25,346 research outputs found

    Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.

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    BackgroundPit latrines are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries, and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern, however, that discharges of chemical and microbial contaminants from pit latrines to groundwater may negatively affect human health.ObjectivesOur goals were to a) calculate global pit latrine coverage, b) systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality, c) evaluate latrine siting standards, and d) identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and consequences of groundwater contamination by latrines.MethodsWe used existing survey and population data to calculate global pit latrine coverage. We reviewed the scientific literature on the occurrence of contaminants originating from pit latrines and considered the factors affecting transport of these contaminants. Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles, books, and reports identified using Web of ScienceSM, PubMed, Google, and document reference lists.DiscussionWe estimated that approximately 1.77 billion people use pit latrines as their primary means of sanitation. Studies of pit latrines and groundwater are limited and have generally focused on only a few indicator contaminants. Although groundwater contamination is frequently observed downstream of latrines, contaminant transport distances, recommendations based on empirical studies, and siting guidelines are variable and not well aligned with one another.ConclusionsIn order to improve environmental and human health, future research should examine a larger set of contextual variables, improve measurement approaches, and develop better criteria for siting pit latrines

    Factors Affecting the Utilisation of Improved Ventilated Latrines Among Communities in Mtwara Rural District, Tanzania.

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    The Tanzania government, working in partnership with other stakeholders implemented a community-based project aimed at increasing access to clean and safe water basic sanitation and promotion of personal hygiene in Mtwara Rural District. Mid-term evaluation revealed that progress had been made towards improved ventilated latrines; however, there was no adequate information on utilisation of these latrines and associated factors. This study was therefore conducted to establish the factors influencing the utilisation of these latrines. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 randomly selected households using a pre-tested questionnaire to determine whether the households owned improved ventilated latrines and how they utilised them. RESULS: About half (50.5%) of the households had an improved ventilated latrine and households with earnings of more than 50,000 Tanzanian Shillings were two times more likely to own an improved latrine than those that earned less (AOR 2.1, 95% CI=1.1-4.0, p= 0.034). The likelihood of owning an improved latrine was reduced by more than 60 percent for female-headed households (AOR=0.38; 95% CI=0.20-0.71; p=0.002). Furthermore, it was established that all members of a household were more likely to use a latrine if it was an improved ventilated latrine (AOR=2.4; 95% CI=1.1-5.1; p= 0.024). Findings suggest adoption of strategies to improve the wellbeing of households and deploying those who had acquired improved ventilated latrines as resource persons to help train others. Furthermore, efforts are needed to increase access to soft loans for disadvantaged members and increasing community participation

    Why latrines are not used : communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia

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    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints). The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective

    Sanitation Now: What is Good Practice and What is Poor Practice?

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    To meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goals sanitation target or the 2025 universal sanitation coverage target it is essential that it is properly understood where the available sanitation options are applicable. In high-density low-income urban areas conventional sewerage and ecological sanitation systems are inapplicable solely on grounds of cost. In these areas the options are simplified sewerage, low-cost combined sewerage and community-managed sanitation blocks. In medium-density urban areas on-site systems are also applicable (alternating twin-pit VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets, urine-diverting alternating twin-vault ventilated improved vault latrines, biogas toilets and ecological sanitation systems, all with greywater disposal or use). In medium- to low-density rural areas the options are the same as those in medium-density urban areas, with single-pit VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets, rather than alternating twin-pit systems. The level of water supply service (public or community-managed standpipes, yard taps, multiple-tap in-house supplies) also influences the choice of sanitation option

    Associations between Household Latrines and the Prevalence of Diarrhea in Idiofa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Despite the importance of sanitation, few studies have assessed the effects of latrines on the health outcomes of children under 5 years of age. We assessed the relations between latrine coverage and the prevalence of diarrhea in children under 4 years of age. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the baseline data obtained as part of a longitudinal survey targeting 720 households in Idiofa, Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We categorized latrines according to the presence of each major component and investigated whether diarrhea prevalence of children under 4 years of age is associated with latrine availability and improvement. Latrines have health benefits regardless of whether they are improved. Also worth noting is that comparatively well-equipped and more appropriately managed latrines could prevent child diarrhea more effectively than less equipped or inappropriately managed latrines. Households who have a latrine with a superstructure, roof, and no flies (a partly improved latrine) were found to be 52% less likely to report cases of diarrhea than households with unimproved latrines (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, confidence interval [CI] = 0.31-0.76), which are all the other latrines not included in the partly improved latrine category. We have observed the profound protective effect of latrines with a superstructure. This study demonstrates that latrines are associated with significant improvements in health even when they do not fully meet the conditions of improved latrines. This study adds value to the limited evidence on the effect of latrines on health parameters by demonstrating that latrines have correlations with health benefits regardless of whether they are improved, as well as by elucidating the most essential components of improved latrines

    Mission: Haiti

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    Veronica Alicea ’16 leads charitable effort to provide latrines to an impoverished village in Haiti, reducing preventable illnesses and deaths

    Socio-seasonal changes in scent-marking habits in the carnivorous marsupial Dasyurus maculatus at communal latrines

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    Scat DNA analyses and monthly monitoring were used to elucidate patterns of latrine use in a free-ranging population of a rare Australian marsupial carnivore, the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) Kerr. In all, 132 latrines were identified at large complex outcrops and on bedrock in drainage lines, creeks and rivers at a single woodland site in south-eastern mainland Australia. Annual cyclic variation in scat deposition was found over the two years that latrines were monitored. Peaks in scat deposition on latrines coincided with seasonal social behaviours and differed between sites on outcrops and sites along drainage lines. A marked increase in scat deposition on latrines in drainage lines was recorded during the mating season and at outcrop latrines when females were nursing young. Genetic analyses of scats collected over one breeding season revealed that multiple individuals of both sexes defaecated at latrines. The communal use of latrines during the mating season along with the seasonal patterns of scat deposition demonstrates that latrines are important scent-marking sites that facilitate social communication among individuals of this solitary-living species. The collective evidence indicates that latrines play a major role in aiding reproduction and interindividual spacing

    Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Pemanfaatan Jamban di Desa Pintu Langit Jae Kecamatan Padangsidimpuan Angkola Julu Tahun 2012

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    Factors associated with the use of latrines in Desa Pintu Langit Jae Kecamatan Padangsidimpuan Angkola Julu 2012. The most fundamental relathionship eith the quality of the environment in terms of laterine is the availability of facilities and the type of storage used faces. The use of latrines with family participation will be good, when supported by a number of factors. Among the factors that come from inside or outside the individual referred to internal factors such as education, knowledge, attitudes, actions while external factors such as the condition of latrines and water supply. This research aimed to investigate factors associated with the use of latrines in Desa Pintu Langit Jae Kecamatan Padangsidimpuan Angkola Julu 2012. This research used a descriptive analitic design method to look at the relationship of knowledge, attitudes, latrines conditions and cline water to the action latrine utilization using cross sectional study with interviews using questionnaires to 75 respondents who selected systemic sampling. The results showed that there was a significant association between the use of latrines with knowledge (p=0,000), there was a significant association between the use of latrines with attitude (p=0,000), there was a significant association between the use latrines with latrines condition (p=0,030) and there was a significant association between the use of latrines with availability of clean water in latrine (p=0,038). Expected for health workers in Desa Pintu Langit Jae kecamatan Padangsidimpuan Angkola Julu it provides on the importance of using latrines properly through conseling to community so that community have the knowledge and attitudes about self responsibility and the environment

    Kontribusi Pengetahuan, Sikap, Perilaku Terhadap Kepemilikan Jamban Sehat Pada Penduduk Perkotaan

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    Ownership of healthy latrines in Indonesia is still low. This is influenced by knowledge, attitudes and behavior that are less supportive. Ownership of healthy latrines in Bandar Lampung City is still low (87%), (25.1%) people use cemplung latrines and do not have a septic tank (53.1%). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behavior towards ownership of healthy latrines in the Pesawahan Village, Bandar Lampung City in 2021. This study was a quantitative study with a Cross Sectional design and a sample of 207 households. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling with bivariate analysis test to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables using the Chi Square test. The results showed that there was a relationship of knowledge p = 0.004, there was a relationship of attitude p = 0.018 and there was a relationship of behavior p = 0.043 to ownership of healthy latrines. The recommendations made are that people who still use cemplung latrines should immediately make permanent latrines in order to increase the ownership status of healthy latrines and health workers should conduct counseling and triggering in order to increase knowledge and improve the ownership status of healthy latrines
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