43,056 research outputs found

    Efficient simulations of ionized ISM emission lines: A detailed comparison between the FIRE high-redshift suite and observations

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    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the sub-millimeter and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the infrared have achieved robust spectroscopic detections of emission lines from the interstellar medium (ISM) in some of the first galaxies. These unprecedented measurements provide valuable information regarding the ISM properties, stellar populations, galaxy morphologies, and kinematics in these high-redshift galaxies and, in principle, offer powerful tests of state-of-the-art galaxy formation models, as implemented in hydrodynamical simulations. To facilitate direct comparisons between simulations and observations, we develop a fast post-processing pipeline for predicting the line emission from the HII regions around simulated star particles, accounting for spatial variations in the surrounding gas density, metallicity, temperature, and incident radiation spectrum. Our ISM line emission model currently captures Hα\alpha, Hβ\beta, and all of the [OIII] and [OII] lines targeted by ALMA and the JWST at z>6z>6. We illustrate the power of this approach by applying our line emission model to the publicly available FIRE high-zz simulation suite and perform a detailed comparison with current observations. We show that the FIRE mass--metallicity relation is in 1σ1\sigma agreement with ALMA/JWST measurements after accounting for the inhomogeneities in ISM properties. We also quantitatively validate the one-zone model description, which is widely used for interpreting [OIII] and Hβ\beta line luminosity measurements. This model is publicly available and can be implemented on top of a broad range of galaxy formation simulations for comparison with JWST and ALMA measurements.Comment: 15 pages, 13 figure

    Does Feedback from Supermassive Blackhole Co-evolve With Host In Type 2 Quasars?

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    The feedback from accretion of central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a hot topic in the co-evolution of the SMBHs and their host galaxies. By tracing the large scale outflow by the line profile and bulk velocity shift of [O III] λ5007[ \rm O~{\scriptsize III}]~ \lambda 5007, the evolutionary role of outflow is studied here on a large sample of 221 type 2 quasars (QSO2s) extracted from Reyes et al. By following our previous study on local Seyfert 2 galaxies, the current spectral analysis on the SDSS spectroscopic database enables us to arrive at following results: (1) by using the Lick indices, we confirm that QSO2s are on average associated with younger stellar populations than Seyfert galaxies; (2) QSO2s with a stronger outflow are tend to be associated with a younger stellar population, which implies a coevolution between the feedback from SMBH and the host in QSO2s; (3) although an occupation at the high Lbol/LEddL_{\rm bol}/L_{\rm Edd} end, the QSO2s follow the Lbol/LEddL_{\rm bol}/L_{\rm Edd}-Dn(4000)D_{n}(4000) sequence established from local, less-luminous Seyfert galaxies, which suggests a decrease of accretion activity of SMBH and feedback as the circumnuclear stellar population continuously ages.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, and 3 tables, accepted for publication in Ap

    Quantum Mechanics Lecture Notes. Selected Chapters

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    These are extended lecture notes of the quantum mechanics course which I am teaching in the Weizmann Institute of Science graduate physics program. They cover the topics listed below. The first four chapter are posted here. Their content is detailed on the next page. The other chapters are planned to be added in the coming months. 1. Motion in External Electromagnetic Field. Gauge Fields in Quantum Mechanics. 2. Quantum Mechanics of Electromagnetic Field 3. Photon-Matter Interactions 4. Quantization of the Schr\"odinger Field (The Second Quantization) 5. Open Systems. Density Matrix 6. Adiabatic Theory. The Berry Phase. The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation 7. Mean Field Approaches for Many Body Systems -- Fermions and Boson

    Modest dust settling in the IRAS04302+2247 Class I protoplanetary disk

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    We present new VLA observations, between 6.8mm and 66mm, of the edge-on Class~I disk IRAS04302+2247. Observations at 6.8mm and 9.2mm lead to the detection of thermal emission from the disk, while shallow observations at the other wavelengths are used to correct for emission from other processes. The disk radial brightness profile transitions from broadly extended in previous ALMA 0.9mm and 2.1mm observations to much more centrally brightened at 6.8mm and 9.2mm, which can be explained by optical depth effects. The radiative transfer modeling of the 0.9mm, 2.1mm, and 9.2mm data suggests that the grains are smaller than 1cm in the outer regions of the disk and allows us to obtain the first lower limit for the scale height of grains emitting at millimeter wavelengths in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the millimeter dust scale height is between 1au and 6au at a radius 100au from the central star, while the gas scale height is estimated to be about 7au, indicating a modest level of settling. The estimated dust height is intermediate between less evolved Class 0 sources, that are found to be vertically thick, and more evolved Class II sources, which show a significant level of settling. This suggests that we are witnessing an intermediate stage of dust settling.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Direct observations of the atomic-molecular phase transition in the Milky Way's nuclear wind

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    Hundreds of high-velocity atomic gas clouds exist above and below the Galactic Centre, with some containing a molecular component. However, the origin of these clouds in the Milky Way's wind is unclear. This paper presents new high-resolution MeerKAT observations of three atomic gas clouds and studies the relationship between the atomic and molecular phases at 1\sim 1 pc scales. The clouds' atomic hydrogen column densities, NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}}, are less than a \mbox{few}\times 10^{20} cm2^{-2}, but the two clouds closest to the Galactic Centre nonetheless have detectable CO emission. This implies the presence of H2_{2} at levels of NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}} at least a factor of ten lower than in the typical Galactic interstellar medium. For the cloud closest to the Galactic Centre, there is little correlation between the NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}} and the probability that it will harbour detectable CO emissions. In contrast, for the intermediate cloud, detectable CO is heavily biased toward the highest values of NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}}. The cloud most distant from the Galactic Centre has no detectable CO at similar NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}} values. Moreover, we find that the two clouds with detectable CO are too molecule-rich to be in chemical equilibrium, given the depths of their atomic shielding layers, which suggests a scenario whereby these clouds consist of pre-existing molecular gas from the disc that the Galactic wind has swept up, and that is dissociating into atomic hydrogen as it flows away from the Galaxy. We estimate that entrained molecular material of this type has a few10\sim \mathrm{few}-10 Myr lifetime before photodissociating.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables. Submitted to MNRA

    Modelling uncertainties for measurements of the H → γγ Channel with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

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    The Higgs boson to diphoton (H → γγ) branching ratio is only 0.227 %, but this final state has yielded some of the most precise measurements of the particle. As measurements of the Higgs boson become increasingly precise, greater import is placed on the factors that constitute the uncertainty. Reducing the effects of these uncertainties requires an understanding of their causes. The research presented in this thesis aims to illuminate how uncertainties on simulation modelling are determined and proffers novel techniques in deriving them. The upgrade of the FastCaloSim tool is described, used for simulating events in the ATLAS calorimeter at a rate far exceeding the nominal detector simulation, Geant4. The integration of a method that allows the toolbox to emulate the accordion geometry of the liquid argon calorimeters is detailed. This tool allows for the production of larger samples while using significantly fewer computing resources. A measurement of the total Higgs boson production cross-section multiplied by the diphoton branching ratio (σ × Bγγ) is presented, where this value was determined to be (σ × Bγγ)obs = 127 ± 7 (stat.) ± 7 (syst.) fb, within agreement with the Standard Model prediction. The signal and background shape modelling is described, and the contribution of the background modelling uncertainty to the total uncertainty ranges from 18–2.4 %, depending on the Higgs boson production mechanism. A method for estimating the number of events in a Monte Carlo background sample required to model the shape is detailed. It was found that the size of the nominal γγ background events sample required a multiplicative increase by a factor of 3.60 to adequately model the background with a confidence level of 68 %, or a factor of 7.20 for a confidence level of 95 %. Based on this estimate, 0.5 billion additional simulated events were produced, substantially reducing the background modelling uncertainty. A technique is detailed for emulating the effects of Monte Carlo event generator differences using multivariate reweighting. The technique is used to estimate the event generator uncertainty on the signal modelling of tHqb events, improving the reliability of estimating the tHqb production cross-section. Then this multivariate reweighting technique is used to estimate the generator modelling uncertainties on background V γγ samples for the first time. The estimated uncertainties were found to be covered by the currently assumed background modelling uncertainty

    Augmented classification for electrical coil winding defects

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    A green revolution has accelerated over the recent decades with a look to replace existing transportation power solutions through the adoption of greener electrical alternatives. In parallel the digitisation of manufacturing has enabled progress in the tracking and traceability of processes and improvements in fault detection and classification. This paper explores electrical machine manufacture and the challenges faced in identifying failures modes during this life cycle through the demonstration of state-of-the-art machine vision methods for the classification of electrical coil winding defects. We demonstrate how recent generative adversarial networks can be used to augment training of these models to further improve their accuracy for this challenging task. Our approach utilises pre-processing and dimensionality reduction to boost performance of the model from a standard convolutional neural network (CNN) leading to a significant increase in accuracy
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