2,178,486 research outputs found

    Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds

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    peer-reviewedA survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.01) and Salmonella (P<0.01). Larger herds had a greater likelihood of recording a positive bulk milk antibody result to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.05). Herds that practiced year round calving were more likely to be positive to Neospora caninum (P<0.05) compared to herds with a spring-calving season, with no difference in risk between herds that practiced split calving compared to herds that practiced spring calving. No association was found between presence of dogs on farms and prevalence of Neospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems

    Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management

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    Objective: Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual’s life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. Methods: This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited (N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Results: Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants’ experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants’ experience with hypertension and its management. Conclusion: Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers’ health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers’ well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers’ health and disease management within their work environment. Keywords: Gender, Race, Class, Immigration, Disease Management, Hospitalit

    Culturally tailored lifestyle interventions for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes in adults of Black African ancestry: a systematic review of tailoring methods and their effectiveness

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    Objective: To evaluate the cultural tailoring methods used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention and management interventions for populations of Black African ancestry, and to examine their effectiveness on measures of glycaemia. / Design: Three databases were searched in October 2020; eligible studies used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design to evaluate the effectiveness of culturally tailored lifestyle interventions compared to usual care for the prevention or management of T2D in adults of Black African ancestry. Cultural tailoring methods were evaluated using the Facilitator-Location-Language-Messaging (FiLLM) framework, whereby facilitator, refers to delivery by individuals from the target community, language focuses on using native language or language appropriate to literacy levels, location refers to delivery in meaningful settings, and messaging is tailoring with relevant content and modes of delivery. / Results: Sixteen RCTs were identified, all from USA. The mean age of participants was 55 years, majority female. Six of 15 RCTs reported significant improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6- and 8-months; one, in prediabetes, reported significantly improved fasting plasma glucose. Diabetes knowledge improvement (5/7 studies) was associated with HbA1c improvement. The majority tailored to location (12/16), facilitators (11/16), messaging (9/16) and language (6/16) domains of FiLLM. Those with ethnically matched facilitators and those which tailored to more than one domain showed the greatest HbA1C benefits. / Conclusion: This evidence supports the effectiveness of culturally tailored lifestyle interventions for T2D management in populations of Black African ancestry, with further RCTs needed to evaluate interventions for T2D prevention and for communities outside of the USA

    From Nobel Prize to Project Management: Getting Risks Right

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    A major source of risk in project management is inaccurate forecasts of project costs, demand, and other impacts. The paper presents a promising new approach to mitigating such risk, based on theories of decision making under uncertainty which won the 2002 Nobel prize in economics. First, the paper documents inaccuracy and risk in project management. Second, it explains inaccuracy in terms of optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Third, the theoretical basis is presented for a promising new method called "reference class forecasting," which achieves accuracy by basing forecasts on actual performance in a reference class of comparable projects and thereby bypassing both optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Fourth, the paper presents the first instance of practical reference class forecasting, which concerns cost forecasts for large transportation infrastructure projects. Finally, potentials for and barriers to reference class forecasting are assessed.Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1302.254

    Airline Revenue Management with Shifting Capacity

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    Airline revenue management is the practice of controlling the booking requests such that the planes are filled with the most profitable passengers. In revenue management the capacities of the business and economy class sections of the plane are traditionally considered to be fixed and distinct capacities. In this paper, we give up this notion and instead consider the use of convertible seats. A row of these seats can be converted from business class seats to economy class seats and vice versa. This offers an airline company the possibility to adjust the capacity configuration of the plane to the demand pattern at hand. We show how to incorporate the shifting capacity opportunity into a dynamic, network-based revenue management model. We also extend the model to include cancellations and overbooking. With a small test case we show that incorporating the shifting capacity opportunity into the revenue management decision indeed provides a means to improve revenues.convertible seats;dynamic capacity management;revenue management;seat inventory control;shifting capacity

    Pain management in the neonatal piglet during routine management procedures. Part 2:Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations

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    Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion paper. This manuscript describes the recommendation development process and the final recommendations. Recommendations were developed for three interventions (CO2/O2 general anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lidocaine) for use during castration. The ability to make strong recommendations was limited by low-quality evidence and strong certainty about variation in stakeholder values and preferences. The panel strongly recommended against the use of a CO2/O2 general anesthesia mixture, weakly recommended for the use of NSAIDs and weakly recommended against the use of lidocaine for pain mitigation during castration of 1- to 28-day-old piglets

    Student-pull instead of instructor-push: in preparation for a student learning dash­board

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    A typical model of blending in-class learning with technology-enabled student experiences outside class makes use of a course management system (CMS), such as Blackboard. In this model, all the course management work is exclusively performed by the course instructor. Some attempts have been made to steer away from having the online content and activities be created, maintained, and monitored solely by the instructor. Discussion boards, student breakout groups, and student portfolios are examples of shifting some responsibilities to the students. However, the instructor continues to be the main arbiter of these activities, and tools that support student contributions are entirely under the control of the same, monopolistic CMS

    Bringing Global Sourcing into the Classroom: Experiential Learning via Software Development Project

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    Global sourcing of software development has imposed new skill requirements on Information Technology (IT) personnel. In the U.S., this has resulted in a paradigm shift from technical to softer skills such as communications and virtual team management. Higher education institutions must, consequently, initiate innovative curriculum transformations to better prepare students for these emerging workforce needs. This paper describes one such venture between Marquette University (MU), U.S.A. and Management Development Institute (MDI), India, wherein IT students at MU collaborated with Management Information Systems (MIS) students at MDI on an offshore software development project. The class environment replicated an offshore client/vendor relationship in a fully virtual setting while integrating communications and virtual team management with traditional IT project management principles. Course measures indicated that students benefited from this project, gained first-hand experience in the process of software offshoring, and learned skills critical for conduct of global business. For faculty considering such initiatives, we describe the design and administration of this class over two semesters, lessons learned from our engagement, and factors critical to success of such initiatives and those detrimental to their sustenance

    Responding to class theft: Theoretical and empirical links to critical management studies

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    Redrafted submission for inclusion in Remarx Section of Rethinking MarxismThis paper suggests closer linkages between the fields of Postmodern Class Analysis (PCA) and Critical Management Studies (CMS)2 are possible. It argues that CMS might contribute to the empirical engagement with the over-determined relations between class and non-class processes in work organizations (this appears to have received relatively little attention in PCA) and that PCA's theoretical and conceptual commitments may provide one means for CMS to engage in class analysis. CMS's focus on power and symbolic relations has led to the relative neglect of exploitation and class, in surplus terms. Both fields share similar although not identical political and ethical commitments

    Dear Honors Freshmen

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    A junior Honors student offers the Honors Program class of 2017 some pieces of informal advice covering school, time management, relationships, and priorities
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