9,850 research outputs found

    Beam scanning by liquid-crystal biasing in a modified SIW structure

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    A fixed-frequency beam-scanning 1D antenna based on Liquid Crystals (LCs) is designed for application in 2D scanning with lateral alignment. The 2D array environment imposes full decoupling of adjacent 1D antennas, which often conflicts with the LC requirement of DC biasing: the proposed design accommodates both. The LC medium is placed inside a Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) modified to work as a Groove Gap Waveguide, with radiating slots etched on the upper broad wall, that radiates as a Leaky-Wave Antenna (LWA). This allows effective application of the DC bias voltage needed for tuning the LCs. At the same time, the RF field remains laterally confined, enabling the possibility to lay several antennas in parallel and achieve 2D beam scanning. The design is validated by simulation employing the actual properties of a commercial LC medium

    Complicated objects: artifacts from the Yuanming Yuan in Victorian Britain

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    The 1860 spoliation of the Summer Palace at the close of the Second Opium War by British and French troops was a watershed event within the development of Britain as an imperialist nation, which guaranteed a market for opium produced in its colony India and demonstrated the power of its armed forces. The distribution of the spoils to officers and diplomatic corps by campaign leaders in Beijing was also a sign of the British Army’s rising power as an instrument of the imperialist state. These conditions would suggest that objects looted from the site would be integrated into an imperialist aesthetic that reflected and promoted the material benefits of military engagement overseas and foregrounded the circumstances of their removal to Britain for campaign members and the British public. This study mines sources dating to the two decades following the war – including British newspapers, auction house records, exhibition catalogs and works of art – to test this hypothesis. Findings show that initial movements of looted objects through the military and diplomatic corps did reinforce notions of imperialist power by enabling campaign members to profit from the spoliation through sales of looted objects and trophy displays. However, material from the Summer Palace arrived at a moment when British manufacturers and cultural leaders were engaged in a national effort to improve the quality of British goods to compete in the international marketplace and looted art was quickly interpolated in this national conversation. Ironically, the same “free trade” imperatives that motivated the invasion energized a new design movement that embraced Chinese ornament. As a consequence, political interpretations of the material outside of military collections were quickly joined by a strong response to Chinese ornament from cultural institutions and design leaders. Art from the Summer Palace held a prominent place at industrial art exhibitions of the postwar period and inspired new designs in a number of mediums. While the availability of Chinese imperial art was the consequence of a military invasion and therefore a product of imperialist expansion, evidence presented here shows that the design response to looted objects was not circumscribed by this political reality. Chinese ornament on imperial wares was ultimately celebrated for its formal qualities and acknowledged links to the Summer Palace were an indicator of good design, not a celebration of victory over a failed Chinese state. Therefore, the looting of the Summer Palace was ultimately an essential factor in the development of modern design, the essence of which is a break with Classical ornament

    Estimating near-infrared reflectance of vegetation from hyperspectral data

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    Disentangling the individual conttibutions from vegetation and soil in measured canopy reflectance is a grand challenge to the remote sensing and ecophysiology communities. Since Solar lnduced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) is tmiquely emitted from vegetation, it can be used to evaluate how well reflectance-based vegetation indices (VIs) can separate the vegetation and soil components. Due to the residual soil background conttibutions, Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of vegetation (NIRv) and Difference Vegetation index (DVI) present offsets when compared to SIF (i.e., the value of NIRv or DVI is non-zero when SIF is zero). In this study, we proposed a simple framework for estimating the true NIR reflectance ofvegetation from HyperspectraI measurements (NIRvH) with minimal soil impacts. NIRvH takes advantage of the spectral shape variations in ehe red-edge region to minimize the soil effects. We evaluated the capability of NIRvH, NIRv and DVI in isolating the true NIR reflectance of vegetation using the data from both the model-based simulations and Hyperspectral Plant imaging spectrometer (HyPlant) measurements. Benchmarked by simultaneously measured SIF, NIRvH has the smallest offset (0-0.037), as compared to an intermediate offset of 0.047-0.062 from NIRv, and the largest offset of 0.089-0.112 from DVI. The magnicude of the offset can vary with different soil reflectance spectra across spacio-temporal scales, which may lead to bias in the downstream NIRv-based photosynthesis estimates. NIRvH and SIF mea­surements from the sarne sensor platform avoided complications due to different geometry, footprint and time of observation across sensors when studying the radiative transfer of reflected photons and SIF. In addition, NIRvH was primarily determined by canopy structure rather than chlorophyll content and soil brightness. Our work showcases that NIRvH is promising for retrieving canopy structure parameters such as leaf area index and leaf inclination angle, and for estimating fluorescence yield with current and forthcoming hyperspectral satellite measmements

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Integrated modeling of canopy photosynthesis, fluorescence, and the transfer of energy, mass, and momentum in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (STEMMUS-SCOPE v1.0.0)

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    Abstract. Root water uptake by plants is a vital process that influences terrestrial energy, water, and carbon exchanges. At the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere interfaces, root water uptake and solar radiation predominantly regulate the dynamics and health of vegetation growth, which can be remotely monitored by satellites, using the soil–plant relationship proxy – solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. However, most current canopy photosynthesis and fluorescence models do not account for root water uptake, which compromises their applications under water-stressed conditions. To address this limitation, this study integrated photosynthesis, fluorescence emission, and transfer of energy, mass, and momentum in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum system, via a simplified 1D root growth model and a resistance scheme linking soil, roots, leaves, and the atmosphere. The coupled model was evaluated with field measurements of maize and grass canopies. The results indicated that the simulation of land surface fluxes was significantly improved by the coupled model, especially when the canopy experienced moderate water stress. This finding highlights the importance of enhanced soil heat and moisture transfer, as well as dynamic root growth, on simulating ecosystem functioning. </jats:p

    The Disputation: The Enduring Representations in William Holman Hunt's “The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,” 1860

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    This interdisciplinary thesis problematizes the Jewish presence in the painting The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) by William Holman Hunt. This “Jewish presence” refers to characters within the painting, Jews who posed for the picture and the painting’s portrayal of Judaism. The thesis takes a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to The Finding providing careful description and interpretation of what appears in the painting. It situates the painting within a newly configured genre of disputation paintings depicting the Temple scene from the Gospel of Luke (2:47 – 52). It asks two questions. Why does The Finding look the way it does? And how did Holman Hunt know how to create the picture? Under the rubric of the first question, it explores and challenges customary accounts of the painting, explicitly challenging the over reliance upon F.G. Stephens’s pamphlet. Additionally, it examines Pre-Raphaelite and Victorian religious contexts and bringing hitherto unacknowledged artistic contexts to the fore. The second question examines less apparent influences through an analysis of the originary Lukan narrative in conjunction with the under-examined genre of Temple “disputation” paintings, and a legacy of scholarly and religious disputation. This demonstrates a discourse of disputation informing The Finding over and above the biblical narrative. In showing that this discourse strongly correlates with the painting’s objectifying and spectacular properties, this thesis provides a new way to understand The Finding’s orientalism which is further revealed in its typological critical reworking of two Christian medieval and renaissance paintings. As a demonstration of the discourse, the thesis includes an examination of Jewish artists who addressed the theme of disputation overtly or obliquely thereby engaging with and challenging the assumptions upon which the disputation rests

    The Uşaklı Höyük Survey Project (2008-2012)

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    This book presents the results of the survey conducted by the University of Florence, in the years 2008-2012, at the site and in the surrounding territory of Uşaklı Höyük on the central Anatolian plateau in Turkey. Geological, geomorphological, topographic and geophysical research have provided new information and data relating to the environment and the settlement landscape, as well as producing new maps of the area and indicating the presence of large buried buildings on the site. Analysis of the rich corpus of pottery collected from the surface indicates that the site and its territory were continuously settled from the late Early Bronze Age through the Iron Age and down to the Late Roman and Byzantine periods. A few fragments of cuneiform tablets with Hittite texts, a sealing with two impressions of a stamp seal, and pottery stamps illustrate the importance of Uşaklı Höyük and support the hypothesis of its identification with the town of Zippalanda, known from the Hittite sources as a seat of the cult of the Storm God

    Spatial Analysis for Landscape Changes

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    Recent increasing trends of the occurrence of natural and anthropic processes have a strong impact on landscape modification, and there is a growing need for the implementation of effective instruments, tools, and approaches to understand and manage landscape changes. A great improvement in the availability of high-resolution DEMs, GIS tools, and algorithms of automatic extraction of landform features and change detections has favored an increase in the analysis of landscape changes, which became an essential instrument for the quantitative evaluation of landscape changes in many research fields. One of the most effective ways of investigating natural landscape changes is the geomorphological one, which benefits from recent advances in the development of digital elevation model (DEM) comparison software and algorithms, image change detection, and landscape evolution models. This Special Issue collects six papers concerning the application of traditional and innovative multidisciplinary methods in several application fields, such as geomorphology, urban and territorial systems, vegetation restoration, and soil science. The papers include multidisciplinary studies that highlight the usefulness of quantitative analyses of satellite images and UAV-based DEMs, the application of Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) and automatic landform classification algorithms to solve multidisciplinary issues of landscape changes. A review article is also presented, dealing with the bibliometric analysis of the research topic

    Optimizing speed profiles for sustainable train operation with wayside energy storage systems

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    Large hauling capability and low rolling resistance has put rail transit at the forefront of mass transportation mode sustainability in terms of congestion mitigation and energy conservation. As such, rail vehicles are one of the least energy-intensive modes of transportation and least environmentally polluting. Despite, these positives, improper driving habits and wastage of the braking energy through dissipation in braking resistors result in unnecessary consumption, extra costs to the operator and increased atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions. This study presents an intelligent method for the optimization of the number and locations of wayside energy storage system (WESS) units that maximize the net benefits of the operation of a rail line. First, the optimized speed profiles with and without WESS is determined for a single alignment segment. Then, using the speed profiles obtained as an input, the number and locations of the WESS units that maximize the net benefit is determined for an entire rail line. The energy recovery methods used comprise optimal coasting, regenerative braking, and positioning of the energy storage devices to achieve maximum receptivity. Coasting saves energy by maintaining motion with propulsion disabled, but this increases the total travel time. Regenerative braking converts the kinetic energy of the train into electrical energy for the powering of subsequent acceleration cycles and although it does not affect travel time, it reduces the time available for coasting, indicative of a tradeoff. The study entails the design of a model that simulates the movement of the train over an existing alignment section while considering alignment topography, speed limits, and train schedule. Since on-time performance is the priority of railroad operations, the simulator instructs the driver to operate according to several motion regimes to optimize the energy consumption while maintaining schedule. The model consists of several time-varying inputs which add increased levels of complexity to the problem. This, in addition to its combinatorial nature, necessitates a heuristic algorithm to solve it, because traditional analytical solution methods are deficient. The optimization problem is solved by applying Genetic Algorithms (GA) because of their ability to search for a global solution in a complex multi-dimensional space. This strategy adds sustainability and reduces the carbon footprint of the operator. A case study is conducted on a single segment of a commuter rail line and yields a 34% energy reduction. The case study is extended to an entire line with multiple segments where the aim is to optimize the locations of wayside energy storage devices (WESS) for maximum economic benefit. It was found that out of the 10 alignment segments in the study, a maximized benefit of over $600,000 was achieved with WESS units installed on only three of those segments. The methods derived in this study can be used to generate speed profiles for planning purposes, to assist in recovery from service disruptions, to plan for infrastructural upgrades related to energy harvesting or to assist in the development of Driver Advisory Systems (DAS)

    Ecology and Applied Environmental Science

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    Ecology and Applied Environmental Science addresses the impact of contemporary environmental problems by using the main principles of scientific ecology. It offers a brief yet comprehensive explanation of ecosystems based on energy, populations, and cycles of chemical elements. The book presents a variety of scientific ecological issues and uses these to examine a range of environmental problems while considering potential engineering, scientific, and managerial solutions. It takes an engineering approach and avoids excessive biological detail, while introducing ecology with a systemic approach. The book examines categories of organisms as well as the physical and chemical processes that affect them. It refers to the dynamics of populations and analysis of their major mutual influences, elaborates on the roles of primary production, limiting factors, energy flow, and circulation of chemical substances in the ecosystems, and presents the basic functions of aquatic ecosystems. The author considers important issues related to environmental degradation of forests, aquatic habitats, coastal zones, other natural landscapes, and urban areas, includes a survey of problems related to waste and toxic and radioactive substances, and presents the greenhouse effect and impacts from climate change. He discusses environmental management prospects and the potential for technological control of pollution from liquid, solid, and gaseous waste. He also highlights existing tools for environmental management, ecological and social aspects of biodiversity and landscape protection, and the contrast between development and environment in combination with ideas about sustainability. The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.taylorfrancis.com, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license
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