33,648 research outputs found

    Methodological proposal to evaluate the human rights approach in public policies. A case study of open government public policy in Mexico and Italy

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    La investigaci贸n parte de la premisa de que para una mayor correspondencia de los procesos de pol铆tica p煤blica con los requerimientos de la sociedad contempor谩nea, 茅stos deben desarrollarse en un entorno policontextual y polic茅ntrico. Es decir, en escenarios en los que se propicie su apertura a los diferentes contextos sociales y la intervenci贸n de diversos actores. En atenci贸n a esto, se opt贸 por efectuar un estudio de tipo anal铆tico-sint茅tico, que involucrara las variables de enfoque de derechos humanos鈥攔elacionada con el policontextualismo y policentrismo de una acci贸n鈥 y la de pol铆tica p煤blica鈥攔elativa a la t茅cnica/m茅todo conforme a la cual se desarrolla de forma sistem谩tica la acci贸n p煤blica鈥. La parte anal铆tica de la investigaci贸n se realiz贸 mediante el examen de los principales documentos acad茅micos, jur铆dicos y pol铆ticos vinculados con el origen, concepto, desarrollo y pr谩ctica de las variables de enfoque de derechos humanos y de pol铆ticas p煤blicas. Posteriormente considerando los resultados de la parte anal铆tica de la investigaci贸n, se efectu贸 la parte sint茅tica, mediante la articulaci贸n de la variable de enfoque de derechos humanos y la de pol铆tica p煤blica en una estructura relacionada con la incidencia del enfoque de derechos humanos en el ciclo de pol铆ticas p煤blicas. Con resultado se gener贸 una metodolog铆a para calcular el grado de enfoque de derechos humanos del ciclo de pol铆ticas p煤blicas o de alguna(s) de su(s) fase(s).This research is based on the premise that for the public policy processes to correspond more closely to the requirements of contemporary society, they must be developed in a polycontextual and polycentric environment. That is to say, in scenarios in which openness to different social contexts and the intervention of diverse actors are encouraged. With this in mind, it was decided to carry out an analytical-synthetic study involving the variables of the human rights approach鈥 related to the polycontextualism and polycentrism of the action鈥 and the public policy鈥 related to the technique/method according to which the public action is systematically carried out鈥. The analytical part of the research was carried out through the examination of the main academic, legal and political documents linked to the origin, concept, development and practice of the variables of the human rights approach and the public policies. Subsequently, considering the results of the analytical part of the research, it was carried out the synthetic part, by articulating the variables of the human rights approach and public policy in a structure related to the incidence of the human rights approach in the public policy cycle. As a result, it was generated a methodology to calculate the degree of human rights approach of the public policy cycle or of some of its phase(s)

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    鑳″畨鈥㈠唸钀ㄩ浄鏂㈠痉鈥㈤棬澶氳惃浜1585骞村嚭鐗堢殑 銆婁腑鍗庡ぇ甯濆浗鍙层嬬涓娆′互瑗跨彮鐗欒鍜岃憽钀 鐗欒鍏ㄩ潰鏁寸悊浜嗘湁鍏充腑鍥界殑璁拌堪銆傝涔︽闈 璁板綍浜嗕腑鍥芥槑鏈濆徃娉曞埗搴︼紝骞舵帰璁ㄤ簡杩欎簺鍙 娉曞埗搴︿笌褰撲唬瑗跨彮鐗欏拰澧ㄨタ鍝ュ徃娉曞埗搴︿箣闂 鐨勫法澶у樊鍒傚叾涓寘鎷娉曞緥鍜屽叕鍏辨鏋剁殑 鏇茶В锛屽叕浼楀璇佷汉鐨勮川鐤戯紝澶氬眰闈笉鍚屽舰寮 鐨勬儵缃氾紝缁忔祹涓婄殑鎯╃綒浠ュ強姝诲垜鐨勫満鏅備綔 鑰呭湪涔︿腑寮鸿皟閫氳繃濂栧姳鍜屾儵缃氬弻閲嶆柟寮忓鍚 绾у畼鍛樸佷笅灞炲ぇ鑷h繘琛屼弗鏍兼帶鍒讹紝浠ヤ繚璇佸 鍚勭骇瀹樺憳鐨勯夋嫈浠荤敤鏍囧噯锛岃繖涓鐐逛篃鏇惧湪钂 鐢板鏄庝唬瀹樺憳鐨勮瘎浠蜂腑寰楀埌杩囦綋鐜般傛澶栵紝 鑳″畨鈥㈠唸钀ㄩ浄鏂㈠痉鈥㈤棬澶氳惃杩樺崄鍒嗗磭鏁畧鎶ゅ嵃 绗畨浜虹殑鎷夋柉鍗¤惃鏂紝浠栧喅瀹氫粠浠栫殑鏂囩尞涓 鍒犳帀閭d簺涓哄鎶椾腑鍥借屽悜寮虹‖娲炬彁渚涚殑鎵璋 姝e綋鏉冨埄鐨勮杈╋紝濡傛礇闃垮皵鍗℃墍鐩澒鐨勯偑鎭 鍜屾潨鎷夊焹灏间簹鎵鎻忚堪鐨勬鍒戠瓑銆 Gonz谩lez de Mendoza鈥檚 book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en sc猫ne of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, Gonz谩lez de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Due帽as

    Women鈥檚 Experiences of Accessing Breastfeeding and Perinatal Health Support in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: An Interpretive Description Study

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    Background: Women experiencing intimate partner violence are at a heightened risk of negative perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes. This study explored the experiences of accessing breastfeeding support for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. A study of five in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed at 12-weeks postpartum with breastfeeding mothers with a history of intimate partner violence. Findings: Women expressed difficulties in accessing a healthcare provider who had specialized skill in breastfeeding support. Trust in their healthcare provider, built through displays of compassion and competence, was important to mitigate obstacles experienced during care access for this population. Trauma-and-violence-informed care principles were beneficial to the development of the therapeutic relationship in perinatal care. Women placed value on breastfeeding support received from both healthcare providers and social supports, which impacted mothers鈥 perceived breastfeeding support and self-efficacy. Further, mothers described increased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy after engaging in a trauma-and-violence-informed care program aimed at supporting breastfeeding. Conclusions: Trauma-informed care may aid in the development of trust in the therapeutic relationship, which in turn impacts access to breastfeeding support and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The inclusion of trauma-and-violence informed principles in perinatal care may be effective at mitigating barriers to access for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. health care on how to employ trauma-informed breastfeeding care to may lead to better support for this population

    Representaciones sociales de salud. Enfermedad en en profesionales de la salud y sus usuarios ind铆genas zapotecas de Oaxaca

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    Tesis de DoctoradoLas preguntas centrales que gu铆an el presente trabajo giran en torno a saber 驴Cu谩les son las representaciones sociales, en relaci贸n con los conceptos de salud/enfermedad, que construyen tanto los profesionales de salud como los usuarios del servicio m茅dico p煤blico de la comunidad nd铆gena de San Bartolom茅 Quialana, Oaxaca? y a partir de ello, conocer 驴C贸mo dichas representaciones presentan divergencias y convergencias culturales que distancian y/o acercan el di谩logo intercultural en la atenci贸n de la salud? De ah铆 que el objetivo general consiste en analizar las representaciones sociales sobre salud/enfermedad de los prestadores de servicios de salud y de los usuarios de la comunidad ind铆gena de San Bartolom茅 Quialana, Oaxaca para identificar las divergencias y convergencias que propicien el dialogo intercultural entre dichos actores, a trav茅s de los discursos y vivencia de los propios sujetos y de la observaci贸n de sus pr谩cticas en salud. Dentro de algunos resultados a los que se llega se encuentra El estudio de las representaciones sociales entre profesionales de la salud y usuarios de Quialana, Oaxaca, permite desengranar cada uno de los denominados 鈥渃onflictos culturales鈥 que se manifiestan en la interpretaci贸n y matrices de conocer, sentir y expresar la salud y la enfermedad en cada uno de ellos. En este sentido, interpretar y comprender las representaciones sociales que se configuran en las dimensiones y din谩micas de dicho conocimiento de sentido com煤n, permite crear v铆nculos de interacci贸n e interculturalidad que promueven una salud justa, solidaria y 茅tica para todos los pobladores, incluyendo en esta estructura de la poblaci贸n a los profesionales de la salud. Desde esta perspectiva se puede se帽alar que, lo que encierra al t茅rmino de conflicto y/o arraigo cultural, no es m谩s que aquello que no se puede explicar en t茅rminos de producci贸n y evidencia cient铆fica, pero que se ancla a los conceptos subjetivos y culturales de la salud y la enfermedad, tal es el caso de las desigualdades sociales, el cual no se percibe solamente desde el espacio territorial de pobreza y geodistribuci贸n econ贸mica mundial y nacional, sino que el t茅rmino de desigualdad abarca un sin n煤mero de significados que se produjeron a partir de los procesos coloniales, capitalistas, patriarcales y hegem贸nicos del modelo biom茅dico en la interpretaci贸n epistemol贸gica e interacci贸n ontol贸gica y social con las otredades. En esta direcci贸n, la salud como t茅rmino biom茅dico es manifestado por los profesionales como una utop铆a que solo puede ser abordado desde lo institucional e individual para que este pueda ser posible, medible, transferible y controlable, en cambio, los usuarios m谩s que hablar de salud, prefieren posicionarse desde la connotaci贸n de la sanaci贸n y el equilibrio para configurar su corporalidad como un ente que interact煤a constanmente con el universo y los seres que lo habitan, por tanto, las corporalidades presentan desequilibrios que requieren de ense帽anzas, procesos, estrategias y modos de vida individual y colectiva que habr谩n de repensarse y reflexionarse en conjunto para encontrar la sanaci贸n y equilibrio. No obstante, para ambos, actores y actoras, la salud no puede ser pensada s贸lo en t茅rminos de ausencia de enfermedad o de completo estado de bienestar f铆sico y psicol贸gico. As铆, recuperar las memorias de los profesionales y usuarios permite reconocer que la salud vista desde el esquema de configuraci贸n de las representaciones sociales se descapitaliza del sentido literal y simb贸lico que se transmite desde las instituciones de la salud.Universidad Aut贸noma del Estado de M茅xico, Conacy

    EL EMPODERAMIENTO PSICOL脫GICO ANTE LA VIOLENCIA DE G脡NERO MEDIANTE UN TALLER E INFOGRAF脥AS: HISTORIAS DE MUJERES QUE ASISTEN A LA ASOCIACI脫N CIVIL 鈥淭EJIENDO UN SUE脩O鈥 EN SAN MART脥N DE LAS PIR脕MIDES, ESTADO DE M脡XICO

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    La violencia de g茅nero es uno de los principales problemas en el mundo, 茅sta se expresa de diferentes formas y en diversos espacios generando una de las principales causas de desigualdades de las que las mujeres son sus principales afectadas. Este fen贸meno contiene un car谩cter estructural que genera repercusiones m煤ltiples y variadas en la vida de las mujeres; dicho car谩cter estructural hace que la violencia de g茅nero tenga caracter铆sticas particulares vinculadas a los entornos espec铆ficos en los que se hace presente. Uno de los espacios donde la violencia de g茅nero genera consecuencias profundas y sustanciales es la que aparece al interior de los espacios dom茅sticos, dado su car谩cter de privacidad e intimidad, la violencia puede tornarse dif铆cil a ser identificada y desarticulada, dentro de los hogares, la violencia de pareja resalta dicha complejidad. Aunque se ha abierto un panorama y m谩s informaci贸n al respecto, es claro que a煤n hay huecos grandes que mantienen 茅ste, como un problema social de alto impacto. Las mujeres que dentro de sus vidas atraviesan o han atravesado por relaciones de pareja violentas se enfrentan a un complejo y, en ocasiones, largo transitar hasta lograr salir de las mismas, donde, algunas veces esto no se llega a concretar. Existen detonadores que pueden contribuir a disparar una serie de movilizaciones por parte de las mujeres con la finalidad de poner fin a las relaciones de violencia, entre ellos, cuando ven amenazadas sus vidas y/o las de sus hijas e hijos; esto genera el emprendimiento de acciones y la b煤squeda de recursos como medios que les posibiliten abandonar a sus parejas buscando mejorar sus oportunidades de desarrollo y las de sus seres queridos. Con la finalidad de realizar una problematizaci贸n desde una visi贸n de g茅nero, que contextualice de manera apropiada la intervenci贸n planteada, el primer apartado del presente trabajo expone la problem谩tica de g茅nero identificada en el contexto particular de intervenci贸n, los objetivos planteados, as铆 como la justificaci贸n que sustenta las intervenciones aqu铆 propuestas

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    Metodolog铆a de intervenci贸n para trabajar ODS. Educaci贸n a trav茅s de las artes

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    La Agenda 2030 presenta 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), con sus metas e indicadores universales que los pa铆ses miembros de la ONU emplean para enmarcar sus pol铆ticas. Entre las metas del ODS 4 鈥渆ducaci贸n de calidad鈥 encontramos: 鈥渁segurar que todos los alumnos adquieran los conocimientos te贸ricos y pr谩cticos necesarios para promover el desarrollo sostenible, entre otras cosas mediante la educaci贸n para el desarrollo sostenible y los estilos de vida sostenibles, los derechos humanos, la igualdad de g茅nero, la promoci贸n de una cultura de paz y no violencia, la ciudadan铆a mundial y la valoraci贸n de la diversidad cultural y la contribuci贸n de la cultura al desarrollo sostenible鈥. La educaci贸n, se considera el motor de la Agenda 2030 porque, adem谩s de representar el centro del ODS 4, desempe帽a tambi茅n un papel notable en la implementaci贸n de los dem谩s, mejorando su alcance y efectividad. As铆 pues, entre las disciplinas que sustentan este trabajo se escogi贸 la Educaci贸n para el Desarrollo Sostenible y la Ciudadan铆a Global como marco de acci贸n y punto de partida en la formaci贸n de los ciudadanos de un futuro viable, equitativo y habitable. Se continu贸 investigando las oportunidades del desarrollo de la Competencia Intercultural en las relaciones humanas, aquello que diferencia a unas personas de otras puede aportar al conjunto de la sociedad y c贸mo la educaci贸n permitir铆a su aprovechamiento. Con todo ello, se plante贸 el marco did谩ctico de interacci贸n en el cual se implement贸 la interculturalidad en el ejercicio educativo. Se estudi贸 as铆 el poder de las artes como medio de motivaci贸n e inspiraci贸n a la hora de transmitir de la manera m谩s eficaz posible los valores considerados m谩s arriba. El objetivo del presente estudio se centra en demostrar el potencial de las artes para fomentar las competencias comunicativas, sociales, interculturales, emocionales, de ciudadan铆a y sostenibilidad. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigaci贸n aplicada que deriva en una propuesta concreta de intervenci贸n con un programa educativo destinado a la ense帽anza de lenguas, tanto primera como extranjera, en distintos niveles de la educaci贸n formal en Mali y en Espa帽a, aplicando un m茅todo hol铆stico basado en el paradigma interpretativo. A trav茅s de la pintura, la literatura y el cine, se plantean una serie de actividades ideadas para crear un entorno educativo integrador, favorecer el empoderamiento del alumnado y promover el pensamiento cr铆tico, la empat铆a, la resiliencia, la comunicaci贸n, la cooperaci贸n y la educaci贸n intercultural, como competencias esenciales para la consecuci贸n de los 17 ODS, la construcci贸n de un mundo transcultural sostenible y el desarrollo de una ciudadan铆a global preparada para los retos del siglo XXI. En la metodolog铆a de este proceso educativo innovador, multidisciplinar, flexible y adaptable, se ha empleado un an谩lisis del proceso de investigaci贸n para monitorizarlo adecuadamente (DAFO). Cada una de las propuestas presenta una recogida de datos cualitativos (observaci贸n, r煤bricas) y cuantitativos (encuestas, entrevistas) y se ofrece un an谩lisis de contraste de los resultados finales. Con todo, se espera facilitar la exigente tarea que supone hacer consciente a la sociedad de base (desde la misma infancia; desde los niveles m谩s bajos de la misma y en todos los niveles de la educaci贸n formal) de en qu茅 consisten los ODS y su relevancia para hacer de todas las personas corresponsables directas en su consecuci贸n para garantizar un futuro sostenible para toda la ciudadan铆a global.The 2030 Agenda presents 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with their universal targets and indicators that UN member countries use to frame their policies. Among the targets of SDG 4 鈥渜uality education,鈥 we find the one that seeks: 鈥渢o ensure that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote sustainable development, among other things through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, the promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, world citizenship and the appreciation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development鈥. Education is considered the engine of the 2030 Agenda because, in addition to representing the centre of SDG 4, it also plays a notable role in the implementation of the others, improving their scope and effectiveness. Among the disciplines that support this research, Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship sets the framework for action and represents a starting point in the formation of citizens for a viable, equitable and habitable future. Global citizenship implies human relations and those and intrinsically shaped by culture. Intercultural Education and, more specifically, the development of Intercultural Competence needed to be considered. What differentiates some people from others can contribute to society as a whole and education is the means to explore and understand. For the design of a didactic framework of interaction, the power of the arts was studied as a means of motivation and inspiration when transmitting the values considered above in the most effective way possible. The objective of this study focuses on proving the potential of the arts to promote communicative, social, intercultural, emotional, citizenship and sustainability skills. For this, the theoretical research derived in a concrete intervention proposal with an educational program in language teaching, both first and foreign languages, at different levels of formal education in Mali and Spain, applying a holistic method based on the interpretive paradigm. Through painting, literature and cinema, a series of activities were designed to create an inclusive educational environment, favour the empowerment of students and promote critical thinking, empathy, resilience, communication, cooperation and intercultural education, as essential skills for the achievement of the 17 SDGs, the construction of a sustainable transcultural world and the development of global citizenship prepared for the challenges of the 21st century. In the methodology of this innovative, multidisciplinary, flexible and adaptable educational process, an analysis of the research process has been used to adequately monitor it (SWOT). Each of the proposals presents a collection of qualitative data (observation, rubrics) and quantitative data (surveys, interviews) and contrast analysis of the final results is offered. All in all, it is expected to facilitate the demanding task of making basic society aware (from childhood itself, from its lowest levels and at all levels of formal education) of what the SDGs consist of and their relevance to make all people directly co-responsible in its achievement to guarantee a sustainable future for all global citizens

    鈥淟eamos parientico鈥, e-libro de identidad cultural para fortalecer la lectura cr铆tica discontinua en el grado quinto de la Instituci贸n Educativa Integrado de San Mart铆n-Meta

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    A partir de la necesidad de fortalecer la inferencia y lectura cr铆tica discontinua, de 27 estudiantes del grado quinto, Sede El Libertador de la Instituci贸n Educativa Integrado San Mart铆n-Meta; se dise帽贸 e implement贸 un e-libro, que permitiera mejorar la lectura cr铆tica discontinua con textos sobre la cultura llanera y as铆 fortalecer la lectura cr铆tica, de manera motivante y significativa. Para ello, se inici贸 con un diagn贸stico que permiti贸 corroborar el acercamiento con la cultura llanera y la lectura intuitiva de textos con informaci贸n gr谩fica y mayor dificultad en lecturas graficas cr铆ticas de otras tem谩ticas. Posteriormente, se dise帽贸 e implement贸 la herramienta e-libro con solo textos discontinuos e interactivos sobre la regi贸n para una lectura cr铆tica discontinua en sus tres niveles (literal, inferencial y cr铆tico). Finalmente se utiliz贸 la t茅cnica de grupo focal y an谩lisis metodol贸gico del proyecto, obteni茅ndose resultados positivos en la secuencia aplicada. De esta forma, se sigui贸 un enfoque mixto de preponderancia cualitativa al recoger resultados y triangularse de forma interpretativa. Los resultados arrojaron mejoramiento en la lectura, demostrando que el e-libro y la formaci贸n desde el contexto son una parte importante de la formaci贸n en lectura cr铆tica.From the need to strengthen discontinuous critical reading and inference of 27 fifth grade students in the Integrated Educational Institution, 鈥淓l Libertador Headquarter鈥 of San Mart铆n-Meta, An e-book was designed and implemented, which would improve discontinuous critical reading with texts about the llanera culture and thus strengthen the critical reading, in a motivating and meaningful way. For this, it began with a diagnosis that allowed corroborating the approach with the llanera culture and the intuitive reading of texts with graphic information and greater difficulty in critical graphic readings of other topics. Subsequently, the e-book tool was designed and implemented with only discontinuous and interactive texts about the region for discontinuous critical reading at its three levels (literal, inferential and critical). Finally, the focus group technique and methodological analysis of the project were used, obtaining positive results in the applied sequence. In this way, a mixed approach of qualitative preponderance was followed when collecting results and triangulating interpretively. The results showed improvement in reading, showing that the e-book and the training from the context are an important part of critical reading training

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

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    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Strung pieces: on the aesthetics of television fiction series

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    As layered and long works, television fiction series have aesthetic properties that are built over time, bit by bit. This thesis develops a group of concepts that enable the study of these properties, It argues that a series is made of strung pieces, a system of related elements. The text begins by considering this sequential form within the fields of film and television. This opening chapter defines the object and methodology of research, arguing for a non-essentialist distinction between cinema and television and against the adequacy of textual and contextual analyses as approaches to the aesthetics of these shows. It proposes instead that these programmes should be described as televisual works that can be scrutinised through aesthetic analysis. The next chapters propose a sequence of interrelated concepts. The second chapter contends that series are composed of building blocks that can be either units into which series are divided or motifs that unify series and are dispersed across their pans. These blocks are patterned according to four kinds of relations or principles of composition. Repetition and variation are treated in tandem in the third chapter because of their close connection, given that variation emerges from established repetition. Exception and progression are also discussed together in the fourth chapter since they both require a long view of these serial works. The former, in order to be recognised as a deviation from the patterns of repetition and variation. The latter, In order to be understood in Its many dimensions as the series advances. Each of these concepts is further detailed with additional distinctions between types of units, motifs, repetitions, variations, and exceptions, using illustrative examples from numerous shows. In contrast, the section on progression uses a single series as case study, Carniv脿le (2003-05), because this is the overarching principle that encompasses all the others. The conclusion considers the findings of the research and suggests avenues for their application
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