218,502 research outputs found

    Subjective memory complaints in the elderly: a sign of cognitive impairment?

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    OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment in the elderly is frequently overlooked by general practitioners. The use of subjective memory complaints as a sign of cognitive impairment by the general practice is controversial. METHODS: Elderly individuals (N = 248) were asked whether they had memory complaints and underwent a cognitive impairment screening. Subjects classified as exhibiting “probable cognitive impairment” underwent a complete cognitive evaluation, and the final diagnoses were established by expert consensus. RESULTS: A total of 147 patients presented with subjective memory complaints, and 43 were further classified as demented or “cognitively impaired not demented”. Subjective memory complaints presented a sensitivity of 100% and a negative predictive value of 100%. CONCLUSION: Subjective memory complaints are an indicator for cognitive impairment screening

    Memory functioning in post‐traumatic stress disorder: objective findings versus subjective complaints

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    Although memory complaints are common in post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the only published study of objective and subjective memory in PTSD by Roca and Freeman indicates that subjective complaints may not accurately reflect objective performance. The present study examined memory in 21 PTSD patients, 20 combat controls and 23 non‐combat controls using two objective memory measures (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test; Backward Digit Span) and one subjective measure (Memory Functioning Questionnaire). Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) and analysis of co‐variances generally did not reveal group differences for objective memory performance. For subjective memory complaints, ANOVAs indicated group differences; PTSD participants reported more memory problems than controls. These differences disappeared, however, when depression was included as a covariate. Also, we provide some preliminary evidence that depression may mediate the relationship between PTSD symptomatology and subjective memory complaints. Findings suggest that reductions in depressive symptomatology in PTSD may be associated with decreased subjective memory complaints. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/86943/1/smi1355.pd

    The Distinct Contributions of Affective Distress and Personality to Memory Complaints Made in Older Adulthood

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    Whilst a substantial amount of research has investigated the role of affective distress and features of personality in memory complaints made by older adults, little effort has been directed towards understanding their distinct contributions to complaints. Given considerable overlap between affective distress and features of personality, such evidence is necessary to inform theoretical frameworks pertaining to memory complaints and clarify results from other empirical studies examining these concepts. Consequently, the current study examined symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of memory complaints within the context of features of personality and other relevant contextual variables (i.e., age, gender, education, premorbid intellectual functioning and memory performance) utilizing a correlational design. Study participants included 177 (115 females, 62 males) community-dwelling older adults between 65 and 90 years of age. The results of the study unanimously suggested that affective distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptomatology) was not associated with memory complaints beyond pertinent features of personality and other relevant contextual variables. This finding was consistent regardless of how memory complaints were assessed (i.e., General Frequency of Forgetting scores or via a global, dichotomous measure) or how affective distress was conceptualized (i.e., overall or specific features of depression and anxiety). The results suggest changes to several theoretical frameworks in the memory complaint literature are necessary, if the results can be replicated with different variable measures. From a clinical perspective, the results of the current study suggest older adults complaining of memory difficulties may exhibit an ongoing risk of symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, the results also help to clarify why cognitively-healthy older adults who complain of memory problems exhibit an increased risk of subsequent dementia

    Test of variables of attention (TOVA) as a predictor of early attention complaints, an antecedent to dementia

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    The goal of this study was to determine if impairments detected by the test of variables of attention (TOVA) may be used to predict early attention complaints and memory impairments accurately in a clinical setting. We performed a statistical analysis of outcomes in a patient population screened for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or attention complaints, processing errors as measured by TOVA and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III) results. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) checklists, constructed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, which were completed by patients at PATH Medical, revealed that 72.8% of the patients had more than one attention complaint out of a total of 16 complaints, and 41.5% had more than five complaints. For the 128 males with a significant number of ADD complaints, individuals whose scores were significantly deviant or borderline (SDB) on TOVA, had a significantly greater number of attention complaints compared with normals for omissions (P < 0.02), response time (P < 0.015), and variability (P < 0.005), but not commissions (P > 0.50). For males, the mean scores for auditory, visual, immediate, and working memory scores as measured by the WMS-III were significantly greater for normals versus SDBs on the TOVA subtest, ie, omission (P < 0.01) and response time (P < 0.05), but not variability or commissions. The means for auditory, visual, and immediate memory scores were significantly greater for normals versus SDBs for variability (P < 0.045) only. In females, the mean scores for visual and working memory scores were significantly greater for normals versus SDBs for omissions (P < 0.025). The number of SDB TOVA quarters was a significant predictor for “impaired” or “normal” group membership for visual memory (P < 0.015), but not for the other three WMS-III components. For males, the partial correlation between the number of attention complaints and the number of SDB TOVA quarters was also significant (r = 0.251, P < 0.005). For the 152 females with a significant number of attention complaints, no significant differences between SDBs and normals were observed (P > 0.15). This is the first report, to our knowledge, which provides evidence that TOVA is an accurate predictor of early attention complaints and memory impairments in a clinical setting. This finding is more robust for males than for females between the ages of 40 and 90 years

    Prospective and Retrospective Memory Complaints in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease

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    Current management attempts for Alzheimer's disease (AD) focus on the identification of individuals in the preclinical stage. This has led to the development of the diagnostic concept of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which applies to individuals with declining cognitive abilities but largely preserved everyday functioning. Previous findings indicate that prospective memory deficits are a sensitive marker of preclinical AD and that awareness of prospective memory failures is particularly high, based on its dependence on executive functions. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of subjective prospective versus retrospective memory complaints for an initial screening for MCI and their respective associations with executive functions. 71 healthy older adults, 27 MCI patients, and 9 patients with mild AD completed the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and three executive functions tests. The healthy and the MCI group could not be distinguished by their level of subjective prospective or retrospective memory complaints, but the mild AD patients differed from the other groups by complaining more about retrospective than prospective memory failures. For the healthy older adults, the prospective memory complaints were correlated to an inhibition test, whereas they did not correlate with any of the executive function tests in the MCI patients. In contrast, in both groups the retrospective memory complaints were related to a task switching test. The findings are discussed with respect to differences between the three groups in cognitive abilities, attention to failures of, use of mnemonic aids for, and everyday demands of prospective and retrospective memor

    Association between olfactory dysfunction and mood disturbances with objective and subjective cognitive deficits in long-COVID

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    Background and purposeThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with olfactory dysfunction. The persistent symptoms of anosmia or hyposmia were associated in previous studies with the development of memory impairment and mood disturbances. We aimed to investigate the association between the chronicity of reported olfactory dysfunction and subjective and objective cognitive performance in long-COVID patients and to explore whether their emotional symptoms are related to their cognition.MethodsOne hundred twenty-eight long-COVID participants were recruited. Reported symptomatology, subjective memory complaints, anxiety and depression symptomatology, and trait-anxiety were assessed. Subjective memory complaints and mood disturbances were compared among groups of participants with olfactory dysfunction as an acute (AOD), persistent (POD), or nonexistent (NOD) symptom. Seventy-six of the volunteers also participated in a face-to-face session to assess their objective performance on tests of general cognitive function and verbal declarative memory. Objective cognitive performance and mood disturbances were compared among the AOD, POD, and NOD groups.ResultsThe subjective memory complaints and the anxiety and depression symptoms were similar among the groups, but the score in general cognitive function was lower in the participants with symptoms of acute olfactory dysfunction than in those with no olfactory symptoms at any time. Participants’ memory complaints were positively related to their emotional symptoms. The relationship between depressive symptomatology and memory complaints interacted with the olfactory dysfunction, as it only occurred in the participants without symptoms of olfactory dysfunction. Depressive symptomatology and acute olfactory symptoms were negatively associated with general cognitive function and delayed memory performance. The months elapsed from diagnosis to assessment also predicted delayed memory performance. Anxious symptomatology was negatively associated with the immediate ability to recall verbal information in participants who did not present olfactory dysfunction in the acute phase of the infection.ConclusionOlfactory dysfunction in the acute phase of the infection by COVID-19 is related to cognitive deficits in objective tests, and mood disturbances are associated with self-reported and objective memory. These findings may contribute to further understanding the neuropsychological and emotional aspects of long-COVID

    Accelerated forgetting in healthy older samples: Implications for methodology, future ageing studies, and early identification of risk of dementia

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    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) has been reported in healthy older individuals, and is a possible early marker for risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The Verbal Associative Learning & Memory Test (VALMT; McGibbon & Jansari, 2013) addresses methodological weaknesses in existing clinical tests and has detected ALF in epilepsy within an hour. We used VALMT to investigate learning and forgetting in healthy older participants. Older (60-69yrs) and Younger (19-31yrs) participants were compared. Using VALMT, unrelated word-pairs were learnt to criterion, then cued-recall tested at delays of 5, 30 and 55 minutes. Unique pairs were tested at each delay. Subjective memory complaints data was gathered, and the Wechsler Memory Scale Logical Memory test (WMS-LM; a standard clinical measure) was administered. VALMT identified a significant difference in delayed recall between Younger and Older groups by 55 minutes (d = 1.32). While ‘fast-learning’ Older participants scored similarly to Younger participants, ‘slow-learning’ Older participants were impaired at all delays. Forgetting rates suggested degradation of memory starts during early synaptic consolidation rather than later system-level consolidation. Increased subjective memory complaints were associated with reduced VALMT scores. By contrast, WMS-LM failed to identify significant differences between any groups, and did not correlate with memory complaints. We conclude VALMT may be better able than WMS-LM to identify subtle impairments in healthy older adults within a single clinical visit, and VALMT results better reflect subjective experience. Older slow-learners forget faster and report more subjective memory complaints, which may indicate a group at risk of developing AD