4,832 research outputs found

    A brief note on the Yemenite chahar taq mausoleums. The case of Baraqish

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    The chahartaq, a type of building frequently used as a mausoleum in Iran during the Islamic era, has an undeniable Iranian pre-Islamic origin, but its architectural form, together with its function as a mausoleum, crossed the Iranian border and was attested in Yemen too. The 17th-century chahar taq mausoleum at Baraqish seem to be a specific choice, probably of a Shi'i matrix

    The Tale of the Tokugawa Artifacts: Japanese Funerary Lanterns at the Penn Museum

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    That previously stood at the back of the quiet inner courtyard of the Penn Museum waited many years for its significance to be rediscovered. It is one of the Tokugawa lanterns that long illuminated the shogunate family’s grand mausoleums during the Edo period (1603–1868 CE) in the Zōjōji temple in Tokyo, Japan. Photographs taken around 1930 show the lanterns flanking the Museum entrance in the Stoner Courtyard. The prominent placement of these objects suggests that, in those days, the Museum acknowledged the significance of the lanterns. One of the lanterns was subsequently moved to Museum storage after suffering damage from an act of vandalism in the 1950s or 1960s. Although it is not clear exactly when the lanterns left Japan and arrived in the United States, Stephen Lang, Lyons Keeper in the Asian Section at the Museum, has determined that the lanterns came into the Museum collection as a loan in 1919 from Mrs. Richard Waln Meirs (Anne Walker Weightman Meirs Rush, 1871–1958). They may have been sent from Japan by Mrs. Meirs’ uncle, Robert Jarvis Cochran Walker in the late 1880s to be displayed at Meirs’ Ravenhill Mansion. [excerpt

    The narrow mausolea at Conchada cemetery as part of Portuguese and European architectural heritage

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    Over millennia, death was the origin of great funerary constructions that have come down to us. These constructions aimed at ensuring eternity and perpetuating memory. Funeral art thus appears not in the service of death, but in the service of memory. In the modern age, funerary constructions do not have the dimensions and grandeur they did in ancient times, but there are still constructions with relevant architectural interest, built to perpetuate the memory of important families. In Conchada Cemetery, located in Coimbra, Portugal, a vast and diverse funeral heritage exists. Possessing various architectural styles, almost all built with limestone from the region, the narrow mausoleums stand out from this heritage. This work presents a study carried out on the architecture and construction of two types of narrow mausoleums, existing in the Conchada Cemetery, both of the Neo-Gothic style: one with an entrance from the front, and another from the back. As it is not possible to present the photographs of the burial vaults, since it would represent an intrusive approach to the families, the authors have resorted to representing them through Indian ink and watercolor illustrations.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The Manila Chinese Cemetery: A Repository of Tsinoy Culture and Identity

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    The funerary architecture of the vast 19th-century Chinese Cemetery in Manila differs markedly from other Chinese cemeteries in Southeast Asia.This paper describes the development of this architecture and its many styles rooted in Western and Chinese artistic tradition, their symbolic meanings and significance. It also illustrates how much the Chinese Cemetery today is a reflection of contemporary urban development of the metropolis surrounding it, presenting new challenges and opportunities, and how the cemetery has adapted to these developments. Sweeping social transformations in 19th-century Philippine society and economy, and the introduction of new modern funeral practices rooted in 19th-century Europe fostered the development of new forms of mourning and commemoration at the turn of the 20th century. This found expression in the gradual emergence of small and grand mausoleums for the new middle and upper class of Mestizo and Chinese businessmen and women, professionals, politicians, and ilustrados. This elaborate funerary architecture and its symbolic ornamentation and statuary turned the Manila Chinese Cemetery over the course of 130 years into a rich repository of the nation’s built heritage. Moreover, the parallel existence and gradual blending of Spanish-Catholic and Chinese Taoist and Buddhist religious and cultural influences sometimes led to surprising and creative artistic and architectural solutions which espouse the identity of the Tsinoy, the Filipino-Chinese community.L’architecture funéraire du vaste cimetière chinois de Manille du xixe s. se distingue sensiblement de celle des autres sites funéraires chinois d’Asie du Sud-Est. Cet article décrit le développement de cette architecture et ses nombreux styles enracinés dans la tradition artistique occidentale et chinoise, leur signification symbolique et leur portée. Il montre également combien ce cimetière d’aujourd’hui est le reflet du développement urbain contemporain de la métropole qui l’entoure, des nouveaux défis et opportunités qu’elle offre, et comment le cimetière s’est adapté à ces développements. Les considérables transformations sociales et économiques de la société philippine du xixe s., ainsi que l’introduction de nouvelles pratiques funéraires, tirant leur origine dans l’Europe de l’époque, ont favorisé, au tournant du xxe s., le développement de nouvelles formes de deuil et de commémoration. Celui-ci s’est manifesté par l’émergence progressive de petits et de grands mausolées pour la classe moyenne et supérieure des métisses et hommes d’affaires chinois et de leurs femmes, des membres de professions libérales, des politiciens et des ilustrados. Cette architecture funéraire complexe, son ornementation symbolique et sa statuaire ont, au cours des 130 dernières années, transformé le cimetière chinois en un riche réceptacle du patrimoine bâti de la nation. En outre, l’existence parallèle et le mélange progressif d’influences culturelles et religieuses hispano-catholiques sino-taoïstes et sino-bouddhistes ont parfois entraîné de surprenantes créations artistiques et architecturales qui marquent l’identité des Tsinoy ou encore de la communauté sino-philippine

    Affect and Emotion in Courtroom Talk

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    In The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi, the International Criminal Court tried the destruction of UNESCO World Heritage sites as a war crime for the first time. In this case, the value of things in relation to the value of persons became the central issue. Based on courtroom ethnography conducted during the proceedings and informed by affect and emotion research, this article identifies the rhetorical practice of sentimentalizing persons and things as an important process of legal meaning-making. Through sentimentalizing, all parties rhetorically produce normative arrangements of bodies by way of emotionally differentiating the relevant persons, things, and other entities from and affectively relating them to each other. Sentimentalizing provides an affective-emotional frame in which to determine the degree of guilt and innocence, justice and injustice

    Astronomy and Feng Shui in the project of the Tang, Ming and Qing royal mausoleums: a satellite imagery approach

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    The royal Chinese mausoleums of the Tang, Ming and Qing Chinese dynasties are astounding ensables of monuments, conceived and built to assure to the Emperors immortality in the afterlife and perennial fame on earth. To this aim, a series of cognitive elements were embodied in the funerary landscapes selected for such monuments, including astronomy, general topography, and traditional Chinese geomancy. Taking advantage of satellite imagery, we investigate here on this issue in a general manner. In particular, we develop and apply a rigorous approach to investigate if magnetic compass was used in the planning of such monuments

    The Mausoleums of Fatima Khatun and al-Ashraf Khalil

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    This thesis will conduct an architectural analysis of two nearly contemporary mausoleums situated on the northern tip of the Southern Cemetery of Cairo near the Sayyida Nafisa shrine. The Southern Cemetery is the oldest one, which stretches from the east at Muqattam hill to the south at Fustat. The mausoleums of the princess Fatima Khatun and al-Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil date to the late 13th century. Among the interesting aspects of the mausoleum of Fatima Khatun (Umm al-Salih), the wife of al-Mansur Qalawun, is its unique Maghribi style minaret. In addition, apart from his splendid mausoleum, al-Ashraf Khalil, Qalawun’s son, constructed other royal secular buildings in the Citadel. I relied on a number of primary and recent sources, notably the Comité Bulletins. This study also traces the efforts exerted by the Comité and contemporary projects to safeguard the monuments from the encroachment of secular buildings and the rising of the groundwater table. The area is privileged by its religious significance, its funerary function, and the historic imperial mausoleums. Considering its dense population and the dilapidated status from which the two Mamluk complexes have suffered, prompt action should be taken for a twofold purpose: to restore the missing parts of the cultural heritage as well as to encourage the residents to maintain it and raise their living standard at the same time

    САДЫ И АРХИТЕКТУРА ИМПЕРАТОРСКИХ ПОГРЕБАЛЬНЫХ КОМПЛЕКСОВ ВЬЕТНАМА, КАК РЕЗУЛЬТАТ ВЛИЯНИЯ КИТАЙСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ НА СТРАНЫ ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ

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    The article is devoted to the issues of borrowing and identity of the Vietnamese garden culture on the example of the burial complexes of China and Vietnam. In all countries of Southeast Asia and Indochina, where the traditions of Chinese gardening were perceived, the gardens of the imperial funerary complexes demonstrated the degree of popularity of the deceased emperor, the economic condition of the empire, modeled the emperor's “life” in the afterlife with maximum use of Feng Shui planning principles. All planning aspects prescribed by this doctrine were observed in Vietnamese burial complexes, but with a certain adjustment in accordance with their own aesthetic views, functional preferences and perceptions of expediency. The field surveys carried out by the authors of the burial complexes of Vietnam and China in the cities of Hue, Shenyang and the outskirts of Beijing served as sources for the study. Globalization trends in the field of horticultural culture from the period of the Chinese conquests of Vietnam to the period of the Nguyen dynasty, when the policy of the French administration was aimed at breaking cultural and economic ties between Vietnam and China, are considered. It was revealed that the layout and architecture of the garden and park ensembles of the imperial mausoleum parks were influenced by all three basic philosophical and religious teachings of China - Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. These teachings manifested themselves in an orderly layout with axes and symmetrical elements (Confucianism), compliance with the laws of Chinese geomancy Feng Shui (Taoism) and the unity of life and posthumous space (Buddhism). The gardens of the mausoleums in Vietnam were used for recreation and entertainment of the ruling elite, followed by the burial of the emperor and his family.El artículo está dedicado a los temas de préstamo e identidad de la cultura del jardín vietnamita en el ejemplo de los complejos de entierro de China y Vietnam. En todos los países del sudeste asiático e Indochina, donde se percibían las tradiciones de la jardinería china, los jardines de los complejos funerarios imperiales demostraron el grado de popularidad del emperador fallecido, la condición económica del imperio, modelaron la "vida" del emperador en la Más allá de la vida con el máximo uso de los principios de planificación de Feng Shui. Todos los aspectos de planificación prescritos por esta doctrina se observaron en los complejos de entierros Vietnamitas, pero con un cierto ajuste de acuerdo con sus propios puntos de vista estéticos, preferencias funcionales y percepciones de conveniencia. Las encuestas de campo realizadas por los autores de los complejos de enterramiento de Vietnam y China en las ciudades de Hue, Shenyang y las afueras de Beijing sirvieron como fuentes para el estudio. Se consideran las tendencias de la globalización en el campo de la cultura hortícola desde el período de las conquistas chinas de Vietnam hasta el período de la dinastía Nguyen, cuando la política de la administración francesa tenía como objetivo romper los vínculos culturales y económicos entre Vietnam y China. Se reveló que el diseño y la arquitectura de los conjuntos de jardines y parques de los parques del mausoleo imperial estaban influenciados por las tres enseñanzas filosóficas y religiosas básicas de China: el confucianismo, el taoísmo y el budismo. Estas enseñanzas se manifestaron en un diseño ordenado con ejes y elementos simétricos (confucianismo), el cumplimiento de las leyes de la geomancia china Feng Shui (taoísmo) y la unidad de la vida y el espacio póstumo (budismo). Los jardines de los mausoleos en Vietnam se usaron para recreación y entretenimiento de la elite gobernante, seguido del entierro del emperador y su familia.Статья посвящена вопросам заимствования и самобытности вьетнамской садовой культуры на примере погребальных комплексов Китая и Вьетнама. Во всех странах юго-восточной Азии и Индокитая, где были восприняты традиции китайской садовой культуры, сады императорских погребальных комплексов демонстрировали степень популярности усопшего императора, экономическое состояние империи, моделировали обустройство «жизни» императора в загробном мире с максимальным использованием планировочных принципов Фэн Шуй. Все планировочные аспекты, предписанные этим учением, во вьетнамских погребальных комплексах соблюдались, но с определенной корректировкой в соответствии с собственными эстетическими взглядами, функциональными предпочтениями и представлениями о целесообразности. Источниками для исследования послужили выполненные авторами натурные обследования погребальных комплексов Вьетнама и Китая - в городах Хюэ, Шэньяне и окрестностях Пекина. Рассматриваются глобализационные тенденции в области садовой культуры от периода китайских завоеваний Вьетнама до периода правления династии Нуген, когда политика французской администрации была направлена на слом культурных и экономических связей Вьетнама с Китаем. Выявлено, что планировку и архитектуру садово-парковых ансамблей императорских мавзолейных парков повлияли все три основных философско- религиозных учений Китая - конфуцианство, даосизм и буддизм, которые проявились в упорядоченной планировке с осями и симметричными элементами (конфуцианство), соблюдении законов китайской геомантии Фэн Шуй (даосизм) и единстве жизненного и посмертного пространства (буддизм). Сады мавзолеев во Вьетнаме использовались для отдыха и развлечений правящей элиты с последующим захоронением там императора и его семьи
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