59,807 research outputs found

    The second wave of COVID-19 and beyond: Rural healthcare

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    There are increasing signs that SARS-CoV-2 has started to spread to rural areas in India. It impacts people鈥檚 health, lives, and public health infrastructure that is already strained from a lack of resources. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural India is a worrying trend; 50% of reported cases since the beginning of May 2021 are from rural districts. Long-standing systemic, functional, and health inequities have put people in rural communities at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and suffering from the lack of essential healthcare services. Health disparities between rural and urban areas exist not only in terms of risk factors, such as poor diet and vaccine hesitancy, but also in terms of healthcare infrastructure, manpower, and testing facilities. We suggest some long-term and short-term measures to efficiently develop strategies to contain and control the pandemic in rural areas. Short-term measures include implementing health communication tailored in culturally sensitive ways, increasing vaccination by the usual immunisation pattern, increasing the number of testing facilities, and ensuring food security through the public distribution system (PDS). Long-term suggestions include strengthening the primary healthcare system, increasing funding in the health sector to 2.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP), introducing mid-level care providers, improving skills and training of ASHAs along with adequate financial incentives, and ensuring participation of multiple stakeholders in community health schemes

    The applied psychology of addictive orientations : studies in a 12-step treatment context.

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    The clinical data for the studies was collected at The PROMIS Recovery Centre, a Minnesota Model treatmentc entre for addictions,w hich encouragesth e membership and use of the 12 step Anonymous Fellowships, and is abstinence based. The area of addiction is contextualised in a review chapter which focuses on research relating to the phenomenon of cross addiction. A study examining the concept of "addictive orientations" in male and female addicts is described, which develops a study conductedb y StephensonM, aggi, Lefever, & Morojele (1995). This presents study found a four factor solution which appeared to be subdivisions of the previously found Hedonism and Nurturance factors. Self orientated nurturance (both food dimensions, shopping and caffeine), Other orientated nurturance (both compulsive helping dimensions and work), Sensation seeking hedonism (Drugs, prescription drugs, nicotine and marginally alcohol), and Power related hedonism (Both relationship dimensions, sex and gambling. This concept of "addictive orientations" is further explored in a non-clinical population, where again a four factor solution was found, very similar to that in the clinical population. This was thought to indicate that in terms of addictive orientation a pattern already exists in this non-clinical population and that consideration should be given to why this is the case. These orientations are examined in terms of gender differences. It is suggested that the differences between genders reflect power-related role relationships between the sexes. In order to further elaborate the significance and meaning behind these orientations, the next two chapters look at the contribution of personality variables and how addictive orientations relate to psychiatric symptomatology. Personality variables were differentially, and to a considerable extent predictably involved with the four factors for both males and females.Conscientiousness as positively associated with "Other orientated Nurturance" and negatively associated with "Sensation seeking hedonism" (particularly for men). Neuroticism had a particularly strong association with the "Self orientated Nurturance" factor in the female population. More than twice the symptomatology variance was explained by the factor scores for females than it was for males. The most important factorial predictors for psychiatric symptomatology were the "Power related hedonism" factor for males, and "Self oriented nurturance" for females. The results are discussed from theoretical and treatment perspectives

    Studies of strategic performance management for classical organizations theory & practice

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    Nowadays, the activities of "Performance Management" have spread very broadly in actually every part of business and management. There are numerous practitioners and researchers from very different disciplines, who are involved in exploring the different contents of performance management. In this thesis, some relevant historic developments in performance management are first reviewed. This includes various theories and frameworks of performance management. Then several management science techniques are developed for assessing performance management, including new methods in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Soft System Methodology (SSM). A theoretical framework for performance management and its practical procedures (five phases) are developed for "classic" organizations using soft system thinking, and the relationship with the existing theories are explored. Eventually these results are applied in three case studies to verify our theoretical development. One of the main contributions of this work is to point out, and to systematically explore the basic idea that the effective forms and structures of performance management for an organization are likely to depend greatly on the organizational configuration, in order to coordinate well with other management activities in the organization, which has seemingly been neglected in the existing literature of performance management research in the sense that there exists little known research that associated particular forms of performance management with the explicit assumptions of organizational configuration. By applying SSM, this thesis logically derives some main functional blocks of performance management in 'classic' organizations and clarifies the relationships between performance management and other management activities. Furthermore, it develops some new tools and procedures, which can hierarchically decompose organizational strategies and produce a practical model of specific implementation steps for "classic" organizations. Our approach integrates popular types of performance management models. Last but not least, this thesis presents findings from three major cases, which are quite different organizations in terms of management styles, ownership, and operating environment, to illustrate the fliexbility of the developed theoretical framework

    Reforming the United Nations

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    The thesis deals with the financial crisis that the United Nations faced starting in 1985 when the US Congress decided to withhold a significant part of the US contribution to the UN regular budget in order to force a greater say for the major contributors on budgetary issues, budgetary restraint and greater efficiency. The UN responded by the adoption of resolution 41/213 of 19 December 1986 that was based on the recommendations of a Group of High-level Intergovernmental Experts ("G-18") set up a year earlier. A new system was introduced regarding the formulation of the regular budget of the United Nations Organisation and a broader process of reform was initiated including a restructuring of the Secretariat and of the intergovernmental machinery in the economic and social fields. After an introductory chapter (Chapter I), the thesis examines the UN problems at the budgetary/financial and administrative/structural levels, the solutions proposed from within and without the United Nations established framework and the actual attempts at reform (Chapters II and ifi). The realisation that the implementation of reforms is rather disjointed and often unsuccessful (e.g. the failure to restructure the intergovernmental machi.neiy) prompts a search for the deeper causes of the UN problems at the political level and the attitudes of the main actors, namely the USA, the USSR, some up-and-coming states, notably Japan, the Third World states and, finally, of the UN Secretary-General and the Secretariat (Chapter 1V). Although the financial crisis may have subsided since 1988 and the USA seem committed to paying up their dues, the deeper UN crisis of identity has not been resolved and is expected to resurface if no bold steps are taken. In that direction, some possible alternative courses for the UN in the future are discussed drawing upon theory and practice (Chapte

    Efectividad del glutaraldehido, ger贸xido de gidrogeno y 谩cido hipocloroso en los procesos de desinfecci贸n que se realizan en la planta de alimentos del Laboratorio Fito Medic麓s ubicado en el municipio de Chinchin谩 (Caldas).

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    Por medio de este proyecto aplicado se realiz贸 la evaluaci贸n de algunos desinfectantes en los procesos de desinfecci贸n que se realizan en la planta de alimentos del laboratorio Fito Medic麓s, debido a que en el 煤ltimo a帽o se han presentado problemas de contaminaci贸n por utilizar desinfectantes no muy efectivos, generando as铆 contaminaci贸n microbiol贸gica en equipos, maquinaria, utensilios, superficies, productos y el 谩rea en general. Por lo expuesto se evalu贸 la efectividad de los desinfectantes glutaraldeh铆do, per贸xido de hidr贸geno y 谩cido hipocloroso en cuanto a sus curvas de tiempo y concentraci贸n, mediante ensayos realizados en los procesos de desinfecci贸n que se realizan en la planta de alimentos del laboratorio Fito Medic麓s, con el fin de responder a las necesidades de inocuidad en la planta. Este es un proyecto aplicado con un enfoque cuantitativo experimental, en el cual se realiz贸 aislamiento de las cepas de microorganismos E.coli, Hongos mohos y levaduras, mesofilos aerobios y esthapylococcus epidermis, posteriormente se realizaron antibiogramas para conocer la concentraci贸n id贸nea en la que es efectivo el desinfectantes encontrando que el los desinfectantes son efectivos frente a la inhibici贸n de los microorganismos E.coli, Hongos mohos y levadura, mesofilos aerobios y esthapylococcus epidermis en las siguientes concentraciones: Glutaraldehido 1,2%, Per贸xido de hidrogeno 3,5% y 脕cido hipocloroso al 2,5 Una vez se determin贸 la concentraci贸n id贸nea se replicaron los ensayos en la planta para verificar el tiempo de contacto efectivo en el cual se encontr贸 que los tres desinfectantes evaluados son eficaces durante los 3 minutos siguientes de la aplicaci贸n, donde se evidenci贸 que despu茅s de ese tiempo se eliminan los microorganismos pat贸genos y se baja la carga de mes贸filos aerobios y hongos <10 ufc/cm2.Through this applied project, the evaluation of some disinfectants in the disinfection processes carried out in the food plant of the Fito Medic's laboratory was carried out, because in the last year there have been contamination problems due to the use of non-disinfectants. very effective, thus generating microbiological contamination in equipment, machinery, utensils, surfaces, products and the area in general. Therefore, the effectiveness of the disinfectants glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid was evaluated in terms of their time and concentration curves, through tests carried out in the disinfection processes carried out in the food plant of the Fito Medic's laboratory. , in order to respond to the safety needs of the plant. This is a project applied with an experimental quantitative approach, in which the isolation of the strains of microorganisms E.coli, fungi, molds and yeasts, aerobic mesophylls and sthapylococcus epidermis was carried out, later antibiograms were carried out to know the ideal concentration in which it is The disinfectants are effective, finding that the disinfectants are effective against the inhibition of microorganisms E.coli, fungi, molds and yeast, aerobic mesophylls and sthapylococcus epidermis in the following concentrations: Glutaraldehyde 1.2%, Hydrogen peroxide 3.5% and 2.5 hypochlorous acid After having found the ideal concentration, the process was carried out in the plant to know the effective contact time in which it was found that the three disinfectants evaluated are effective during the 3 minutes following application, where it was evidenced that after that time By contact, pathogenic microorganisms were eliminated and the load of aerobic mesophiles and fungi <10 cfu / cm2 was lowere
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