metabolome composition. Beneficial microbial species such as Alistipes prutedinis, Alistipes shahii, Odoribacter splanchnicus and Limosilactobacillus fermentum were more abundant in the resilient population. In contrast, harmful microbial species such as Acetatifactor muris and Eggerthella sp were more abundant in the non-resilient animals. Genes related to biofilm formation, aromatic amino acid metabolism (Phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine), and glutamate metabolism were also differentially expressed between the rabbit populations. Furthermore, 15 gut metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers to properly discriminate and predict between the resilient and non-resilient rabbit populations. Five of them, the equol, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate, 5-aminovalerate, N6-acetyllisine, and serine were microbial-derived metabolites. This is the first study unravelling important biological mechanisms under the animal resilience generated by VE of LS selection. Genome and gut microbiome and metabolome composition were modified throughout the selection process, affecting the immune and stress response. Overlapping results were found between the metagenomic and metabolome studies. On the other hand, in this thesis, we developed a flexible tool for simulating the coevolution of the genome and microbiome across a selection process for the first time. The key of this tool was the implementation of the microbiome inheritance. It is constructed in R and based on AlphaSimR so the user can modify the code and implement different scenarios. This thesis is the first step to develop future strategies and further research to improve animal resilience. A selection combining genomic and metagenomic information may improve the selection response. Moreover, gut-derived metabolites with evidence of crosstalk can be used as biomarkers to identify resilient animals by plasma, avoiding the extraction of faecal samples to determine the microbiome composition. If these studies suceed, these strategies could improve animal resilience with the aim of search a more sustainable livestock system. Lastly, the simulation tool developed could help unravel the microbiome's implications in animal breeding programs.This study was supported by projects AGL2014-5592, C2-1-P and C2-2-P, and AGL2017-86083, C2-1-P and C2-2-P, funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci贸n (MIC)-Agencia Estatal de Investigaci贸n (AEI) and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER). Projects PID2020-115558GB-C21, funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci贸n (MIC)-Agencia Estatal de Investigaci贸n (AEI) and the European Regional Development Funds (FEDER) FPU17/01196 scholarship from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities.Casto Rebollo, C. (2023). Unravelling the Environmental Variance of Litter Size Through the Genome and Gut Microbiome [Tesis doctoral]. Universitat Polit猫cnica de Val猫ncia. https://doi.org/10.4995/Thesis/10251/19246

    Influence of TLR5 (rs2072493) and TLR7 (rs5935436) polymorphisms on transcriptome and metabolome of in vitro model of metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma

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    Karcinom plu膰a je jedna od naj膷e拧膰ih i najsmrtonosnijih malignih bolesti u svijetu. Uz izlo啪enost duhanskom dimu, va啪an 膷imbenik u nastanku i razvoju navedene bolesti je i genetska podloga. Aktivacijom receptora Toll-like (TLR) pokre膰e se slo啪eni signalni put koji u kona膷nici kulminira osloba膽anjem razli膷itih transkripcijskih 膷imbenika. Istra啪ivanja koja su prethodila doktorskoj disertaciji pokazala su povezanost polimorfizma u genima TLR5 (rs2072493) i TLR7 (rs5935436) s nastankom karcinoma plu膰a. Cilj ovog istra啪ivanja bio je ispitati utjecaj ovih polimorfizama na transkriptom i metabolom u uvjetima in vitro. Rezultati analize transkriptoma pokazuju da polimorfizam rs2072493 utje膷e na promjene u aktivnosti signalnog puta receptora spregnutim s proteinima G (GPCR). Rezultati analize metaboloma pokazuju da prisutnosti polimorfizma rs2072493 mijenja aktivnosti metabolizma triptofana. Nadalje, pove膰anjem ekspresije gena TLR7, metastatske stanice karcinoma plu膰a, H1299, postaju osjetljivije na kotretman imikvimodom i paklitakselom. Tako膽er, promjena u ekspresiji TLR7 utje膷e na promjene u aktivnosti stani膷nog puta glikolize, signalnog puta HIF-1, i signalnog puta AMPK.Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Exposure to smoke is the main cause of developing lung cancer, genetic background also has a significant role. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) starts a complex signaling pathway, which in the end releases transcriptional factors. Previous associations studies linked polymorphisms in TLR5 (rs2072493) and TLR7 (rs5935436) with higher susceptibility of developing lung cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these polymorphisms on the transcriptome and metabolome in vitro. The results of the transcriptome analysis show that the rs2072493 polymorphism affects changes in the activity of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. The results of the metabolome analysis show that the presence of the rs2072493 polymorphism changes the activity of tryptophan metabolism. Furthermore, metastatic lung cancer cells, H1299, overexpressing TLR7 are more sensitive to co-treatment with imiquimod and paclitaxel. Also, the change in TLR7 expression affects the activity of glycolysis metabolism, the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and the AMPK signaling pathway

    Bioavailability and excretion profile of betacyanins 鈥 Variability and correlations between different excretion routes

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    The present study addresses the knowledge gap in betalain bioavailability, transformation and excretion. Analysis of renal and fecal excretion profiles in humans after consumption of beetroot revealed very low bioavailability (renal recovery of 0.13 %) and fast elimination of pigments (renal elimination rate constant of 0.16 h鈭1), while the majority of betalains underwent severe depletion during GI transit, evidenced by decarboxylation, deglucosidation and dehydrogenation. Betacyanin metabolite levels in human urine were positively associated with those in stools (p < 0.05), indicating significant impact of pigment metabolism in the gut on their bioavailability. In addition, the current study revealed large inter-individual and compositional variabilities of pigment after colonic fermentation compared with systemic metabolism, likely attributed to the increasing complexity of intestinal environment with diverse gut microbiota. To conclude, intestinal uptake and systemic metabolism of betacyanins are intimately associated with their intestinal biotransformation, with gut microbiota serving as a crucial factor

    Multi-Omics Reveals the Effect of Population Density on the Phenotype, Transcriptome and Metabolome of <i>Mythimna separata</i>

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    Population-density-dependent polymorphism is important in the biology of some agricultural pests. The oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) is a lepidopteran pest (family Noctuidae). As the population density increases, its body color becomes darker, and the insect eats more and causes greater damage to crops. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phase change are not fully clear. Here, we used transcriptomic and metabolomic methods to study the effect of population density on the differentiation of second-day sixth instar M. separata larvae. The transcriptomic analysis identified 1148 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in gregarious-type (i.e., high-population-density) armyworms compared with solitary-type (low-population-density) armyworms; 481 and 667 genes were up- and downregulated, respectively. The metabolomic analysis identified 137 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs), including 59 upregulated and 78 downregulated. The analysis of DEGs and DAMs showed that activation of the insulin-like signaling pathway promotes the melanization of gregarious armyworms and accelerates the decomposition of saccharides, which promotes the gregarious type to take in more food. The gregarious type is more capable of digesting and absorbing proteins and decreases energy consumption by inhibiting transcription and translation processes. The phase change traits of the armyworm are thus attributable to plasticity of its energy metabolism. These data broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect-density-dependent polymorphism

    Study of Seed Ageing in <i>lpa1-1</i> Maize Mutant and Two Possible Approaches to Restore Seed Germination

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    Phytic acid (PA) is a strong anti-nutritional factor with a key antioxidant role in countering reactive oxygen species. Despite the potential benefits of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants, the reduction of PA causes pleiotropic effects, e.g., reduced seed germination and viability loss related to seed ageing. The current study evaluated a historical series of naturally aged seeds and showed that lpa1-1 seeds aged faster as compared to wildtype. To mimic natural ageing, the present study set up accelerated ageing treatments at different temperatures. It was found that incubating the seeds at 57 掳C for 24 h, the wildtype germinated at 82.4% and lpa1-1 at 40%. The current study also hypothesized two possible solutions to overcome these problems: (1) Classical breeding was used to constitute synthetic populations carrying the lpa1-1 mutation, with genes pushing anthocyanin accumulation in the embryo (R-navajo allele). The outcome showed that the presence of R-navajo in the lpa1-1 genotype was not able to improve the germinability (鈭20%), but this approach could be useful to improve the germinability in non-mutant genotypes (+17%). (2) In addition, hydropriming was tested on lpa1-1 and wildtype seeds, and germination was improved by 20% in lpa1-1, suggesting a positive role of seed priming in restoring germination. Moreover, the data highlighted metabolic differences in the metabolome before and after hydropriming treatment, suggesting that the differences in germination could also be mediated by differences in the metabolic composition induced by the mutation

    Metabolites in fish and humans as a response to different food ingredients : a metabolomics approach

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    The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate metabolomics changes in humans and fish as a response to food/feed consumption.聽To alleviate the environmental impact of animal production and maximize the use of resources, the valorization of meat by-products might be an attractive alternative. A meat product containing heart and aorta tissue from pork was designed and analyzed for fatty acid and metabolite composition. In comparison with a control of similar qualities, the designed meat product (or test product) showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid and tyramine levels and lower levels of sugars. The test meat product was used in a randomized controlled clinical trial to test for potential health effects in patients showing atherosclerosis symptoms. Patients receiving the test product showed a decrease in blood levels of low-density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, atherogenic index and triacylglycerols.聽To reduce the impact of animal production on ecosystems, the replacement of feed ingredients by a microbial alternative was realized. In this study, vegetable oils included in the feed of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) were replaced by biomass of the oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula toruloides). The analysis of the yeast biomass showed safe levels of pollutants and heavy metals. Fish growth and muscle fatty acid profile were similar to the control. A higher liver weight and hepatosomatic index were observed in fish fed including the yeast biomass, albeit no significant difference in liver fat content or in hepatic enzyme activity was observed. Quantification of plasma metabolites revealed higher levels of metabolites involved in energy pathways such as one-carbon metabolism and gluconeogenesis.In conclusion, this thesis showed that metabolomics can be applied to evaluate effects of food/feed at the molecular level in complex systems. It adds knowledge on the effects of meat by-product consumption in the particular case of atherosclerosis symptoms. The fish feed trial showed the possibility of feed modification with a specific yeast

    Table_1_Transcriptome and metabolome profiling provide insights into hormone-mediated enhanced growth in autotetraploid seedlings of banana (Musa spp.).DOCX

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    IntroductionReconstructive breeding based on autotetraploids to generate triploid varieties is a promising breeding strategy in banana (Musa spp.). Therefore understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences between the original diploid and its autopolyploid derivatives is of significant importance in such breeding programs of banana.MethodsIn this study, a number of non-chimeric autotetraploid plants, confirmed by flow cytometry and chromosome counting were obtained using colchicine treatment of 鈥楶isang Berlin' (AA Group), a diploid banana cultivar highly resistant to Fusarium wilt Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) and widely cultivated in Asia.Results and discussionThe autotetraploids showed significant increase in plant height, pseudostem diameter, root length, leaf thickness, leaf area, and leaf chlorophyll content. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organelles. The genes related to the metabolism, transport or signaling of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin (CTK) and gibberellin (GA), as well as the genes encoding essential enzymes in photosynthetic CO2 fixation were differentially expressed in leaves of autotetraploids and most of them were up-regulated. Metabolomic analysis revealed that the differentially accumulated metabolites were mainly involved in plant hormone signal transduction, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organelles. The results therefore, demonstrate that the hormones IAA, ABA, and photosynthetic regulation may play a vital role in the observed enhancement in the autotetraploids. These could be used as molecular and biochemical markers to facilitate the generation of triploid progenies as suitable new varieties for cultivation.</p

    Methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus improves type 2 diabetes mellitus through modifying intestinal flora

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    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) poses a significant risk to human health. Previous research demonstrated that Inonotus obliquus possesses good hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. In this research, we aim to investigate the potential treatment outcomes of Inonotus obliquus for T2DM and discuss its favourable influences on the intestinal flora. The chemical composition of Inonotus obliquus methanol extracts (IO) was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q extractive-mass spectrometry. IO significantly improved the blood glucose level, blood lipid level, and inflammatory factor level in T2DM mice, and effectively alleviated the morphological changes of colon, liver and renal. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels in the feces of the IO group were restored. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the intestinal flora composition of mice in the IO group was significantly modulated. Inonotus obliquus showed significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects with evident anti-inflammatory activity and improved the morphological structure of various organs and cells. Inonotus obliquus increased the levels of short-chain fatty acids in the environment by increasing the population of certain bacteria that produce acid, such as Alistipes and Akkermansia, which are beneficial to improve intestinal flora disorders and maintain intestinal flora homeostasis. Meanwhile, Inonotus obliquus further alleviated T2DM symptoms in db/db mice by down-regulating the high number of microorganisms that are dangerous, such as Proteobacteria and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group and up-regulating the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Odoribacter and Rikenella. Therefore, this study provides a new perspective for the treatment of T2DM by demonstrating that drug and food homologous active substances could relieve inflammation via regulating intestinal flora

    袘懈芯褉邪蟹薪芯芯斜褉邪蟹懈械 屑懈泻褉芯斜薪芯谐芯 褋芯芯斜褖械褋褌胁邪 胁懈薪芯谐褉邪写邪 泻褍谢褜褌褍褉薪芯谐芯 (Vitis vinifera)

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    The Polesye region is the leading region of industrial viticulture in the Republic of Belarus. Natural and climatic conditions favor the cultivation of high-quality grape varieties here, which can compete with foreign products. According to modern concepts, any plant and its associated microbiota can be considered as a single ecological complex associated with close interactions. Such associations can help host plants adapt to changing environmental conditions. Each species or close species of plants has its own specific complex of microscopic bacteria and fungi, which are unmatched in their ability to develop various ecological niches. The article presents data on the quantitative and qualitative structure of epiphytic and endophytic microorganisms of various econiches of cultural grapes. The importance of studying the root community in view of the vertical movement along the vascular system to the phyllosphere has been proved.袩芯谢械褋褋泻懈泄 褉械谐懈芯薪 褟胁谢褟械褌褋褟 胁械写褍褖懈屑 褉械谐懈芯薪芯屑 锌褉芯屑褘褕谢械薪薪芯谐芯 胁懈薪芯谐褉邪写邪褉褋褌胁邪 胁 袪械褋锌褍斜谢懈泻械 袘械谢邪褉褍褋褜. 袩褉懈褉芯写薪褘械 懈 泻谢懈屑邪褌懈褔械褋泻懈械 褍褋谢芯胁懈褟 斜谢邪谐芯锌褉懈褟褌褋褌胁褍褞褌 胁褘褉邪褖懈胁邪薪懈褞 蟹写械褋褜 胁褘褋芯泻芯泻邪褔械褋褌胁械薪薪褘褏 褋芯褉褌芯胁 胁懈薪芯谐褉邪写邪, 泻芯褌芯褉褘械 屑芯谐褍褌 泻芯薪泻褍褉懈褉芯胁邪褌褜 褋 蟹邪褉褍斜械卸薪芯泄 锌褉芯写褍泻褑懈械泄. 袩芯 褋芯胁褉械屑械薪薪褘屑 锌褉械写褋褌邪胁谢械薪懈褟屑, 谢褞斜芯械 褉邪褋褌械薪懈械 懈 邪褋褋芯褑懈懈褉芯胁邪薪薪褍褞 褋 薪懈屑 屑懈泻褉芯斜懈芯褌褍 屑芯卸薪芯 褉邪褋褋屑邪褌褉懈胁邪褌褜 泻邪泻 械写懈薪褘泄 褝泻芯谢芯谐懈褔械褋泻懈泄 泻芯屑锌谢械泻褋, 褋胁褟蟹邪薪薪褘泄 褌械褋薪褘屑懈 胁蟹邪懈屑芯写械泄褋褌胁懈褟屑懈. 孝邪泻懈械 邪褋褋芯褑懈邪褑懈懈 屑芯谐褍褌 锌芯屑芯褔褜 褉邪褋褌械薪懈褟屑-褏芯蟹褟械胁邪屑 邪写邪锌褌懈褉芯胁邪褌褜褋褟 泻 懈蟹屑械薪褟褞褖懈屑褋褟 褍褋谢芯胁懈褟屑 芯泻褉褍卸邪褞褖械泄 褋褉械写褘. 袣邪卸写芯屑褍 胁懈写褍 懈谢懈 斜谢懈蟹泻懈屑 胁懈写邪屑 褉邪褋褌械薪懈泄 锌褉懈褋褍褖 褋胁芯泄 褋锌械褑懈褎懈褔械褋泻懈泄 泻芯屑锌谢械泻褋 屑懈泻褉芯褋泻芯锌懈褔械褋泻懈褏 斜邪泻褌械褉懈泄 懈 谐褉懈斜芯胁, 泻芯褌芯褉褘械 锌芯 褋锌芯褋芯斜薪芯褋褌懈 芯褋胁芯械薪懈褟 褉邪蟹薪芯芯斜褉邪蟹薪褘褏 褝泻芯谢芯谐懈褔械褋泻懈褏 薪懈褕 薪械 懈屑械褞褌 褋械斜械 褉邪胁薪褘褏. 袙 褋褌邪褌褜械 锌褉械写褋褌邪胁谢械薪褘 写邪薪薪褘械 芯 泻芯谢懈褔械褋褌胁械薪薪芯泄 懈 泻邪褔械褋褌胁械薪薪芯泄 褋褌褉褍泻褌褍褉械 褝锌懈褎懈褌薪褘褏 懈 褝薪写芯褎懈褌薪褘褏 屑懈泻褉芯芯褉谐邪薪懈蟹屑芯胁 褉邪蟹薪褘褏 褝泻芯薪懈褕 胁懈薪芯谐褉邪写邪 泻褍谢褜褌褍褉薪芯谐芯. 袛芯泻邪蟹邪薪邪 胁邪卸薪芯褋褌褜 懈蟹褍褔械薪懈褟 泻芯褉薪械胁芯谐芯 褋芯芯斜褖械褋褌胁邪 胁胁懈写褍 胁械褉褌懈泻邪谢褜薪芯谐芯 写胁懈卸械薪懈褟 锌芯 褋芯褋褍写懈褋褌芯泄 褋懈褋褌械屑械 泻 褎懈谢谢芯褋褎械褉械
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